The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

Nov. 15, 2022, 11:05 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In Rwanda, gender equality is already mentioned in the constitution in the preamble. It notes that equality between men and women must be granted in all their rights" (para 4).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The equality of all Indonesian citizens as well as their rights to non-discrimination is guaranteed under various legal provisions, namely: a) The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, in Article 28I Paragraph (2) on freedom from and protection against discriminatory treatment on any basis" (3).
June 21, 2022, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee is concerned that the provisions of article 154 A (1) and (6) of the Constitution limit the scope of the obligations that the State party accepted when ratifying the Convention and that, almost 40 years since ratification, the State party has still not fully incorporated the provisions of the Convention into its legislative framework. The Committee notes that articles 149 and 149 F of the Constitution prohibit discrimination on grounds of gender and sex and further notes the efforts undertaken to begin reviewing the Prevention of Discrimination Act (1997) to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in employment. It remains concerned, however, that the definition...more
June 21, 2022, 8:35 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes that the Equality Act of 2010 prohibits both direct and indirect discrimination on the basis of sex. It reiterates its previous concern, however, that the applicability of the Equality Act does not extend to Northern Ireland (CEDAW/C/GBR/CO/7, para. 18), and regrets that the State party, invoking the principle of devolution, has not taken any measures to ensure that women in Northern Ireland have at least the same protections with regard to equality as do their counterparts in the other administrations of the State party, notwithstanding the lack of a functioning government in Northern Ireland" (4).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Existing legislation is based on equal rights for men and women, ie non-discrimination" (30). "Faroese legislation contains no impediment to gender equality. Faroese legislation does not distinguish between women and men; it guarantees the same rights for all citizens of the Faroes without according any positive rights to either gender. As such, women and men have the same rights and the same responsibilities in all areas of society. On 3 May 1994 the Faroese Parliament passed the Parliamentary Act No. 52, on Gender Equality. The principal purpose of the act was to eliminate all forms of gender-based discrimination..." (41-42).
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"According to the General Provisions of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Rights and Interests of Women, which was amended in August 2005, “Women shall enjoy equal rights with men in all aspects of political, economic, cultural, social and family life. Equality between men and women is a basic State policy. The State takes the necessary measures to gradually improve the systems for protecting the rights and interests of women, in order to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women" (14-15). ". Article 48 of the Constitution stipulates, “women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of...more
May 30, 2022, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"As mentioned in the previous report, the Federal Act on Gender Equality (or Gender Equality Act, GEA) of 1995 explicitly empowers women and men to bring a legal challenge against discrimination in working life" (24-25). "Formal equality of men and women before the law is guaranteed in Switzerland, with rare exceptions (e.g. retirement age; cf. n. 149 above)" (38).
May 27, 2022, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Equality of women and men was recognized and discrimination on any ground was prohibited in variety of laws in addition to the Constitution" (2). "According to the Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Turkey entitled 'Equality before the law'; Everyone is equal before the law without distinction as to language, race, colour, sex" (28).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Neither the Constitution of Suriname nor other national legislation discriminates between men and women with respect to participation in political and public life" (18). "Gender equality is prescribed by the Constitution of Suriname (Article 8, paragraph 2), and as such provides an important guideline for all laws, customs and conditions. As indicated in the Third Periodic CEDAW Report of the Republic of Suriname, this principle is not yet reflected in all statutory regulations. In this reporting period much progress has been made with regard to legal products that have been adopted by parliament, draft laws that have been submitted to parliament or in the process of drafting, as set out...more
April 18, 2022, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2007 of the State party’s second report in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption or establishment of the ...Labour Act (No. 23/2007), which guarantees the principle of equality and prohibits discrimination based on sex" (1-2).
April 17, 2022, 12:06 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee remains concerned that the Discrimination Law, owing to its restricted list of prohibited grounds of discrimination, does not comprehensively address intersecting forms of discrimination against women" (4).
March 21, 2022, 3:27 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The 2009 Law on Prohibition of Discrimination which includes a definition of the principle of equality and prohibits discrimination on various grounds, including gender-based discrimination...The 2009 Law on Gender Equality which contains provisions for equal opportunities and special measures to prevent and eliminate discrimination based on sex and gender as well as a procedure for legal protection of persons exposed to discrimination" (1-2).
March 10, 2022, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution does not explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex" (32).
March 10, 2022, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Peru, Peru
Variables: ATDW-LAW-5, CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for equality between men and women and prohibits discrimination against women with regard to marriage, divorce, pregnancy, pay, and property rights. The government did not enforce the law effectively…" (14).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex is one of the pillars of said system, as authoritatively stated more than once by the Constitutional Court...the Italian Constitution sets forth the inviolable principle, aimed at ensuring the equality of all citizens before the law and at prohibiting that gender...might be a source of discrimination in the legal treatment of people" (6).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination based on sex, but the government did not effectively enforce this provision. There is no comprehensive law against discrimination and thus no legal basis for enforcement of the constitutional clause against discrimination" (14).
Feb. 11, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The 2017 constitution provides that 'men and women shall enjoy equal rights and liberties. Unjust discrimination against a person on the grounds of differences in origin, race, language, sex... shall not be permitted'" (33).
Jan. 24, 2022, 1:07 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Provisions in the constitution and various laws and regulations prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, gender" (63).
Jan. 24, 2022, 12:55 p.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal treatment of citizens regardless of gender" (18, 23).
Jan. 14, 2022, 6:24 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution creates a right of equality and nondiscrimination, regardless of sex" (25).
Jan. 13, 2022, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men. The law prohibits discrimination against women and obligates the government to promote political, economic, social, and cultural equality..." (11).
Jan. 13, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides equal rights for men and women and specifically prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, color, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language, or birth"(38).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits gender discrimination and generally provides women the same rights as men. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office continued to examine policies and monitor developments" (18).
Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LO-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"In law but not always in practice, women have most of the rights and protections accorded to men, and the law seeks to eliminate discrimination against women. The law accords women the same property rights as men. In Muslim and indigenous communities, however, property ownership law or tradition grants men more property rights than women" (27).
Jan. 8, 2022, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"While the constitution provides women equal rights with men in civil, political, economic, cultural, and environmental affairs, laws favor men in property and inheritance" (31-32).
Jan. 7, 2022, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Provisional Constitution states that both men and women are equal before the law. According to Article 11, Clause 1: 'All citizens, regardless of sex, religion, social or economic status, political opinion, clan, disability, occupation, birth or dialect shall have equal rights and duties before the law.' Article 11, Clause 3: 'The state must not discriminate against any person on the basis of age, race, color, tribe, ethnicity, culture, dialect, gender, birth, disability, religion, political opinion, occupation, or wealth" (1).
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and laws prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, gender, disability, language, sexual orientation and gender identity, infection with HIV or other communicable diseases, or social status. The labor code provides for the principles of equal treatment. The government failed to enforce these regulations effectively. Penalties were generally inadequate to deter violations" (37).
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law provide that men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights" (56).
Dec. 3, 2021, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and the law provide women full legal equality with men, and the government enforced the law" (10).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations protecting women’s labor rights were enforced in the formal sector, although according to the World Economic Forum, women earned 36 percent less on average than men doing comparable jobs" (27-28). "The constitution provides for equality before the law of all persons and prohibits discrimination based on 'sex...more