The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Articles 32 and 33 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, which concern such issues as gender equality before the law and prohibit gender discrimination, have not been amended since the previous reporting period. Apart from the Constitution, individual spheres of the social and economic life in Poland were regulated by several other acts that contain provisions prohibiting and preventing discrimination" (3).
May 31, 2021, 5:31 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Last year's strike was the first of its kind since 1991, when a similar protest saw some 500,000 women demonstrate against continued inequality across all sectors of life, 10 years after gender equality was enshrined in the country's constitution" (para 13).
May 24, 2021, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Although the law provides women and men the same legal rights, women did not enjoy social and economic status or opportunity equal to that of men" (p 19).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"the prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex is one of the pillars of said system, as authoritatively stated more than once by the Constitutional Court...the Italian Constitution sets forth the inviolable principle, aimed at ensuring the equality of all citizens before the law and at prohibiting that gender...might be a source of discrimination in the legal treatment of people" (6).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Law of Ukraine on Introducing Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine regarding Preventing and Countering Discrimination, passed by the Verkhovna Rada on 13 May 2014, introduced a new definition of discrimination. It complies with the Article 1 of the Convention. The Law provides definitions of 'direct discrimination', 'declaration of discriminatory intent', and 'aiding in discrimination'" (10). "The Law prohibits discrimination by state authorities, local authorities and officers, legal entities of public and private law, as well as individual persons" (12). "Adoption of the Laws of Ukraine:...2012 on Principles for Preventing and Combating Discrimination in Ukraine and on Employment of Population stipulating equal opportunities for all citizens (including without...more
Feb. 18, 2021, 6:18 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“Article 14 of the Indian Constitution confers absolute equal rights on women” (para 25).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes that article 15 of the Constitution guarantees equal protection under the law for women and men and prohibits discrimination on the ground of sex. The Committee is concerned, however, at the absence of a comprehensive anti-discrimination law addressing all aspects of direct and indirect discrimination against women and all the forms of intersectional discrimination, as explicitly listed in paragraph 18 of the Committee’s general recommendation No. 28 on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention" (2). "The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Adopt comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation that prohibits discrimination on all grounds referred to in general recommendation No. 28; (b)...more
Jan. 31, 2021, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Australia does not have a national human rights act or bill of rights, and rights are not adequately rpotected in the Australian Constitution" (3). "Australia does not protect equality and non-discrimination in its Constitution. Current anti-discrimination laws in Australia are inadequate due to their inconsistency, limited scope, failure to address systemic or intersectional discrimination and wide exemptions. While we welcome the 2013 expansion of protections in the Sex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth) (SDA) to include sexual orientation, gender identity and intersex status, many attributes reamin unprotected such as domestic/family violence survivor status. Plans to consolidate federal anti-discrimination law were abandoned in 2013" (4).
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“Considering that equality is one of the principles enshrined in the Angolan Constitution, which provides that all persons are entitled to exercise their universal rights without discrimination, the National Policy for Gender Equality and Equity was approved by means of Presidential Decree No. 222/13 of 24 December. It reaffirms the recognition of the State’s responsibility for the adoption and implementation of policies designed to promote opportunities in all spheres of the political, economic, social and cultural life of women and of men, in line with the Committee’s recommendations of 1979, the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action, Article 4 of the Constitutive Act of the African Union and the Southern African...more
Jan. 8, 2021, 4:43 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“’The said discriminatory customary law [disinheritance to daughters] is void as it conflicts with Section 42(1) and (2) of the Constitution. In the light of all that I have been saying, the appeal is dismissed. In the spirit of reconciliation, parties to bear their own costs,” Justice Rhodes-Vivour said” (para. 9). =
Jan. 7, 2021, 9:23 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“‘Discrimination of women is a violation of the rights of a girl child as guaranteed in chapter four of the 1999 constitution, as amended. In Nigeria, when such discrimination against women happen, NGO’s, or the child or government can take up the case in a family court in the states where family court is established, like in Lagos, Cross river state. The family court helps protect the rights of a child and girl child but unfortunately the family court is not established in all states of the federation’, he said” (para. 38). “Explaining about the limitation of these laws, Ibor, noted that; “The non-adaptation of these laws by all states...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 9:57 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Islamic State group has "'imposed incredibly restrictive rules on the civilian population which have served to make women and girls particularly vulnerable and to quite clearly discriminate against them,' she said, adding that the reports of the stoning were the first the group had received out of Syria. 'This is just a more sort of extreme manifestation of those restrictive rules which are all in violation of international' human rights law, she said" (para 19-20).
Dec. 21, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

The article 33 (6) of the Constitution “prohibits laws, customs or traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women”
Dec. 21, 2020, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Constitution of the UAE ensured women rights and enshrined the principle of equality between men and women in line with their respective natures, upholding their access to education, jobs, social and health benefits, and holding government offices" (para 1)
Dec. 3, 2020, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

“[T]he State party has taken no steps to amend its Constitution with a view to incorporating the principle of equality of women and men and defining and prohibiting all forms of sex- and gender-based discrimination, including direct and indirect discrimination by private or public actors” (2) According to the text, as of 2016 the Vanuatu constitution does not expressly outlaw discrimination on the basis of sex (MLB-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 20, 2020, 9:36 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The State shall ensure that the fundamental human rights and freedoms as enshrined in the Constitution and relevant international instruments are guaranteed also to indigenous women. Towards this end, no provision in this Act shall be interpreted so as to result in the diminution of rights and privileges already recognized and accorded to women under existing laws of general application" (Section 21).
