The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for CWC-DATA-2

June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Between 2006 and 2008, the Government carried out a project entitled 'STEREOTYPES and equal opportunities of women and men in rural communities' co-financed from the funds of European Social Fund. The aim of the project was to break the stereotypes about the social roles of women in the rural community and strengthen their position on the labour market, as well as to remove the disparity between urban and rural areas as regards the possibility of local initiatives development...The project was attended by 640 women living in rural areas. The project beneficiaries included female gmina leaders, female gmina councillors, women involved in social or economic activity or willing to engage in...more
May 31, 2021, 5:59 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"For decades, indigenous populations were considered the poorest and most vulnerable ethnic group in Peru. However, when it comes to education, recent data show that Afro-Peruvians may be an even more vulnerable in the country than previously realized. As Figure 1 illustrates, Afro-Peruvian females aged 15 and older are either equally or more disadvantaged than their indigenous counterparts in rural areas" (para 1). "For instance, along Peru’s northern Pacific coast, where the Afro-Peruvian population is most heavily concentrated, only 26.9 percent of those girls access education, compared with an average of 42.3 percent for all girls in the same geographic area" (para 3).
May 15, 2021, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, MARR-PRACTICE-7, DV-DATA-1

"A woman who moves to her husband’s rural family home is especially vulnerable, Ms Li finds. Typically she would need to seek divorce in her husband’s local court. Often his relatives and neighbours, as well as police officers, decline to testify against a person they see as one of their own. Partly as a result, restraining orders against violent husbands remain vanishingly rare" (para 6).
April 20, 2021, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, MARR-PRACTICE-1

"The president complained that the instances of child marriage and early marriage were widespread in the countryside. 'Egyptian families should stop this habit which harms their daughters and causes serious social and economic implications on the nation's life,' said Al-Sisi. Al-Sisi said 'early marriage is a major reason for rapid population growth and for the spread of poverty in villages'" (para 3-4).
April 5, 2021, 8:46 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Meanwhile, Indigenous women and girls made up more than one in five victims killed by a male accused" (para 5). This suggests that femicide may be a particular problem among Indigenous populations in Canada (RAO-CODER COMMENT). "And for Indigenous women, the issue is further exacerbated in communities where support services or shelters for women don't exist, said Lavell-Harvard" (para 16).
March 31, 2021, 3:48 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"In recent weeks, Noor has organised medical camps to speak to poorer Pakistani women about the health issues in their marginalised communities, most of which are linked to water and sanitation. Pakistan has among the world's worst access to safe water, with almost 80% of the population unable to access clean drinking water. 'You realize how inaccessible and unaffordable healthcare is for a lot of communities,' Noor said. 'I might have access to healthcare, but they won't'" (para 7-8).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"The total abortion rate (per 1,000 women of childbearing age) is 8.5 per 1,000 women of the reproductive age. High rates were observed in large cities (10.6), the lowest among rural women (5.3)" (37).
Feb. 26, 2021, 9:37 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ISTD-DATA-1, LRW-PRACTICE-1, CWC-DATA-2, MARR-PRACTICE-1

