The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CLCC-LAW-2

March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"National Identity Card Proclamation No. 760/2012 provides for compulsory, permanent, and universal registration and certification of vital events that include birth, death, marriage and divorce. The vital registration system became operational in August 2016 pursuant to the Proclamation" (23).
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"As a noteworthy move towards ensuring women’s right to transfer citizenship to children, the GoN has been following the SC’s mandamus order to provide citizenship certificate to children whose father are not traced. The Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) has been ensuring the easy access of single women to obtain citizenship certificates and voter registration." (12). "In order to execute the judicial orders of the SC, the MoHA issued a sevenpoint directive circular to all District Administration Offices (DAOs) on January 30, 2013 to provide citizenship certificates to children based on the Nepali citizenship of their mother. The directive has expedited and simplified the citizenship certificate issuance procedures with efficient...more
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women] recommends that the State party...[e]nsure that girls and boys born on the territory of the State party are registered at birth and have access to Kyrgyz nationality and identity documents, regardless of their parents' consent or nationality, residence or marital status, and that loss or renunciation of nationality is contingent on the possession or acquistion of another nationality" (9).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"As mentioned in the last report, the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia under article 10 proscribes all forms of discrimination. Therefore, discrimination against any person on grounds of marital and HIV status is also covered under the said article." (10).
Feb. 4, 2023, 8:40 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"[A]rticle 4 establishes that Iraqi women may transmit their nationality to their children born outside the State party only if the father is unknown or stateless" (9). "[T]he transfer of nationality by the mother is possible only if the marriage has been duly registered" (9).
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"Furthermore, the Committee is concerned that, under the special provision for bestowal of nationality to children born stateless in Austria (article 14 of the Austrian Nationality Law), stateless children can apply for citizenship only after reaching 18 years of age and not later than two years after having reached the age of majority. The Committee recommends that the State party:... (b) Remove barriers to the acquisition of Austrian nationality by children born out of wedlock, including the restrictive age requirement, and accord Austrian citizenship to otherwise stateless children born in the State party, unless a child can acquire citizenship of one of his or her parents immediately after birth through...more
Oct. 7, 2022, 4:17 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Birth registration is free and mandatory and was not denied or provided on a discriminatory basis" (16).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Children born out of wedlock will be acknowledged as legitimate and have the right of civil relation with the biological parents, which include issuance of birth certificate. Supreme Court further issued circular letter No. 7/2012 instructing courts at all level to implement this judicial decision" (26).
Feb. 5, 2022, 9:24 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Citizenship is obtained by birth within the country or birth to at least one Mozambican citizen parent outside the country. Failure to register a child’s birth may result in the child’s inability to attend school and may prevent a person from obtaining public documents, such as identity cards, passports, or 'poverty certificates' that enable access to free health care and free secondary education. Birth registration was often delayed in rural areas. Cultural practice prevented a woman, especially in rural areas, from exercising her legal right to register her child without the presence of the child’s father" (16).
Feb. 2, 2022, 12:28 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar

