The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states, 'women enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life'" (69). "The law [in Macau] provides that all residents shall be equal before the law and shall be free from discrimination, irrespective of... gender..." (144).
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides women the same legal status and rights as men and 'equal pay for equal work performed in equal jobs, hours of work, and conditions of efficiency'"(23).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, DMW-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides that women and men have the same legal status and rights. The government enforced the law effectively, although inequalities in pay and promotions persisted in both the public and private sectors. In 2017 the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women noted a persistence of 'discriminatory stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society.' It also observed a low level of participation of Traveller (a minority traditionally itinerant ethnic group), Roma, and migrant women in political and public life" (10).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination and notes that citizens, both 'man and woman,' have equal rights and duties before the law. It expressly prohibits discrimination based on language. The constitution contains no specific provisions addressing discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, color, sex, ethnicity, disability, or age. The penal code prescribes a term of imprisonment of not more than two years for anyone convicted of spreading discrimination or factionalism" (43).
Aug. 30, 2021, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, including under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws"(11).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In October 2009 amendments to the Gender Equality Act (GEA) entered into force. The main purpose of these amendments was to improve the protection of persons from discrimination. Among other changes the definitions of direct and indirect discrimination based on sex were amended. According to the new definition, direct discrimination includes also cases of gender based harassment (and sexual harassment), and less favourable treatment of a person caused by rejection or submission to harassment. Changes were also made to the definition of sexual harassment, and a new definition concerning gender based harassment was added. According to the amended definition, sexual harassment no longer has to take place in a relationship...more
Aug. 20, 2021, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal rights for women, equal pay for equal work, and equal status in marriage" (22). "The constitution stipulates that citizens of either sex shall receive equal pay for equal work" (31).
Aug. 11, 2021, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men"(10).
Aug. 11, 2021, 10:20 a.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men according to the constitution and the law"(9).
Aug. 6, 2021, 4:21 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In contrast with the formal court system, women do not have equal legal status with men in customary courts and traditional mediation, nor do they enjoy the same access to legal redress" (p 6).
July 30, 2021, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"...In Kenya for example, the Constitution (COK 2010)[1] outlaws discrimination in all spheres in reality in rural setting, customary laws prevail over statutory laws. Burials are mostly in the villages and are carried out according to specific community customs which continue to place men and boys on a pedestal" (para 2).
July 26, 2021, 6:44 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Critics say the proposed amendment would breach the constitution's principles of separation of powers and judicial independence. The amendment would also contradict Article 14 of the constitution, which says all Iraqis are equal before the law, without any discrimination based on gender, race, ethnicity, nationality, origin, color, religion, sect, belief, opinion or economic or social status" (para 6). "Sarsam added, 'The amendment bill aims at enslaving Iraqi women and taking the country back to a primitive era. It contains constitutional and legal violations, mainly discriminating against Iraqis based on sect or belief, establishing a religious state and fighting the civil current'" (para 15).
July 20, 2021, 8 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: GDI-DATA-1, CONST-LAW-1

"First, in the WEF's Global Gender Gap report, the Mena region had the lowest score of all the regions - and apart from Israel, none of its countries were in the top 100. The UAE was ranked 120th in the world out of 153. And while the UAE does have an anti-discrimination law, sex and gender aren't included in its definition of discrimination" (Para 7).
July 20, 2021, 7:53 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: GDI-DATA-1, CONST-LAW-1

