The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CUST-PRACTICE-1

June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The failure to pay for the support of a next of kin was a crime laid down in the Penal Code (art. 209(1)). It was subject to a fine, the penalty of restriction of liberty or the penalty of deprivation of liberty for up to two years. If a debtor did not perform any payable work and did not possess any tangible property that could be used to exact payment of debts, the person entitled to support could take legal action to obtain maintenance payments from the debtor’s family. In the event the enforcement proved ineffective, the child entitled to support payments from its parent could apply for financial assistance...more
Dec. 20, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3

"Both parents must agree to conditions that they will maintain and guarantee the child's safety" (5).
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Even if the mother is granted custody, such orders may be difficult to enforce. For example, in 2015, a domestic violence survivor was granted custody of her son after taking her former spouse to court. Despite being granted custody, the custody exchange still has not been enforced by the Department of Child Custody and her rights continue to be violated" (44).
Sept. 14, 2020, 6:34 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Legislative Decree No. 7/1986 promulgating the Law on the trusteeship of Funds, article (14) states that ‘Trusteeship of the minor's Fund is for the grandfather (Father's side), unless the father has chosen a trustee. The grandfather must conduct it, and he may not step down except with the permission of the Council’. Such an article constitutes a blatant discrimination against women and violation of their guardianship rights" (1).
Sept. 4, 2020, 9:43 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ATDW-PRACTICE-2, CUST-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Discrimination includes inequality in access to divorce, child custody, and inheritance and property rights" (para 17).
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with concern: (a) That women in de facto unions and their children may be deprived of adequate protection of their economic rights in case of separation; (b) The absence of regulations to implement the Registered Partnership Act of 2014; (c) The deficiency in enforcement of child support payments, which leads to a high default rate by men on their payments" (12).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"In the whole procedures of receiving, investigating and hearing divorce cases the court finds out about which of the husband and wife should take custody of children and which is in the best interest of the children concerned, and gives ruling by taking into full account the views of both parties. The principle adhered to in this regard is to place a child under three years of age in the custody of the mother. The party that has no custody of children is under obligation to pay the expenses for the upbringing of the children within the range of 10-30 per cent of his/her monthly income until they reach working...more
April 22, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Across all confessions, women faced legal and other obstacles when terminating unhappy or abusive marriages; limitations on their pecuniary rights; and the risk of losing their children if they remarry or when the so-called maternal custody period (determined by the child’s age) ends" (10). "For women legally able to obtain a divorce, concerns about having their children reside with them often make them unable or unwilling to pursue a divorce" (17). "Any claims by the wife, including financial suits related to mahr, compensation, and spousal maintenance and care of children claims, must be addressed in separate legal actions" (63). "During the trial, the husband may also explicitly refuse to certify...more
March 24, 2020, 3:35 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3

"Uganda’s penal code does prohibit abandoning and failing to support children. But Ms. Animbou said she never went to the Ugandan base or the local authorities to report the soldier. 'They don’t want to talk about this, even with the authorities,' said Mr. Daba, adding that some women were threatened by Ugandan soldiers. 'The U.P.D.F. said they will do something bad to them — kill them or something else.'" (para 27-28).
Dec. 14, 2019, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"She has now given birth to two children but is unsure which of the brothers is the father" (para 19).
Sept. 5, 2019, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Bantu men often impregnated indigenous girls and later denied paternity, offering no child support" (26).
July 9, 2019, 10:16 a.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The fact that the existing legislative mechanism does not adequately address gender-based violence in the domestic sphere in the determination of child custody" (15).
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Under family law and inheritance law, courts awarded custody of children over a specified age (seven years for boys and nine years for girls) to the divorced husband or the deceased husband’s family" (38).
May 27, 2019, 1:48 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee commends the State party on its efforts to tackle gender -based violence against women, such as the adoption of the Social Support Act (2015), which broadened the concept of social support to include safety in the domestic setting, and the ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence in 2015. Nevertheless, the Committee remains concerned by: (...) (d) The lack of data on the impact of the broadening of the Social Support Act of 2015 to include safety in the domestic setting and of the merger of child abuse and domestic violence services;" (7). "The lack of information about...more
May 13, 2019, 2:21 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"A significant number of parents, predominantly fathers, fail to pay child maintenance, and the often limited and onerous access to maintenance advances are one reason that single-female-headed households are at considerable risk of falling into poverty" (15). "The default rule of joint parental authority, which may lead to a reduction in child maintenance orders with no mechanism to ensure that shared custody is indeed practised and that the orders reflect the reality of the time and cost allocation between parents" (17).
April 27, 2019, 9:12 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"It is also concerned that the default rule of joint parental authority and preference for shared custody may lead to a reduction in the number of child maintenance orders, with no mechanism to ensure that shared custody is indeed practised, and reflects the reality of time and cost allocation between parents" (17).
April 9, 2019, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1