"The nationality code promulgated by the president in 2017 gives men and women equal rights to pass their nationality to their children and more protection to women and children against the loss of their nationality. The code’s main reform grants women the right to transmit nationality to their children regardless of a woman’s marital status. The loss of citizenship for any reason mentioned in the law does not affect the spouse and the children of the deprived person" (14-15).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The law requires birth entries in the family registry to specify whether a child was born in or out of wedlock. The law presumes that a child born within 300 days of a divorce is the divorced man’s child, resulting in the nonregistration of an unknown number of children" (19).
Jan. 8, 2022, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The law establishes that all children have civil status regardless of their family status. There were, nonetheless, cases in which authorities denied identification papers to children because they were born to unmarried parents, particularly in rural areas or in the cases of poorly educated mothers unaware of their legal rights" (32).
Jan. 6, 2022, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Article 7 specifically protects the rights of children, including children who have been found abandoned, adopted children and children of people who have acquired citizenship by grant, each of whom will have a right to Somali citizenship in certain circumstances" (1).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"The government registered all live births immediately. Citizenship is conferred on a child through a parent’s (or the parents’) citizenship, but, except for a few circumstances, not through birth on the country’s territory" (10).
Nov. 16, 2021, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"A child acquires citizenship at birth if at least one parent is a citizen, regardless of where the birth took place. Children born or found in the country whose parents were unknown or stateless are also citizens. The government has a system of universal birth registration immediately after birth" (16).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"In a written response to HRW, the government disputed the claims and said that women could act as guardians to obtain passports or ID cards for their children, that women did not need permission to accept a scholarship or to work at ministries, government institutions or schools and that guardian approval was also not required for educational field trips at Qatar University" (para 24).
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"In most cases individuals derive citizenship from their parents. The law allows individuals to obtain citizenship if they were born in the country and if one parent has been a resident for at least eight years or has had a permanent residence permit for at least three years. Parents or guardians are responsible for registering newborn children. Once government officials receive birth registration applications, they generally process them expeditiously. Parents who fail to register their child’s birth may be subject to a fine" (23). If parents are required by law to register children and are subject to fines if they fail to do so, it is unlikely that a mother...more
Sept. 17, 2021, 10 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"Children born in the country attain citizenship if either parent is a citizen or legal permanent resident of the country. Children born outside the country attain citizenship if either parent is a citizen born in the country. The law requires notification of births by both parents as soon as 'reasonably practicable,' deemed as being within two months of the child’s birth, and most births were registered within this period" (10).
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Using a woman's name in public is frowned upon and can be considered an insult. Many Afghan men are reluctant to say the names of their sisters, wives or mothers in public. Women are generally only referred to as the mother, daughter or sister of the eldest male in their family, and Afghan law dictates that only the father's name should be recorded on a birth certificate" (para 4). "The campaign appears to have taken a big step in the past few weeks. A source close to Afghan President Ashraf Ghani said he had instructed the Afghanistan Central Civil Registration Authority (Accra) to look into the possibility of amending the...more
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: CLCC-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"Citizenship is derived by birth within the country’s territory and from one’s parents or grandparents. There were no reports that birth registration was denied on a discriminatory basis" (11).
July 7, 2021, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The kingdom[Saudi Arabia] has granted women greater rights in recent years, like the right to drive, run and vote in local elections and play sports in school. Ultimately, however, male guardianship laws remain in place. Under these laws, a woman must have her male guardian's permission in order to obtain a passport, travel abroad or marry"(para 50,51).
June 25, 2021, 12:36 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The Kuwaiti nationality law discriminates against women, preventing them from passing on their nationality to their children and spouses on an equal basis with men[...]"(para 9).
April 30, 2021, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

""In January, the Egyptian cabinet approved a personal status law that would require women to get the consent of a male guardian to…register a child's birth" (para 2). "A recent court case highlights one of the problems inherent in the proposed law. A woman named Amal Abdel Hameed, who says she was raped, is currently in the final stage of appeal to have the name of her two-year-old daughter's father—her alleged rapist— listed on the girl's birth certificate. The father's identity has been confirmed by a DNA test. Current law does not mandate paternity registration for children conceived out of wedlock, so under the vagaries of Egyptian law, obtaining a...more
April 22, 2021, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"If the bill passes, the Births and Deaths Registration Act would also be amended to facilitate a child's registration at birth by a parent or parents of a child born through surrogacy, to avoid the legal imbroglio of having the surrogate mother automatically registered on the birth certificate, as is currently the case" (para 18).
March 6, 2021, 9:44 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Marriage certificates still appear to be required to obtain birth certificates. These policies disproportionately affect migrant women and can leave their babies undocumented, unable to obtain identification documents or travel" (para 14).
Sept. 14, 2020, 6:34 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Bahraini women are still unable to pass Bahraini nationality to their children from non-Bahraini husbands" (1). "The State report, Para. 159, indicates that the legislative authority is currently discussing the Ministers Council’s proposal to amend the Nationality Law to allow the children of Bahraini women married to foreigners to obtain Bahraini citizenship in accordance with rules that respect the Constitution and safeguard the of State’s sovereignty. However, four years after its approval by the Council, the bill is still not discussed, thought the Committees concluding remark No. (34), highlighted the need to ‘take all necessary steps to accelerate the adoption of a bill’. The National Council’s legislative chapter (2014-2018) has...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 5:17 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"The reforms also included important advances for women on civil status issues, whereby a woman can now register her children's births with the civil status office, which was previously restricted to fathers or paternal relatives, as well as inform the office of a death, marriage or divorce" (para 21).
May 15, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"According to the Births and Deaths (Compulsory Registration) Act Number 69 of 1992, registration of births and deaths is compulsory in all cases in Nigeria" (17).
Feb. 24, 2020, 11:09 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Perhaps the biggest hurdle that single mothers in China face actually comes after the birth: legally registering your child, or getting him/her a hukou" (para 17). "Without these registration documents your child isn’t entitled to any state benefits, such as free education, health care, or even a job as an adult. Without a hukou, a person can’t travel on trains, use internet cafes, or even buy a mobile phone SIM card. And to obtain it? You need a birth certificate, which requires details of the father (Hubei province is the exception to this)" (para 18)
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CLCC-LAW-2

"Citizenship is derived exclusively from the father, which may result in statelessness for children of a citizen mother and noncitizen father who may not transmit his own citizenship (see section 2.d.). If a child’s birth is not registered within the first year, the process for legitimizing the birth is long and costly, often deterring families from registration" (29).