The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-DATA-5

Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"With significant variations in the quality of employment, the proportion of informal workers and uninsured workers is... 80% in Morocco... In Morocco, prevalence is for waged informal labor and contributing family labor which affects women in particular. Overall, the situation of women remains more vulnerable. The percentage of informal female workers is ... 83% in Morocco" (3). "For females, only Mauritania and Sudan keep high rates of self-employment (44% and 32%). In Yemen, the proportion drops to 26%, followed by ... Morocco (17%)" (8). "These results are also different from those known on women's informal labor in the MENA countries, which account for 35% of women's informal non-agricultural labor. The...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"In Sudan, the proportion of informal female workers (79%) is slightly higher than that of men. In all cases, it seems that informality will be higher in... Sudan as a result of the civil war and the heavy migration from Southern Sudan. The situation will be even worse with the accelerated pace of rural exodus to cities" (3-4). "For females, only Mauritania and Sudan keep high rates of self-employment (44% and 32%)" (8). "These results are also different from those known on women's informal labor in the MENA countries, which account for 35% of women's informal non-agricultural labor. The proportion in Mauritania is 78%... [and] 59% in Sudan" (10). "Sudan’s...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"In Yemen, the proportion of informal labor reached 81% in 2013-2014, also distributed between self-employment and waged labor, with a significant share of contributing family workers. Informality among women is greater (83%), with a significant proportion for contributing family labor and self-employment" (5). "In Yemen, the proportion [of female self-employment] drops to 26%" (8). "These results are also different from those known on women's informal labor in the MENA countries, which account for 35% of women's informal non-agricultural labor. The proportion in Mauritania is 78%, [and] 65% in Yemen" (10). "The other major category of informal labor in Arab countries consists of self-employed and employers, who make up a significant...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Informal labor was monitored in Syria and Yemen prior to their civil wars. In Syria, the proportion of informal workers reached 66% of the total (39% for women), almost evenly distributed between self-employment and waged labor in the informal sector. With 27% for those working in the public sector (56% for women), the percentage of informality outside the public sector reaches 89% (94% for women), while the number of newcomers to the labor force was nearly 300,000. The ongoing conflict has resulted in the loss of half of the jobs between 2011 and 2015" (4-5). "For females, only Mauritania and Sudan keep high rates of self-employment (44% and 32%). In...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Therefore, the total percentage of informal labor to the total labor force in Bahrain is 65%, the majority of which is waged. Since Bahraini women work mainly in the government sector, the chances of informality are better than the total for Bahraini females (29%) and worse than the total for the migrant women (84%)" (2). "For females, only Mauritania and Sudan keep high rates of self-employment (44% and 32%) ... with the lowest percentages in Jordan and Iraq (2%) and Bahrain (3%)" (8). "For women's unwaged informal labor, the highest proportions are seen in Bahrain (54%) and Lebanon (58%) due to the importance of female domestic labor for female migrant...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"With significant variations in the quality of employment, the proportion of informal workers and uninsured workers is... 39% in Algeria... However, the proportion of informal workers in Algeria rises to 66% if civil servants are excluded (and to 85% for females). It is worth noting that part of the waged workers in the government and the public sector are non-permanent and informal. In Algeria, informal workers are almost equally divided between paid labor and self-employment. Overall, the situation of women remains more vulnerable. The percentage of informal female workers is 49% in Algeria" (3). "For females, only Mauritania and Sudan keep high rates of self-employment (44% and 32%). In Yemen,...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The overall informality rate in Palestine (60% in total) is not different from that in Jordan. However, the difference between the West Bank (66%) and the Gaza Strip (43%) is particularly significant, with government employment at 37% in the Gaza Strip and only 16% in the West Bank. The percentage of women's informality is similar to that of men, although the share of women in government labor is greater (30%) than that of men (21%), but women suffer more from unpaid family labor, especially in the West Bank" (4). "These results are also different from those known on women's informal labor in the MENA countries, which account for 35% of...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"In Jordan, the proportion of informal Jordanians is 50%, the majority of whom are waged workers in the formal sector. With the majority of informal migrant workers, Palestinians and Syrians, most of whom are waged workers, the share of informal labor rises to 57% (27% for women). Outside the civil service (30% overall and 52% for women), the share of informal labor rises to 81% (55% for women)" (4). "For females, only Mauritania and Sudan keep high rates of self-employment (44% and 32%)... with the lowest percentages in Jordan and Iraq (2%)" (8). "For women's unwaged informal labor, the highest proportions are seen in Bahrain (54%) and Lebanon (58%) due...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"With significant variations in the quality of employment, the proportion of informal workers and uninsured workers is 35% in Tunisia" (3). "[I]nformal workers are almost equally divided between paid labor and self-employment... in Tunisia" (3). "Only in Tunisia, informal female workers are less by 20% than male informal workers, thanks to its social security system, which covers even agricultural workers; so if civil servants are excluded, the percentage of informality only drops to 42% (28% for women)" (3). "[T]he situation is different if we exclude formal government labor. Tunisia's percentage of informal labor goes up to 42%" (7). "Percentages of informal labor in Tunisia, Algeria and Mauritania are dropping to...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The share of Lebanese women in terms of informality (44%) is lower than that of men (63%), because they are concentrated in the formal sector, whether governmental or private. The situation in Lebanon stands out as a striking phenomenon for an average income country, with a high rate of self-employment, affecting 36% of Lebanese male workers. Poverty and child labor rates remain significant" (4). "These results are also different from those known on women's informal labor in the MENA countries, which account for 35% of women's informal non-agricultural labor. The proportion in Mauritania is 78%, 65% in Yemen and Lebanon" (10).
