The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Ethiopian law provides comprehensive protection against all forms of discrimination on any ground including sex" (3). "The Constitution as well as relevant subsidiary legislations of Ethiopia prohibits all forms of discriminations" (9). "The [Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia] Constitution provides for the right to equality of women and the prohibition of discrimination based on inter alia sex" (23).
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“One NGO report finds that Bulgarian lawyers and judges have no experience in handling cases of discrimination, and are uncertain how to apply international statutes on this topic and doubt that Bulgarian law includes effective measures to protect women’s rights. This highlights several deficiencies of Bulgarian legislation regarding women: Bulgarian law often does not reflect international legislation, and there is a lack of mechanisms to implement laws" (49). “The international instrument that guarantees the specific rights of women is the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), was ratified in 1982. Its significant provisions include: a clear definition of discrimination against women; the...more
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Law Amending the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination was adopted in June 2017. The amendments improved the provision regulating discrimination based on gender identity, sexual orientation and/or intersex characteristics, with Article 19 stipulating that any discrimination, unequal treatment or unequal position of a person or group of persons on the basis of gender identity, sexual orientation and/or intersex characteristics shall be considered discrimination" (9).
Feb. 27, 2023, 8:27 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“The Bulgarian Constitution includes the principle of equal treatment on the basis of ethnicity, sex, and personal or social status. The Constitution also provides for the right to health insurance guaranteeing affordable medical care, and the right to free health care in accordance with conditions set by the relevant laws” (7).
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of Nepal (hereinafter referred to as 'the Constitution') guarantees women’s rights with substantive equality; and protects human dignity, identity, and opportunity to all by ending all forms of discrimination and inequality. All political parties, irrespective of their political ideologies, have expressed their full commitment for protection and promotion of women’s rights in line with the CEDAW. The Constitution sets the policies on social justice and inclusion to be undertaken by all State machineries to end de facto discrimination and inequalities. The Constitution also provisions to form a parliamentary monitoring committee to monitor the progressive implementation of such policies." (4). "The Constitution guarantees the right to equality by prohibiting...more
Feb. 19, 2023, 1:18 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“While the law provides women the same legal status and rights as men, women faced some discrimination in economic participation and political empowerment. The law provides for equal opportunities in all spheres of public, economic, and political life; equal access to public resources; equal treatment; exclusion of gender-based discrimination and violence; balanced representation of men and women in all decision-making bodies; and overcoming gender-based stereotypes” (p. 23).
Feb. 18, 2023, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Chad
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Christian communities opposed constitutional reforms in 2018 that required politicians to swear a Muslim oath when entering office. They also object to 'Diya', a concept in Sharia law where the perpetrator of a crime pays 'blood money' to victims’ families" (Para.12).
Feb. 18, 2023, 9:51 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Presiding Judge Makiko Kamoto criticized the university's unfair treatment as "irrational and discriminatory," saying private universities are also obliged to abide by Article 14 of the Constitution, which prohibits discrimination based on gender" (Para.3).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"After holding internal consultations with key stakeholders, the state party did not find it in its best interest to amend Article 10 of the Namibian Constitution as requested by the CEDAW Committee. As mentioned in the last report, the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia under article 10 proscribes all forms of discrimination. Therefore, discrimination against any person on grounds of marital and HIV status is also covered under the said article." (10). "As reported in the previous report, the Namibian Constitution is the supreme law of the country and prohibits all forms of discrimination including gender discrimination." (21). "Violence against women and girls is a violation of human rights...more
Feb. 4, 2023, 8:40 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“Iraqis are free in their commitment to their personal status according to their religions, sects, beliefs or choices, [as] regulated by law” (4).
Jan. 9, 2023, 9:34 a.m.
Countries: France
Variables: LO-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, employment, property, nationality, and inheritance laws, access to credit, and owning or managing businesses or property in line with the Women’s Global Development and Prosperity Initiative" (29).
Dec. 22, 2022, 6:13 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Mandatory jilbab rules...undermine the right of girls and women to be free 'from discriminatory treatment based upon any grounds whatsoever' under article 28(i) of Indonesia’s Constitution" (para 16).
Dec. 9, 2022, 8:21 p.m.
Countries: East Timor

"The constitution states, 'Women and men shall have the same rights and duties in all areas of family life and political, economic, social, cultural life,' and prohibits discrimination based on gender. Some customary practices discriminate against women, including traditional inheritance systems that tend to exclude women from land ownership" (14).
Dec. 9, 2022, 4 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"[T]he 2016 constitution … states that 'all Ivorians are born and remain free and equal in law; no one can be privileged or discriminated against because of their race, ethnicity, clan, tribe, or gender' " (para 17).
