The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-1

Jan. 14, 2022, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Belize
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. The law also mandates equal pay for equal work, but the labor commissioner verified that men earned on average BZ$90 ($45) more per month than women did because they held higher managerial positions. The law provides generally for the continuity of employment and protection against unfair dismissal, including for sexual harassment in the workplace, pregnancy, or HIV status" (12).
Jan. 13, 2022, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law requires that women and men receive equal pay for equal work. The government enforced the laws effectively, although an official study reported a pay gap of 13 percent for highly skilled jobs. Assembly approved an amendment to the women's equality law to establish pay equality between men and women in both the public and private sectors and to create an interagency commission for pay equality" (11).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law also mandates equal pay for men and women; however, the International Labor Organization noted the law’s protection against such wage discrimination is too limited because it does not capture the concept of 'work of equal value.'...Women’s average monthly wage was approximately 73 percent of that of men in 2018" (28).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, GP-DATA-5

"The Federal Institute for the Equality of Men and Women is responsible for promoting gender equality and may initiate lawsuits if it discovers violations of equality laws. Most complaints received during the year were work related and most concerned the termination of employment due to pregnancy. Economic discrimination against women continued. According to Eurostat, women’s hourly wage rates were 6 percent less than those of their male colleagues in 2017. The law requires that one-third of the board members of publicly traded companies, but not private ones, be women" (16).
Dec. 3, 2021, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law requires equal pay for equal work. According to the Ministry of Solidarity, Employment, and Social Security, however, women’s average salaries were approximately 17 percent lower than those of men" (16).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, MARR-LAW-3

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations protecting women’s labor rights were enforced in the formal sector, although according to the World Economic Forum, women earned 36 percent less on average than men doing comparable jobs" (27-28).
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-1

"...The NIHR reported in 2018 that 61 percent of the discrimination in employment claims it received were related to pregnancy. Female unemployment was higher than male, and female incomes lagged behind male counterparts" (22).
Nov. 16, 2021, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for men and women and prohibits discrimination against women, although few laws exist to implement the provision. The constitution requires equal pay for equal work, but discrimination against women in employment existed" (16).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"In many cases victims of discrimination were unwilling to request the forms of protection provided by employment laws or collective contracts, according to labor unions. According to Eurostat, in 2017 women’s gross hourly earnings were on average 5 percent lower than those of men performing the same job" (22).
Nov. 11, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"On average, women earned only 63 percent of what men earned, and a higher percentage of women filled lower-paying, low-skilled, contract jobs. Women often faced difficulties returning to the workforce after childbirth"(30).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"According to Eurostat, female workers earned 14.9-percent less per hour than their male counterparts. Gross salary, according to Eurostat, was 20 percent lower" (25).
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men, including rights under labor law and in the judicial system. The law mandates equal pay for equal work. According to information provided by the Ministry of Equality between Women and Men, during the year employers paid women 5.5 percent less on average than men for comparable work" (15).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"While the law provides that women enjoy the same rights as men, women experienced discrimination in employment. According to the government commissioner on gender policy, women on average received 30 percent lower salaries than men. The Ministry of Health maintained a list of 50 occupations that remain prohibited for women" (44). "Women received lower salaries due to limited opportunities for advancement and the types of industries that employed them. According to the State Statistics Office, men earned on average 23 percent more than women. The gap was not caused by direct discrimination in the setting of wages, but by horizontal and vertical stratification of the labor market: Women were more...more
Oct. 28, 2021, 12:31 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Women enjoy the same legal rights as men, but they were subject to some discrimination in remuneration and representation in certain occupations" (Page 10). "The law requires equal pay for equal work, but women occasionally experienced discrimination in remuneration" (Page 15).
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides for equal pay for equal work. In March the Federal Statistical Office found the gross hourly wages of women in 2017 were on average 21 percent lower than those of men. It blamed pay differences in the sectors and occupations in which women and men were employed, as well as unequal requirements for leadership experience and other qualifications as the principal reasons for the pay gap. Women were underrepresented in highly paid managerial positions and overrepresented in some lower-wage occupations (see section 7.d.). FADA reported women were also at a disadvantage regarding promotions, often due to career interruptions for child rearing" (34).
Oct. 4, 2021, 8:33 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"A study published by the Federal Statistics Office in January found that women in the private sector earned almost 20 percent less than their male counterparts in 2016, the most recent year for which data was available. According to the study, almost 43 percent of the wage difference could not be attributed to factors such as age or seniority"(13)."Based on research by the Federal Statistics Office, there was an 18 percent gender wage gap across both the public and private sectors in 2016, the last year for which data was available. In 2016 the median monthly income for women in the public sector was 7,468 Swiss francs/U.S. dollars, while men...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men in all circumstances. The government did not enforce the law effectively. According to government statistics, women earned an average 79.5 percent of the wages earned by men. According to the Observatory on Workplace Equality, black women earned 55 percent of the wages earned by white men" (20-21). "...According to the ILO, women not only earned less than men but also had difficulties entering the workplace: 78 percent of men held paid jobs, compared with 56 percent of women. Although the law prohibits gender discrimination in pay, professional training, and career advancement, the law was not...more
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to gender, sexual orientation, disability, and ethnicity (see section 6). The government was the major formal-sector employer and ostensibly paid women the same as men for similar work, but differences in job descriptions permitted pay inequality. There were cases where employers from southern ethnic groups discriminated against individuals from northern ethnic groups" (35).
Sept. 17, 2021, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-3