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"It should be noted that in the case of Egypt, the proportion of informal female workers drops to 38%, although there is a remarkable proportion (18%) of informal family labor; women exit the labor force with more informality. ...In all cases, it seems that informality will be higher in... Egypt due to the post-revolution economic developments" (3-4). "For women's unwaged informal labor, the highest proportions are seen in Bahrain (54%) and Lebanon (58%) due to the importance of female domestic labor for female migrant workers... The lowest Informal labor in the Arab countries, with/without agriculture and the government sectorshare is seen in... Egypt (8%) due to the scarcity of women's...more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"With significant variations in the quality of employment, the proportion of informal workers and uninsured workers is... 86% in Mauritania.... On the contrary, self-employment and entrepreneurship constitute the majority of informal labor (and labor in general) in Mauritania. Overall, the situation of women remains more vulnerable. The percentage of informal female workers is ... 87% in Mauritania" (3). "For females, only Mauritania and Sudan keep high rates of self-employment (44% and 32%)" (8). "Mauritania also has a high proportion of informal female employers (33%)" (9). "These results are also different from those known on women's informal labor in the MENA countries, which account for 35% of women's informal non-agricultural labor....more
Aug. 12, 2021, 11:44 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"In Iraq, the proportion of informal workers is 52% of the total labor (48% for women), the majority of whom are waged workers in the informal sector. With the expansion of employment in the public sector after the war to more than 41% (50% for women), the proportion of informal labor outside the civil service rises to 88% (96% for women)" (4). "For females, only Mauritania and Sudan keep high rates of self-employment (44% and 32%)... with the lowest percentages in Jordan and Iraq (2%)" (8). "These results are also different from those known on women's informal labor in the MENA countries, which account for 35% of women's informal non-agricultural...more
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"In urban areas it was common to find boys carrying loads in agricultural loading docks and assisting in construction activities, while girls sold goods on the streets and worked as domestic servants. Children worked in the production of ceramics and books and in the repair of shoes and garments. In rural areas children were involved in caring for farm animals as well as in harvesting, collecting, and selling crops, such as wheat. The use of children in illicit activities, which included the production and trafficking of narcotics, continued to be a problem. Commercial sexual exploitation of children also continued to be a problem (see section 6, Children)" (20).more
July 29, 2021, 3:23 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"In IDPs, there is generally far greater freedom of movement and more opportunities for work for both men and women. Some men have found work in trade in northern towns such as Tine or short-term employment working in the fields at harvest time, in the south. However, this latter type of labour is limited and seasonal, and furthermore is restricted by increasing tensions between the refugee and host communities over strained resources. Women refugees are able to earn income in markets or as domestic servants for nearby villages. However this can put them at risk of abuse" (para 10).
July 16, 2021, 4:50 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Girls in the Ukraine sell “virgin” blonde hair for use as extensions in western salons" (para 6).
July 16, 2021, 4:50 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"I have investigated the breast milk trade in Cambodia, where wealthy American businessmen recruit pregnant women and pay them a pittance for their milk" (para 6).
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Until the end of 2010, 35,988 women and 60,904 men received subsidies to start their own businesses under the OP HC" (50). In Table 20, titled "Structure of population working in individual agriculture in rural areas by sex" it shows that in 2003, 55.2% of the people who work in agriculture in the rural areas are men, and 44.8% were women. In 2010, 54.9% of people working ag were men, and 45.1% were women (78).
May 18, 2021, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Women now comprise the majority of agricultural workers in Albania, yet they are still paid lower wages than their male counterparts" (para 1).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"They are women up to the age of 34 (60%), single (60%), with a high school diploma (51%), formally unemployed but mainly working without a written contract in the third sector (58%) and with a net month salary ranging between 500 and 700 Euros (27%). Sometimes, they have successfully concluded their educational path with a diploma or the graduation and look for a job matching their preparation and their preference for a work done for hire rather than the self-employment. Generally speaking, they have not acquired a specific job experience yet and still have to glimpse the labour market...women, whose age is between 35 and 44 (20%), married (55%), with...more
March 16, 2021, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

