The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-2

Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Women continued to face discrimination and hardship in the workplace. Women made up only 7 percent of the workforce. Many women faced pressure from relatives to stay at home and encountered hiring practices that favored men. Older and married women reported it was more difficult for them than for younger, single women to find jobs. Women who worked reported they encountered insults, sexual harassment, lack of transportation, and an absence of day care facilities. Salary discrimination existed in the private sector. Female journalists, social workers, and police officers reported they were often threatened or abused. Persons with disabilities also suffered from discrimination in hiring" (43).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Results of different surveys confirm that division of care burden in Estonia still reflects rather traditional values. While both partners are expected to supplement to the family s income, the caring duties at home are still often expected to be met by the woman. These attitudes are reflected also in the employment data. The employment rate of men is highest (over 84% in 2010, over 91% in 2013) for men with at least one child below 3 years of age. For such women employment rate is lowest (29% in 2010, 23% in 2013) but raises remarkably right after that. Employment rates for men and women with school aged children were...more
Aug. 10, 2021, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"According to data issued by the Secretariat for Gender Equality on March 18[2019], between October and December 2018, 44 percent of women were employed, compared with 60 percent of men"(23).
July 20, 2021, 11:47 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Despite a rise in female board members, the number of women in managerial roles was still very low.Women accounted for nearly 39% of board members of Italian listed companies at the end of 2020, data collected by Consob showed.Looking at women’s roles within the board, data at the end of 2020 showed female CEOs headed 15 companies, which accounted for 2.5% of total market capitalization on the Milan stock exchange. In 2019, companies with women serving as chief executives were 17, equal to 2.6% of total market capitalization.Last year women chaired the board of directors of 26 companies, the same number as in 2019, but the companies were of much...more
July 15, 2021, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Currently, women’s employment is restricted in 456 occupations in 38 industries. These occupations are listed in Government of the Russian Federation Resolution No. 162, Feb. 25, 2000, which the newly issued ministerial order will replace. The need for reducing the number of occupations in which women’s employment is restricted was expressed in the National Strategy of Actions for the Advancement of Women’s Interests for 2017–2022. The Strategy states that technological advancements have allowed women to work in the professions previously deemed dangerous and have made some of the previously restricted occupations redundant"(para 2).
June 29, 2021, 4 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The female participation rate in the labour force decreased in 2020 as a result of the lockdown measures implemented following the pandemic, with the percentage of women’s participation in the labour force at 16% of all working-age women in 2020, down from 18% in 2019. For comparison, the rate of male participation in the labour force was 65% in 2020, down from 70% in 2019" (para 11).
June 29, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"In addition to their miserably low representation in politics, women in Japan had low rates of participation in the workforce — 60 percent in 2013 compared to 80 percent of Japanese men who work" (4).
June 29, 2021, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The total number of female civil servants, policewomen and officers working at the Ministry of Interior has reached 12,070, according to ministry sources... The Police Academy confirmed the graduation of 158 female police officers between 2011 and 2017 and said that 25 more are to graduate in next July. Of note, women have only been allowed to take part in four of the academy’s 66 sessions held to date. However, 170 female officers have graduated from the Interior Ministry's Higher Institute for Security and Administrative Development with higher diplomas in security sciences since 2011, and 50 women, including 25 who hold doctorates or master's degrees, are now completing their studies...more
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2

In Table 11, titled "Economic activity of population aged 15 and over according to sex in 2003-2010" it shows that in Q1 2003, there were (all numbers besides percentages in thousands) 16,901 economically active people in Poland, 13,348 of which were employed. In Q1 2010, there were 17, 413 ecnomically active people, with 15, 574 employed. In Q1 2003, 7,702 of the economically active were women, compared to 9,100 men. 6,092 of the women were employed, with 1,609 women unemployed. Men, on the other hand, had 7,256 employed and 1,844 unemployed of the economically active in Q1 2003. In Q1 2010, 7,929 women were economically active compared to 9, 484...more
May 15, 2021, 8:42 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-2

