The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CONST-LAW-1

Jan. 14, 2022, 6:24 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution creates a right of equality and nondiscrimination, regardless of sex" (25).
Jan. 13, 2022, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men. The law prohibits discrimination against women and obligates the government to promote political, economic, social, and cultural equality..." (11).
Jan. 13, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution provides equal rights for men and women and specifically prohibits discrimination on the grounds of race, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, color, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language, or birth"(38).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law prohibits gender discrimination and generally provides women the same rights as men. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office continued to examine policies and monitor developments" (18).
Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LO-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"In law but not always in practice, women have most of the rights and protections accorded to men, and the law seeks to eliminate discrimination against women. The law accords women the same property rights as men. In Muslim and indigenous communities, however, property ownership law or tradition grants men more property rights than women" (27).
Jan. 8, 2022, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"While the constitution provides women equal rights with men in civil, political, economic, cultural, and environmental affairs, laws favor men in property and inheritance" (31-32).
Jan. 7, 2022, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Provisional Constitution states that both men and women are equal before the law. According to Article 11, Clause 1: 'All citizens, regardless of sex, religion, social or economic status, political opinion, clan, disability, occupation, birth or dialect shall have equal rights and duties before the law.' Article 11, Clause 3: 'The state must not discriminate against any person on the basis of age, race, color, tribe, ethnicity, culture, dialect, gender, birth, disability, religion, political opinion, occupation, or wealth" (1).
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and laws prohibit discrimination based on race, sex, gender, disability, language, sexual orientation and gender identity, infection with HIV or other communicable diseases, or social status. The labor code provides for the principles of equal treatment. The government failed to enforce these regulations effectively. Penalties were generally inadequate to deter violations" (37).
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law provide that men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights" (56).
Dec. 3, 2021, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and the law provide women full legal equality with men, and the government enforced the law" (10).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations protecting women’s labor rights were enforced in the formal sector, although according to the World Economic Forum, women earned 36 percent less on average than men doing comparable jobs" (27-28). "The constitution provides for equality before the law of all persons and prohibits discrimination based on 'sex...more
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: IAW-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"Under the law women throughout the kingdom have the same legal status and rights as men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. The government enforced the law effectively, although there were some reports of discrimination in employment" (13).
Nov. 16, 2021, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The government plenipotentiary for civil society and equal treatment has a mandate to counter discrimination and promote equal opportunity for all. The plenipotentiary implements the government’s equal treatment policy, develops and evaluates draft acts, analyzes and evaluates legal solutions, and monitors the situation within the scope of application of the principle of equal treatment. The plenipotentiary is subordinate to the Prime Minister’s Office, did not have the same institutional independence as the ombudsperson, and did not have a separate budget" (15). Equal opportunity for all should include women, although no specifications are made to clarify whether this does counter discrimination against women (JLR-CODER COMMENT). "The constitution provides for the same...more
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, and the government enforced laws prohibiting discrimination in all sectors. Women nonetheless experienced widespread discrimination, particularly with respect to employment (also see section 7.d. regarding pay disparities between genders)" (15).
Nov. 11, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal rights under the constitution as men"(21).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"...The law provides for imprisonment from one to four years for persons who provoke discrimination, hatred, or violence against groups or associations on the basis of ideology, religion or belief, family status, membership in an ethnic group or race, national origin, sex, sexual orientation, illness, or disability" (7). "Under the law women enjoy the same rights as men. The government generally enforced the law effectively" (16).
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. The government enforced the law effectively" (10).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws... The constitution and law provide for equal access to professional and social positions, and the government generally enforced the laws" (21).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Opaque rules on male guardianship leave women without basic freedoms, according to Human Rights Watch (HRW), which has analysed for the first time the way the system works in practice. Researchers looked at 27 laws covering work, accommodation and status and found that women must get permission from male 'guardians' – fathers, brothers, uncles and husbands – to exercise many basic rights. They cannot be primary carers of their children, even if they are divorced or the children’s father has died. If the child has no male relative to act as guardian, the government takes on this role. The Qatari government said the accounts in the report are 'inaccurate' and...more
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights under the constitution, including under family, labor, religious, personal status, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. The government generally enforced the law effectively" (23).
Oct. 11, 2021, 8:59 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance law"(9).
Oct. 4, 2021, 8:33 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution and the law provide for the same legal status and rights for women as for men under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws"(13).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men in all circumstances. The government did not enforce the law effectively. According to government statistics, women earned an average 79.5 percent of the wages earned by men. According to the Observatory on Workplace Equality, black women earned 55 percent of the wages earned by white men" (20-21).
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The Committee notes with concern that there is no reference in the Constitution to specific grounds of discrimination, including gender and sex...The Committee is particularly concerned about discriminatory provisions contained in the Civil Code of 1977 and the Shia Personal Status Law of 2009 with regard to child marriage, divorce, polygamy, inheritance and the guardianship of children, and about the criminalization of so-called 'moral crimes', such as running away from home or adultery, under the Criminal Code" (3). "In accordance with its general recommendation No. 28 (2010) on the core obligations of States parties under article 2 of the Convention, the Committee urges the State party to amend its Constitution...more
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states, 'women hold equal social status and rights with men'" (20).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution states, 'women enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life'" (69). "The law [in Macau] provides that all residents shall be equal before the law and shall be free from discrimination, irrespective of... gender..." (144).
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides women the same legal status and rights as men and 'equal pay for equal work performed in equal jobs, hours of work, and conditions of efficiency'"(23).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, DMW-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides that women and men have the same legal status and rights. The government enforced the law effectively, although inequalities in pay and promotions persisted in both the public and private sectors. In 2017 the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women noted a persistence of 'discriminatory stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society.' It also observed a low level of participation of Traveller (a minority traditionally itinerant ethnic group), Roma, and migrant women in political and public life" (10).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"The constitution prohibits discrimination and notes that citizens, both 'man and woman,' have equal rights and duties before the law. It expressly prohibits discrimination based on language. The constitution contains no specific provisions addressing discrimination based on race, religion, national origin, color, sex, ethnicity, disability, or age. The penal code prescribes a term of imprisonment of not more than two years for anyone convicted of spreading discrimination or factionalism" (43).
Aug. 30, 2021, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: CONST-LAW-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, including under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws"(11).