Nov. 18, 2020, 2:32 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: DTCP-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The 1999 Constitution of Nigeria prohibits discrimination on the grounds of Sex, but customary and religious laws continue to restrict women’s rights. As Nigeria is a federal republic, each State has the authority to draft its own legislation. However, any law that is contradictory to Federal Law or the Constitution can be challenged in a Federal Court. The combination of federation and a tripartite system of civil, customary and religious law makes it very difficult to harmonise legislation and remove discriminatory measures. Moreover, certain States in the north follow Islamic (Sharia) law, although not exclusively and only in instances where Muslims make use of Islamic courts" (8).more
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"After 2015 amendment, the Constitution Article 30 states ‘Women and men shall have equal rights.’ while Article 29 prohibits discrimination on sex and other social characteristics inter alia other grounds2. Prohibition of discrimination in one or two provisions of similar substance occurs integrally in nearly 29 legal acts while to determine discriminatory treatment in the courts, the alleged victim of discrimination should justify that: a) He/she had been subjected to marginalization, compared to the others (interference); b) that such a marginalization was based upon one of the prohibited grounds, third; c) he/she had been under relevantly similar circumstances (comparator), d) that the mentioned distinctive approach had no objective basis (reasonable...more
Oct. 6, 2020, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In a move significant for women's rights, the Eswatini High Court ruled on August 30 that the common law doctrine of marital power (giving a husband the ultimate decision-making power over his wife and the matrimonial property) is unconstitutional as it discriminates against women and denies their constitutional right to equality" (para 2). "The Eswatini High Court ruling in August 2019 that the common-law doctrine of marital power is unconstitutional added to existing reforms to end discrimination against women and uphold their constitutional rights to equality" (para 8). "Article 20 of the Eswatini Constitution provides for equality before the law and non-discrimination, but does not prevent discrimination on the grounds...more
Oct. 6, 2020, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"In March, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights expressed concern that Kazakhstan's constitution and laws do not explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation, and called on Kazakhstan to adopt anti-discrimination legislation" (para 21).
Sept. 28, 2020, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"During 2019, Zimbabwe's Parliament debated a marriage bill, first introduced in January 2017, which is seen as a long-awaited chance for parliament to reconcile the country's marriage laws with its constitution. The proposed marriage law, which parliament has yet to finalize at time of writing, seeks to outlaw child marriage" (para 9). "Current laws on marriage and divorce do not conform to the country's constitution, which provides that spouses have equal rights and responsibilities" (para 10). "Three years after Zimbabwe's Constitutional Court declared child marriage unconstitutional and set 18 as the minimum marriage age, the government has not put structures in place to implement the court's decision and ensure that...more
Sept. 27, 2020, 5:14 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The government-proposed bill on equality, intended as comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation, does not include sexual orientation and gender identity as grounds for protection from discrimination. In a September report, the Organization for Security and Co-operation recommended the government include sexual orientation and gender identity as additional protected categories. It also recommended that the government ensure that groups that have legitimate interests could bring cases on behalf of an alleged discrimination victim" (para 18).
Sept. 2, 2020, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Section 27 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand: All persons are equal before the law, and shall have rights and liberties and be protected equally under the law. Men and women shall enjoy equal rights" (para 7).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Armenian Constitution enshrines the right to gender equality, and outlaws all forms of discrimination on the basis of gender" (para 3).
Aug. 13, 2020, 6:16 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Japan has no law prohibiting racial, ethnic, or religious discrimination, or discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity" (para. 3).
Aug. 10, 2020, 4:03 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"'There was a major advance with the constitution, with getting all these new rights and state obligations,' said Rachel Elfenbein, the author of an upcoming book on social programs created under Chavez for women. 'But when it came to implementation, if and where it happened, it was patchy'" (para 14).
Aug. 9, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men is the reason gender equality is a hallmark of Icelandic culture. The law, established in 2000, was revamped in 2008 with the overarching goal of reaching equal rights throughout all paradigms of society. This law includes information on gender equality for government and businesses to follow. Within the law there are nine defined areas of gender discrimination. It identifies differences between indirect and direct gender discrimination, acknowledges gaps in wages, and recognizes that gender-based violence is detrimental to society. The law draws out a roadmap to achieving gender equality, even including language on changing negative gender stereotypes. Withini...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 6:20 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Discrimination on the basis of sex and gender is not included in the definition of discrimination in the UAE's 2015 anti-discrimination law" (para 16).
July 14, 2020, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The early communists enshrined 'the equality of women and men' in the Constitution of the People’s Republic and the new government introduced ambitious initiatives to put women to work in building the new communist nation" (para 10).
July 12, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Theoretically, there are gender equality mechanisms in place to address these issues. According to the Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Article 2 prohibits discrimination on any grounds, including gender" (para. 15).