"The think tank pointed out that women are employed in just 14.7 percent of senior roles as judged by its economic participation index despite 72 percent of Japanese women being in the labor force" (para 11).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The construction of... 'relationships'...with the business realities allowed to build new forms of dialogue...with the aim of better understanding problems related to the role of women in the labour market, such as the very low percentage of women in the labour market" (17). "There were an increased number of projects aimed at unemployed women in the South highlighting how women’s unemployment remains a problem particularly present in this territorial area" (18). "In 2007, only 10 per cent of hospital department heads and 5 per cent of deans of faculties of medicine were women" (53). "Except for Banks and Assurance Institutes, there is no woman in the Boards of Directors of...more
March 13, 2021, 4:47 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The Committee notes that ethnic and minority women are underrepresented in all areas of the labour market, in particular in senior or decision-making positions, have higher rates of unemployment and face a greater pay gap in their hourly earnings compared to men" (12).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"In 2013 the unemployment level was 7.2 per cent, which is by 0.9 per cent lower than in 2010, among women the unemployment level over the same period has decreased form 6.8 per cent up to 6.2 per cent. Hidden unemployment remains significant" (7). "Due to the complicated political and economic situation in the country the last Government initiatives, in particular, the Law of Ukraine on Preventing Financial Catastrophe and Creating Opportunities for Economic Growth in Ukraine, adopted on March 27, 2014, may increase the risks of poverty for women. These initiatives stipulate reduction of the number of public sector workers and refusal to increase the minimum wage for one...more
Jan. 31, 2021, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

The table entitled "workforce participation rates" shows the percentage of women of different backgrounds who participate in the labor force. For all women, the percentage that participate in the workforce is 59.2%. For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women,this figure is 52%, compared with 65% for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men. For CALD (culturally and linguistically diverse) women, the workforce participation rate is 47.3%, compared with 69.5% of CALD men. 53.4% of women with disabilities are in the workforce, and 56.6% of men with disabilities. 58.8% of older women work, compared to 71.9% of men. 56.5% of rural, regional and remote (RRR) women work, compared with 66.8% of men...more
Jan. 26, 2021, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

“In 2013, 82 percent of the female working-age population was part of the country’s labor force, compared to 94 percent of the male working-age population. Today, women represent only around 45 percent of the total labor force, and their income is lower than men’s” (para 2).
Dec. 31, 2020, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Three-quarters of all moms are in the U.S. labor force, which is now half women – and half of them are their families’ primary breadwinners. This is especially true for women of color" (para 2). "It’s no accident that fewer than 5 percent of the Fortune 500 CEOs are women" (para 3).
Dec. 24, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Women now make up 30 per cent of the boards of Australia's top 200 companies for the first time" (para 1). "While the top 20 listed companies have more than 35 per cent women on the board, the figure falls to 24 per cent when the entire stock market is considered" (para 12).
Dec. 20, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Female participation in the workplace doubled between 1980-2000" (7). "The private sector has also seen an increase in the percentage of women in employment. The Bahraini Supreme Council for Women states that 33% of the private sector labor force in Bahrain is constituted of women" (8). "Overall, between the period 1971-2013, the percentage of women in the workforce has increased from 4.9% to 31.8%" (9).
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"The rate of economic activity for women is lower than compared to that of men: about 55% vs. 72%, and this proportion has remained almost unchanged over the last decade. The real unemployment rate has been especially high among youths; it is higher than the average national unemployment rate by around 2.5 times (35% vs. 16%). More young girls than boys are neither in school/university nor employed. In 2013, as over the last decade, almost 37% of individuals aged 15-24 and 40% of those aged 25-29 were neither in school/university nor employed. The same indicators for young girls were 40% and 59% respectively" (36). "Women with higher education have higher...more
Oct. 12, 2020, 5:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2, LBHO-LAW-1