“The contribution of women to agriculture and food production is significant since they comprise over 80% of the labour force in agriculture” (para 28).
Feb. 26, 2021, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

“In urban India, the self-employed constitute 45 per cent of men and 48 per cent of women workers; of these, more than half of men and nearly two-thirds of women have very low earnings, in most states below the official minimum wages. In other words, while women are not the only informal-sector workers, they are more likely than men to be employed informally, and to earn less” (pp. 17).
Feb. 26, 2021, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

“Recent research in the Philippines shows that women, who form the majority of workers in the electronics, semiconductors, telecommunications and garment industries, are being most severely affected by the crisis. In many cases, this means a growing ‘informalisation’ of women’s paid Employment” (pp. 17).
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Figure 7 “Economic activity rate by sex” shows the rate of economic activity by gender (pp. 28). “Presidential Decree No. 155/16 of 9 August establishes a legal and social protection scheme for domestic workers. It defines which workers are domestic workers (a large proportion of whom are women) and requires the payment of a mandatory contribution to the social protection system for such workers, with six per cent to be paid by the employer and two per cent by the beneficiary. The aim of this law is to remove thousands of citizens from the informal sector, especially women” (pp. 36).
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"The discrepancies are wider in informal enterprises and households, compared to those in formal enterprises. The overall percentage of male jobs in the formal enterprises reached 55.7%, only 11.4 percentage points higher than the female jobs. On the other hand, the gap recorded in the informal enterprises and households are 56.2 and 49.0 percentage points, respectively" (37).
July 19, 2020, 1:45 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-5

"Women are far more likely to be employed in agriculture than men (70% versus 33%). Trends: Involvement in agricultural work has decreased among both women and men over the past 5 years, from 75% and 35% in 2011 to 70% and 33% in 2016, respectively. In contrast, involvement in professional/technical/managerial work has increased, from 4% to 6% among women and from 8% to 10% among men. Women are less likely than men to be employed in professional/technical/managerial occupations (6% versus 10%), as well as clerical services (2% versus 6%), sales and services (13% versus 23%), skilled manual labor (6% versus 15%), and unskilled manual labor (3% versus 13%). Women who...more
June 5, 2020, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2, respectively, show that 43% of employed women and 48% of men age 15-49 are engaged in agricultural occupations" (38). "Among working women, the proportion employed in the agricultural sector is highest in East Sepik and West Sepik, while among men, it is highest in Southern Highlands and Milne Bay. For both women and men, the proportion employed in agriculture is lowest in National Capital District" (39). "Almost half of women who work are not paid (47%), while 40% are paid in cash only and 9% are paid in cash and in kind. Over half of working women (57%) are self-employed, while 22% work for a family...more
May 31, 2020, 6:36 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"A large majority of women who worked in the past year and did agricultural work are employed by family members (83%) and earn cash for their work (70%). Ninety-two percent of women who did non-agricultural work earned cash for their work. Eleven percent of women who worked in past year were self employed" (57). " A large majority of employed women (81%) and men (90%) earned cash for their work, but 15 percent of women and 8 percent of men did not receive any payment" (57).
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Considering just women in that sector, until the first half of 2013, the majority were in rural areas. By 2014, that figure had fallen to 40.8 per cent. At the same time, the number of women in the urban informal sector increased, a phenomenon probably explained by the migration of both the population and production units to urban centres, and not necessarily by an increase in formal employment opportunities in rural areas. Looking at the ethnic origin aspect of women in the informal sector, the share of Mayan women has been declining steadily, while that of Ladino women increased from 17.2 per cent in 2012 to 38.9 per cent in...more
May 15, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-DATA-5

"Eighteen percent of employed women in Nigeria are not paid for their work. Women engaged in agricultural work are much more likely (47%) than those working in nonagricultural occupations (10%) to not be paid for their work. Seventy percent of women who worked in the past year are selfemployed" (48). "Women and men living in rural areas are more likely to be engaged in agriculture (32% and 60%, respectively) than those living in urban areas (10% and 17%, respectively)" (48). "Among those employed, women are less likely than men to be paid in cash only (73% versus 80%). Fifteen percent of women and 8% of men do not receive any...more