“In Tanzania, growing numbers of young girls in early adolescence (12–13 years old) migrate to the cities. They move seeking education or work, but also in many cases to escape abusive family relations and forced marriage. This is a group particularly at risk: research in Tanzania shows that for one-fifth of them, the first sexual encounter is forced, and ‘sexual abuse is so prevalent that it is hardly even noticed or is treated as 'normal'. The corollary to this is the high incidence of HIV/AIDS. In Tanzania, infection rates are 12 and 9.6 per cent for females and males in urban areas, against 5.8 and 6.7 per cent in rural...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Brazil, Venezuela
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“While rates of violent crime increased globally from 6 to 8.8 incidents per 100,000 persons between 1990 and 2000, much of this increase has been in cities. Sixty per cent of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have been victims of crime over a five-year period; the rates are as high as 70 per cent in parts of Latin America and the Caribbean and Africa. In Latin America, more than half of the total homicides occur in cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, Lima and Caracas” (pp. 25).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“While rates of violent crime increased globally from 6 to 8.8 incidents per 100,000 persons between 1990 and 2000, much of this increase has been in cities. Sixty per cent of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have been victims of crime over a five-year period; the rates are as high as 70 per cent in parts of Latin America and the Caribbean and Africa. In Latin America, more than half of the total homicides occur in cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, Lima and Caracas” (pp. 25). “Another important case of urban-based employment among women linked with widespread gender-based violence relates to the femicides...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Ecuador
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“In the Ecuadorian Amazon, young women are more likely than men to move to urban areas as they are more likely to find employment in domestic service, restaurants and retail” (pp. 9).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“For example, in several – but not all – sub-Saharan African nations for which data are available, men tend to outnumber women in urban centres. Kenya and Rwanda are particularly striking examples of highly unbalanced sex ratios – and, in the case of Kenya, increasing rapidly over the decade 1999–2008. Overall, however, the traditional male bias in rural–urban migration seems to have declined, resulting in more balanced sex ratios in urban areas” (pp. 11). Figure 2: Women-headed households in urban and rural areas in selected African Countries shows the percentage of female headed houses in rural versus urban areas in several countries (pp. 15).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“In Tanzania and Bolivia, boys as young as 14 are moving on their own from poor rural areas to urban centres, often as part of a family strategy to diversify income sources and reduce their vulnerability to environmental change. Girls are also a growing group of migrants to the cities in many countries. In many cases, and especially when they are forced to live with employers (in the case of domestic workers) or do not have support from relatives, they may be especially vulnerable” (pp. 10).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“For example, while much of the large-scale rural–urban movement in China is unrecorded, making it difficult to ascertain its sex composition, there is evidence that increasing numbers of women, including young unmarried ones but also older married women in their late twenties and early thirties, are moving to urban centres to work in factories and services” (pp. 9).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh, Pakistan
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“Similarly, a study of fertility and access to family planning in urban Bangladesh and Pakistan shows that poor women remain worse off than their wealthier counterparts, despite the expansion of family planning services in Bangladesh” (pp. 8).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“While rates of violent crime increased globally from 6 to 8.8 incidents per 100,000 persons between 1990 and 2000, much of this increase has been in cities. Sixty per cent of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have been victims of crime over a five-year period; the rates are as high as 70 per cent in parts of Latin America and the Caribbean and Africa. In Latin America, more than half of the total homicides occur in cities such as Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Mexico City, Lima and Caracas” (pp. 25). “Another important case of urban-based employment among women linked with widespread gender-based violence relates to the femicides...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon, Chad
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

Figure 1: Total Fertility Rate for Residents of Urban Slum and Non-slum Areas and for Rural Areas: Selected African Countries, 2003-2004 shows the fertility rate for the countries Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, and Nigeria for different areas of the country (pp. 8).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“In the Ecuadorian Amazon, young women are more likely than men to move to urban areas as they are more likely to find employment in domestic service, restaurants and retail. Similar reasons underpin women’s preference for urban destinations in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta” (pp. 9).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“In South Africa, in 2004 domestic service was the second-largest sector of employment for black women, employing some 755,000 workers, with a large proportion of internal migrants from rural areas” (pp. 18).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