"First, in the WEF's Global Gender Gap report, the Mena region had the lowest score of all the regions - and apart from Israel, none of its countries were in the top 100. The UAE was ranked 120th in the world out of 153. And while the UAE does have an anti-discrimination law, sex and gender aren't included in its definition of discrimination" (Para 7).
July 9, 2021, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides equal rights for men and women and specifically prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, color, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language, or birth. The justice system and widely applied customary laws often discriminated against women, limiting their political and economic rights" (p 35).
June 30, 2021, 4:32 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Family, Labor and Social Services Minister Zehra Zumrut Selcuk said on Twitter that women's rights is guaranteed in domestic legislation, especially in the Constitution" (para 3).
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Articles 32 and 33 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, which concern such issues as gender equality before the law and prohibit gender discrimination, have not been amended since the previous reporting period. Apart from the Constitution, individual spheres of the social and economic life in Poland were regulated by several other acts that contain provisions prohibiting and preventing discrimination" (3).
May 31, 2021, 5:31 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Last year's strike was the first of its kind since 1991, when a similar protest saw some 500,000 women demonstrate against continued inequality across all sectors of life, 10 years after gender equality was enshrined in the country's constitution" (para 13).
May 24, 2021, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Although the law provides women and men the same legal rights, women did not enjoy social and economic status or opportunity equal to that of men" (p 19).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex is one of the pillars of said system, as authoritatively stated more than once by the Constitutional Court...the Italian Constitution sets forth the inviolable principle, aimed at ensuring the equality of all citizens before the law and at prohibiting that gender...might be a source of discrimination in the legal treatment of people" (6).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Law of Ukraine on Introducing Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine regarding Preventing and Countering Discrimination, passed by the Verkhovna Rada on 13 May 2014, introduced a new definition of discrimination. It complies with the Article 1 of the Convention. The Law provides definitions of 'direct discrimination', 'declaration of discriminatory intent', and 'aiding in discrimination'" (10). "The Law prohibits discrimination by state authorities, local authorities and officers, legal entities of public and private law, as well as individual persons" (12). "Adoption of the Laws of Ukraine:...2012 on Principles for Preventing and Combating Discrimination in Ukraine and on Employment of Population stipulating equal opportunities for all citizens (including without...more
Feb. 18, 2021, 6:18 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“Article 14 of the Indian Constitution confers absolute equal rights on women” (para 25).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes that article 15 of the Constitution guarantees equal protection under the law for women and men and prohibits discrimination on the ground of sex. The Committee is concerned, however, at the absence of a comprehensive anti-discrimination law addressing all aspects of direct and indirect discrimination against women and all the forms of intersectional discrimination, as explicitly listed in paragraph 18 of the Committee’s general recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention" (2). "The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Adopt comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation that prohibits discrimination on all grounds referred to in general recommendation No. 28; (b)...more
Jan. 31, 2021, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Australia does not have a national human rights act or bill of rights, and rights are not adequately rpotected in the Australian Constitution" (3). "Australia does not protect equality and non-discrimination in its Constitution. Current anti-discrimination laws in Australia are inadequate due to their inconsistency, limited scope, failure to address systemic or intersectional discrimination and wide exemptions. While we welcome the 2013 expansion of protections in the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth) (SDA) to include sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status, many attributes reamin unprotected such as domestic/family violence survivor status. Plans to consolidate federal anti-discrimination law were abandoned in 2013" (4).
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“Considering that equality is one of the principles enshrined in the Angolan Constitution, which provides that all persons are entitled to exercise their universal rights without discrimination, the National Policy for Gender Equality and Equity was approved by means of Presidential Decree No. 222/13 of 24 December. It reaffirms the recognition of the State’s responsibility for the adoption and implementation of policies designed to promote opportunities in all spheres of the political, economic, social and cultural life of women and of men, in line with the Committee’s recommendations of 1979, the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action, Article 4 of the Constitutive Act of the African Union and the Southern African...more
Jan. 8, 2021, 4:43 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“’The said discriminatory customary law [disinheritance to daughters] is void as it conflicts with Section 42(1) and (2) of the Constitution. In the light of all that I have been saying, the appeal is dismissed. In the spirit of reconciliation, parties to bear their own costs,” Justice Rhodes-Vivour said” (para. 9). =
Jan. 7, 2021, 9:23 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“‘Discrimination of women is a violation of the rights of a girl child as guaranteed in chapter four of the 1999 constitution, as amended. In Nigeria, when such discrimination against women happen, NGO’s, or the child or government can take up the case in a family court in the states where family court is established, like in Lagos, Cross river state. The family court helps protect the rights of a child and girl child but unfortunately the family court is not established in all states of the federation’, he said” (para. 38). “Explaining about the limitation of these laws, Ibor, noted that; “The non-adaptation of these laws by all states...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 9:57 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Islamic State group has "'imposed incredibly restrictive rules on the civilian population which have served to make women and girls particularly vulnerable and to quite clearly discriminate against them,' she said, adding that the reports of the stoning were the first the group had received out of Syria. 'This is just a more sort of extreme manifestation of those restrictive rules which are all in violation of international' human rights law, she said" (para 19-20).
Dec. 21, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

The article 33 (6) of the Constitution “prohibits laws, customs or traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women”
Dec. 21, 2020, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of the UAE ensured women rights and enshrined the principle of equality between men and women in line with their respective natures, upholding their access to education, jobs, social and health benefits, and holding government offices" (para 1)