"'Here, there is still the sexist attitude that women are not capable of making decisions, for example,' said Trujillo. 'That is why they earn a quarter less than their male colleagues and why there are just 10 women among the 340 mayors in Guatemala'" (para 11).
Sept. 17, 2021, 10 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Pacific Islanders (also known as Pasifika), who comprised 8.1 percent of the population in 2018, experienced some societal discrimination and had the highest rates of unemployment (8 percent) and lowest labor force participation (60 percent) of any demographic group. In late 2018 the HRC reported on significant ethnic pay gaps in the country’s public service that left Pasifika women paid 21 per cent lower than the average" (13).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"On average, women earned 35 percent less than men who did similar work. This wage gap was greater in rural areas" (69).
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Women tended to earn substantially less than men did for the same work. Women were more likely to experience discrimination in wages, working hours, and benefits."(23).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides that women and men have the same legal status and rights. The government enforced the law effectively, although inequalities in pay and promotions persisted in both the public and private sectors..." (10).
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1, ERBG-DATA-4

"That same year, 39% of women in the workforce were employed part-time compared to 14% of men. This leaves women at an unfair disadvantage as non-regular workers earn about 40% as much as regular workers on an hourly basis and receive less training in their workplaces, according to a report from the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development" (para 20).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"According to a major study on gender pay gap carried out in 2009 2010, during 2000 2008 the gen eral gender pay gap in Estonia was an average of 28.6%. Unexplained wage difference formed approximately 85% of the general gender pay gap. The pay gap was largest among women and men aged 25 45, when starting a family and raising children is most likely...In 2006, the gap between gross hourly earnings of women and men was 27%. It increased during the economic growth to 27,6% in 2007, but started to decrease when the economic recession began. In 2008, the gap was 24,4% and in 2010 23,3%. By 2011 the gap...more
Aug. 17, 2021, 2:50 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, ERBG-DATA-1

"Discrimination occurred in access to credit, equal pay for similar work, and the ownership and management of a business" (p 20).
Aug. 11, 2021, 10:20 a.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Despite laws requiring equal pay for equal work, a 15 percent pay gap existed between men and women"(15).
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"Despite a law providing for equal pay for equal work, the average woman’s annual income was 32 percent less than that of men, according to the Ministry of Women and Gender Equality. The ministry is in charge of protecting women’s legal rights and is specifically tasked with combatting discrimination against women" (10-11).
Aug. 2, 2021, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides for gender equality. Nevertheless, women often experienced discrimination in employment, credit, and pay equity for similar work, as well as in owning and managing businesses" (p 21). "Additionally, women’s wages were generally lower when compared with male counterparts, even for the same position and work performed" (p 29).
July 27, 2021, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-DATA-1

"While there was little discrimination in access to employment and credit, women often did not receive equal pay for substantially similar work" (p 30).