Nov. 15, 2022, 11:05 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In Rwanda, gender equality is already mentioned in the constitution in the preamble. It notes that equality between men and women must be granted in all their rights" (para 4).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The equality of all Indonesian citizens as well as their rights to non-discrimination is guaranteed under various legal provisions, namely: a) The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, in Article 28I Paragraph (2) on freedom from and protection against discriminatory treatment on any basis" (3).
June 21, 2022, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee is concerned that the provisions of article 154 A (1) and (6) of the Constitution limit the scope of the obligations that the State party accepted when ratifying the Convention and that, almost 40 years since ratification, the State party has still not fully incorporated the provisions of the Convention into its legislative framework. The Committee notes that articles 149 and 149 F of the Constitution prohibit discrimination on grounds of gender and sex and further notes the efforts undertaken to begin reviewing the Prevention of Discrimination Act (1997) to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in employment. It remains concerned, however, that the definition...more
June 21, 2022, 8:35 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes that the Equality Act of 2010 prohibits both direct and indirect discrimination on the basis of sex. It reiterates its previous concern, however, that the applicability of the Equality Act does not extend to Northern Ireland (CEDAW/C/GBR/CO/7, para. 18), and regrets that the State party, invoking the principle of devolution, has not taken any measures to ensure that women in Northern Ireland have at least the same protections with regard to equality as do their counterparts in the other administrations of the State party, notwithstanding the lack of a functioning government in Northern Ireland" (4).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Existing legislation is based on equal rights for men and women, ie non-discrimination" (30). "Faroese legislation contains no impediment to gender equality. Faroese legislation does not distinguish between women and men; it guarantees the same rights for all citizens of the Faroes without according any positive rights to either gender. As such, women and men have the same rights and the same responsibilities in all areas of society. On 3 May 1994 the Faroese Parliament passed the Parliamentary Act No. 52, on Gender Equality. The principal purpose of the act was to eliminate all forms of gender-based discrimination..." (41-42).
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"According to the General Provisions of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women, which was amended in August 2005, “Women shall enjoy equal rights with men in all aspects of political, economic, cultural, social and family life. Equality between men and women is a basic State policy. The State takes the necessary measures to gradually improve the systems for protecting the rights and interests of women, in order to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women" (14-15). ". Article 48 of the Constitution stipulates, “women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of...more
May 30, 2022, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"As mentioned in the previous report, the Federal Act on Gender Equality (or Gender Equality Act, GEA) of 1995 explicitly empowers women and men to bring a legal challenge against discrimination in working life" (24-25). "Formal equality of men and women before the law is guaranteed in Switzerland, with rare exceptions (e.g. retirement age; cf. n. 149 above)" (38).
May 27, 2022, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Equality of women and men was recognized and discrimination on any ground was prohibited in variety of laws in addition to the Constitution" (2). "According to the Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey entitled 'Equality before the law'; Everyone is equal before the law without distinction as to language, race, colour, sex" (28).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Neither the Constitution of Suriname nor other national legislation discriminates between men and women with respect to participation in political and public life" (18). "Gender equality is prescribed by the Constitution of Suriname (Article 8, paragraph 2), and as such provides an important guideline for all laws, customs and conditions. As indicated in the Third Periodic CEDAW Report of the Republic of Suriname, this principle is not yet reflected in all statutory regulations. In this reporting period much progress has been made with regard to legal products that have been adopted by parliament, draft laws that have been submitted to parliament or in the process of drafting, as set out...more
April 18, 2022, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2007 of the State party’s second report in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption or establishment of the ...Labour Act (No. 23/2007), which guarantees the principle of equality and prohibits discrimination based on sex" (1-2).
April 17, 2022, 12:06 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee remains concerned that the Discrimination Law, owing to its restricted list of prohibited grounds of discrimination, does not comprehensively address intersecting forms of discrimination against women" (4).
March 21, 2022, 3:27 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The 2009 Law on Prohibition of Discrimination which includes a definition of the principle of equality and prohibits discrimination on various grounds, including gender-based discrimination...The 2009 Law on Gender Equality which contains provisions for equal opportunities and special measures to prevent and eliminate discrimination based on sex and gender as well as a procedure for legal protection of persons exposed to discrimination" (1-2).
March 10, 2022, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution does not explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex" (32).
March 10, 2022, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Peru, Peru
Variables: ATDW-LAW-5, CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality between men and women and prohibits discrimination against women with regard to marriage, divorce, pregnancy, pay, and property rights. The government did not enforce the law effectively…" (14).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex is one of the pillars of said system, as authoritatively stated more than once by the Constitutional Court...the Italian Constitution sets forth the inviolable principle, aimed at ensuring the equality of all citizens before the law and at prohibiting that gender...might be a source of discrimination in the legal treatment of people" (6).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on sex, but the government did not effectively enforce this provision. There is no comprehensive law against discrimination and thus no legal basis for enforcement of the constitutional clause against discrimination" (14).