Figure 1: Total Fertility Rate for Residents of Urban Slum and Non-slum Areas and for Rural Areas: Selected African Countries, 2003-2004 shows the fertility rate for the countries Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, and Nigeria for different areas of the country (pp. 8). Figure 2: Women-headed households in urban and rural areas in selected African Countries shows the percentage of female headed houses in rural versus urban areas in several countries (pp. 15).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“For example, in the late 1990s, urban India overtook rural India in share of GDP, and urban per capita incomes are over three times the rural ones. Rural areas contribute 18 per cent of GDP although they employ 60 per cent of the population, but rural– urban migration has been constrained by high costs of living in urban centres and lack of forma lsector jobs” (pp. 7). “In India, this is especially the case in the large (‘millionplus’) cities, which contain one-quarter of India’s urban population but where on average there are only 86 women per 100 men (Chant, 2011). In much of Southeast Asia, on the other hand, selective...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“In Tanzania and Bolivia, boys as young as 14 are moving on their own from poor rural areas to urban centres, often as part of a family strategy to diversify income sources and reduce their vulnerability to environmental change. Girls are also a growing group of migrants to the cities in many countries. In many cases, and especially when they are forced to live with employers (in the case of domestic workers) or do not have support from relatives, they may be especially vulnerable” (pp. 10). Figure 2: Women-headed households in urban and rural areas in selected African Countries shows the percentage of female headed houses in rural versus urban...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Botswana, Central African Rep, Cote D'Ivoire, Ghana, Malawi, Namibia, Senegal, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

Figure 2: Women-headed households in urban and rural areas in selected African Countries shows the percentage of female headed houses in rural versus urban areas in several countries (pp. 15).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“A study of Greater Cairo found that fertility rates were lowest in the city centre, but in the peri-urban areas they were similar to those of rural settlements” (pp. 8). Figure 2: Women-headed households in urban and rural areas in selected African Countries shows the percentage of female headed houses in rural versus urban areas in several countries (pp. 15).
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

Figure 1: Total Fertility Rate for Residents of Urban Slum and Non-slum Areas and for Rural Areas: Selected African Countries, 2003-2004 shows the fertility rate for the countries Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, and Nigeria for different areas of the country (pp. 8). “For example, in several – but not all – sub-Saharan African nations for which data are available, men tend to outnumber women in urban centres. Kenya and Rwanda are particularly striking examples of highly unbalanced sex ratios – and, in the case of Kenya, increasing rapidly over the decade 1999–2008. Overall, however, the traditional male bias in rural–urban migration seems to have declined, resulting in...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

Figure 2: Women-headed households in urban and rural areas in selected African Countries shows the percentage of female headed houses in rural versus urban areas in several countries (pp. 15). “Similar constraints explain the much higher incidence of women-headed households in small towns in Tanzania and Ethiopia. Even when women have equal land rights, cultural constraints as well as lack of labour and capital make it difficult for women-headed households to rely on farming, and the wider income-generating opportunities in urban centres are a main reason for migration” (pp. 16).
Feb. 13, 2021, 12:40 p.m.
Countries: Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tajikistan, Thailand, Uganda, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

Table 1: Sex ratio and share of female population in urban and rural areas, selected countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia, latest available year (1999–2008) shows sex ratios between urban and rural areas in different countries.
Feb. 10, 2021, 11:51 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“This phenomenon presents a system of gender reversal in Afghanistan. Whereas rural Pashtun culture remains largely misogynistic and male-dominated due to deeply-ingrained Islamic values, teenage boys have become the objects of lustful attraction and romance for some of the most powerful men in the Afghan countryside” (para 3).
Jan. 31, 2021, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

"Women are more likely to experience unmet legal need than men. Those with unmet legal need are more likely to be Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, have a disability, be unemployed, and be from a non-English speaking background. Unmet legal need is particularly concentrated in rural, regional and remote areas" (21). "Women living in RRR areas are at a higher risk of experiencing domestic violence. A local study has shown that 73 per cent of clients experienced family violence" (24).
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: CWC-DATA-2

“The current context shows signs of positive developments with regard to women’s access to justice, despite the constraints that continue to exist with regard to the availability of services in all parts of the country. Various specific programmes have been put in place with a view to rapidly eliminating the territorial imbalances between urban and rural areas and to disseminate information on the rights of women, particularly the right to have recourse to the competent national courts for any act that violates their fundamental rights as recognized and guaranteed by the Convention and by domestic laws and regulations, as well as by customs that are not contrary to the law”...more