"The Committee is concerned about the lack of harmonization of legislation at the federal and provincial or territorial levels with regard to child-custody determination, given that the federal Divorce Act (1985) still includes the highly problematic 'maximum contact' provision and makes no mention of domestic violence. The Committee is also concerned about evidence of reduced or even cessation of child support orders that can result from shared custody orders or agreements, which in practice are not always followed and do not necessarily reflect the reality of time and cost allocation between parents" (18).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: IW-LAW-1, CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-3, GIC-LAW-1

"The law provides for a minimum level of child support, widows’ rights, and maternity leave; however, only women employed in the formal sector knew their rights, had access to the legal system, and thus benefited from these legal protections" (para 93).
March 14, 2019, 3:31 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is further concerned that situations of domestic violence may not be adequately addressed in cases of child custody decisions, particularly when alternate residence is contemplated" (15).
March 11, 2019, 11:13 a.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Practice shows that the majority of claims are filed by women against the fathers of their children, since, when a marriage is dissolved, minor children usually remain with the mother" (43).
March 7, 2019, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: ADCM-LAW-1, CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1, CUST-LAW-2

"Women have legal rights to property and child custody, and the more educated and urbanized members of the population recognized these rights. Nevertheless, women had fewer legal rights than men. Divorced women, for example, could lose child custody if they remarried" (page 19).
Feb. 3, 2019, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned about: (a) The fact that the existing legislative mechanisms do not adequately take into account gender-based violence in the domestic sphere in determining child custody; (b) The negative effect of fathers’ rights groups’ advocacy of and public discourse about the so-called 'parental alienation syndrome'" (13).
Jan. 28, 2019, 7:32 p.m.
Countries: Honduras
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1

"The Committee is also concerned about the absence of implementing regulations for the Responsible Parenthood Act" (16).
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The increase in foreign investment and large scale development/infrastructure projects has led to an influx of foreigners with no ties to the community and little accountability to the local people. This has led to an increase in gender-related violence and an erosion of women’s security in these areas." Reports indicate that employees of several foreign companies including Asia World Company have raped young women in local townships, leaving at the end of their projects and therefore escaping prosecution. "It is also not uncommon for men working on these projects to “trick” a woman into living with them outside of wedlock, promising marriage and support- only to leave at the end...more
Nov. 15, 2018, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is further concerned that the General Act on Responsible Paternity as well as the proposal to create a National Public Registry of Defaulting Alimony Debtors are still pending" (11).
Oct. 28, 2018, 9 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"In early 2018, after the divorce and eviction from her home, the woman asked the local Guardianship Department of her District Administration for help to get child support from her husband. She also filed a court case to try to regain her rights to the flat. 'Both the Guardianship Department and the Court unofficially told her lawyer that they can help her if she stops wearing the hijab,' Vokhidova stated" (para 16).
Oct. 8, 2018, 3:27 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1, CUST-LAW-1

"Since the crown prince took power last year, judges who once would have automatically given fathers custody of children in divorce cases have started allowing some mothers custody instead" (para 17).
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

“Domestic violence can be minimized or discounted in decisions about custody and visitation in multiple ways. One study found that some courts allow ‘friendly parent principles’—which give preference to the parent who is more likely to support an ongoing relationship between the child and the other parent—to take precedence over allegations of abuse (Morrill et al. 2005). In addition, research indicates that some custody evaluators lack expertise in domestic violence and fail to report or to adequately assess the nature and effects of this abuse when making their recommendations (Davis et al. 2011; Pence et al. 2012; Saunders, Faller, and Tolman 2011), which play an important role in informing court...more
Aug. 31, 2018, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

“Domestic violence researchers and practitioners have become increasingly concerned with the outcomes of custody and visitation cases where mothers or their children allege that a father has been abusive. Scholars and practitioners report that courts often do not take this abuse into account (or fail to believe the allegations, seeing them instead as evidence that the mother seeks to “alienate” the child from his or her father) and award access or custody to the abusive parent (Goldfarb 2008; Meier 2010). While the exact number of children who face this outcome is unknown, one study that used data on divorce, family violence, and the outcomes of custody and visitation litigation in...more
Feb. 14, 2018, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: CUST-PRACTICE-1

"Services and rights are inconsistently applied among districts in cases of failure by the father to pay child maintenance" (17).