"United Nations and government data from 2008 to 2010 illustrate ‘single digit percentages of women as lawyers (about 6%), prosecutors (6.4%- 9.4%), and judges (4.7%-5.4%). Data from 2013 show that women are still underrepresented, although they have made some gains, particularly in the number of female lawyers and judges (19.3% and 8.4%, respectively)’".
Aug. 13, 2020, 9:03 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Japan’s central bank just set a positive example for financial institutions across the country. Bank of Japan promoted Tokiko Shimizuto, making her its first woman executive director in 138 years, according to CNN. An employee at the bank since 1987, Shimizuto became the first female branch manager in 2010. She joined a team of six executives responsible for running daily operations on Monday" (para. 1-2). "These disparities are also visible at Bank of Japan, where women make up 47% of the workforce but only 13% of senior leadership, according to the bank. In recent years, Japan has made a concerted effort to address inequality in the workforce, but it ranked...more
July 26, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"On the surface, it appears that working women have made progress. The number of women in the labour force has risen from 18.3 million in 1960 to 26.5 million in 2012, an increase of 45%, compared to a 38% increase in the overall Japanese population. Women now make up 42.3% of the entire Japanese work force. It is therefore evident that working women are already a mainstay feature of the Japanese economy. However, over the course of their working life cycle Japanese men and women work in significantly different patterns as illustrated in figure 1. While Japanese male employment follows the 'inverted-U' pattern, female employment takes the shape of the...more
July 19, 2020, 1:45 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"More women than men were unemployed in the past 12 months (33% versus 14%). Fifty-seven percent of women and 78% of men reported current employment. Fifty-three percent of women and 73% of men who have a School Leaving Certificate (SLC) or above are currently employed, while 63% of women and 89% of men who have no education are employed. Trends: Current employment among both women and men has remained somewhat stagnant in the past 5 years. Sixty percent of women were currently employed in 2011, as compared with 57% in 2016. Among men, current employment was 78% in both 2011 and 2016" (46).
July 10, 2020, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Iranian women...constitute 50 percent of the work force" (para 12).
July 3, 2020, 4:25 p.m.
Countries: Zambia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Men are more likely (75%) to be currently employed than women (45%). Twenty- one percent of men and 48% of women were not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey. Trends: The percentage of women who are currently employed decreased from 46% in 1996 to 45% in 2018. Among men, however, the percentage increased from 62% to 75% over the same period" (36). "Fifty-nine percent of currently married women age 15-49 were employed in the 12 months before the survey, as compared with 97% of currently married men in the same age group. Women are less likely than men to be paid for their work in cash only (62%...more
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

Table in page 22 shows the annual number of contract workers in different sectors. In all sectors, there are 1'050,713 contract workers, 566,090 men and 484,623 women, meaning women are 46.1 of the contract workers (22) CCS-CODER COMMENT).
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"In 2016. The employment rate of women of 48.4 per cent was still significantly lower than the employment rate of men, which was 61.9 per cent. The difference in employment rates between men and women aged 15-64 in 2016 was 13.5 percentage points. Between 2014 and 2016.the employment rate of women increased by 4.7 percentage points (from 43.7 per cent to 48.4 per cent). The unemployment rate of women in 2016 was 16.7 per cent, while the unemployment rate of men was 15.3 per cent, making a difference of 1.4 percentage points. Between 2014 and 2016, the unemployment rate of women was reduced by 4.3 percentage points (from 21.0 per...more
June 22, 2020, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

" According to the 2007-08 Afghanistan National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA), [women] accounted for only 8 percent of the country’s entire wage labour force" (pg 2).
June 19, 2020, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"According to the Labor Department’s 2016-17 Employment Equity Report, women held 22 percent of top management positions, 33 percent of senior management positions, and 46 percent of professional positions. Women held 39 percent of public sector senior management positions" (25).
June 5, 2020, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-2

"Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 show that 29% of women and 46% of men are currently employed. An additional 4% of women and 6% of men reported that they had worked in the past 12 months but were not currently employed" (38). "Patterns by background characteristics: 1) Urban women and men are more likely than rural respondents to be employed. 2) The percentage of women and men who are currently employed generally increases with increasing education. For example, only 22% of women with no education are currently employed, compared with 70% of those with higher than secondary education (Figure 3.4). 3) The percentage of women and men who are employed also...more