The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-LAW-1

Sept. 22, 2023, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The labor law prohibits discrimination in employment and occupation based on race, sex, religion, disability, or language... The constitution prohibits all forms of discrimination, although it does not specifically address sexual orientation or gender identity (see section 6)" (27).
Sept. 6, 2023, 5:35 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"[A] source with Taliban leadership ties told the Guardian that even if practical barriers to women entering higher education are removed, the authorities are considering limiting them to degrees in healthcare and education...Previously, under Taliban rule from 1996 to 2001, women weren't allowed to work or be educated" (para 12, 15).
Aug. 15, 2023, 5:22 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law prohibits discrimination in employment based on race, skin color, national origin, creed, sex, marital status, political opinion, age, HIV status, and disability, but not based on language, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, or social status" (17).
Aug. 15, 2023, 6:17 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Committee recalls its previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/CIV/CO/1-3, para. 39) and recommends that the State party, in line with target 8.5 of the Sustainable Development Goals: (a) Enforce articles 5, 21.2, 23.6, 23.11, 25.1, 31.1 and 31.2 of Law No. 2015-532, consider ratifying the Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189) and the Violence and Harassment Convention, 2019 (No. 190) of the International Labour Organization, promote the transition of women in the informal sector to the formal sector, and ensure that women employed in the informal sector are effectively covered by social and labour protection, including by the planned pension scheme and the universal health insurance system (CEDAW/C/CIV/4, para. 222); (b)...more
Aug. 8, 2023, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"To promote women’s access to employment and significantly reduce unemployment, the following measures have been taken: Creation of a General Delegation for Rapid Entrepreneurship for Women and Youth in September 2017; Implementation of the project to support the promotion of youth and women’s employment; Launching of women’s projects and women’s groups by the National Fund for the Promotion of Female Entrepreneurship." (21).
July 25, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"[T]he Penal Code prohibits only certain forms of direct discrimination, such as denial of access to goods, services or employment" (3). "[T]he ruling of the Arbitration Council placing a cumulative two-year cap on the use of fixed-duration contracts and limiting the number of times that a fixed-duration contract can be renewed before it is converted into an undetermined-duration contract [is not enforced]" (12).
July 21, 2023, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"According to Article 240, it is inadmissible to reject the conclusion of labor contract with a woman for the reason of her pregnancy or her child aged below 3” (23).
July 14, 2023, 6:32 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Articles 79, 91, 130, 243 and 244 of the Code envisage following guarantees: The termination of a working contract by the employer is prohibited in relation to women with pregnancy and also, having a child below 3 once they have the current job as the only income source and the employee that up bring a child aged below the school age on their own only; To set a shortened working hour not exceeding 36 hours while paying the full salary amount for a woman with pregnancy, a woman with a child aged below 18 months and a parent that up brings on his/her own a child aged below 3; Decrease...more
July 10, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Constitution enacted in 2008 grants the right to work, organize trade unions, the right to strike and prohibits forced labour and discrimination. Article 37 (a) of the Constitution provides that everyone has the right to work. Article 25 (a) states that no one shall be held in slavery or servitude, or be required to perform forced labour. Article 31 allows for workers to strike and Article 38 states that all citizens have a right to earn pension." (20). "On the CO in which the Committee invites the State party to develop positive measures to ensure that women equally benefit from all social schemes in place in the State party,...more
June 20, 2023, 9:30 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Under article 140 of the Code, women are prohibited from working while pregnant in jobs or on tasks that may be dangerous, with no loss in salary or position." (12). "A total of 2,277,289 participants from the Usura Cero and Hambre Cero programmes have been trained in personal development, stronger entrepreneurship, food sovereignty, values and gender equity. A total of 46,976 participants have improved their skills in enterprises related to family economy, production, trade and tourism for the benefit of family prosperity. A total of 52,186 experienced but unqualified workers from the industrial, construction, agricultural and hotel sectors have received professional skills certification. Skills-development programmes have been designed to boost...more
April 1, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Since the consideration of Uzbekistan’s fifth periodic report on the implementation of the Convention, consistent and systematic work has been ongoing to strengthen the social and legal status of women, which has been facilitated by the adoption of such policy documents as:The State programme on the implementation of the strategy of action in five priority areas for the development of the Republic of Uzbekistan over the period 2017–2021 during the year of support for active entrepreneurship, innovative ideas and technologies (dated 22 January 2018). The State programme on the implementation of the strategy of action in five priority areas for the development of the Republic of Uzbekistan over the period...more
March 31, 2023, 2:31 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Act No. 81 of 2016 on civil service guarantees the right of citizens to hold civil service jobs and prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in the application of laws" (2). "Ministerial Decrees Nos. 43 and 44 of April 2021 repealed the restriction prohibiting women from performing night work and working in certain occupations" (9). "[T]he Labour Code prohibits wage discrimination on the ground of sex, and the concentration of women in the informal and agriculture sectors" (10).
March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law ensures the right to work including the freedom to choose one’s profession; equality and non-discrimination during recruitment, promotion, salary as well as other aspects of employment based on sex as well as the right to equal remuneration to work of equal value" (16).
March 16, 2023, 3:32 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

“In some cases, legislation that is designed to protect women is used to discriminate against them. Forms of protection, such as long maternity leave; the inability to send a pregnant woman or one with children under the age of 3 on a business trip; women’s prohibition from strenuous work, night work or overtime — in some cases these provisions disadvantage women by depriving them of opportunities for professional development. Such extensive protection for women employees sometimes makes employers less inclined to hire women, or to employ them without legal contracts and therefore having no access to social security benefits. In the trade, textile and food sectors, 46 per cent of...more
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

“The international instrument that guarantees the specific rights of women is the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), was ratified in 1982. Its significant provisions include: a clear definition of discrimination against women; the obligation of the state to take measures to combat the discrimination of women by any person, organization or enterprise; and the agreement to undertake all necessary measures for the elimination of discrimination against women in the field of employment by applying equal criteria for hiring, and ensuring equal opportunities for women and men in the choice of profession, at the workplace, for promotion, pay, vocational training and retraining”...more
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Pursuant to the provisions of the Labour Law ('Official Gazette of Montenegro,' No. 74/19), among other grounds, direct and indirect discrimination of persons seeking employment and employees on the grounds of sex, gender reassignment, gender identity, or sexual orientation is prohibited" (20). "The Labour Law does not contain provisions prohibiting an employed woman from working in a workplace where particularly heavy physical work, underground, or underwater work is performed, but the said prohibition now applies only to the category of employees under the age of 18. With this change, applying the equal treatment principle, women are exempted from this prohibition and equal in this respect with men, which gives them...more
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Constitution provides separate provision on rights of women and guarantees the following:...Women shall have the right to obtain special opportunity in education, health, employment and social security, on the basis of positive discrimination;" (5). "The Constitution ensures the proportional representation of women in all State bodies, and the right to acquire special opportunity in education, health, employment and social security" (6). "Under the Women Development Program, in an effort to provide life skill education and training for girls and women, rural out-of-school adolescent girls have been imparted with life skill education and training" (14). "Programs such as the small farmer program under the concept of a loan program for...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

“Action Plan “Entrepreneurship” 2020 – Bulgaria. The plan covers the promotion and support of entrepreneurship for under-represented and disadvantaged groups with a focus on women and youth” (18). “Operational Programme Innovation and Competitiveness (OPIC) 2014-2020. This programme provides support for enterprises in specific areas, e.g. creative and cultural industries, companies developing new products and services related to an ageing population, and healthcare. Support is intended for ideas implemented by social entrepreneurs and cooperatives of people with disabilities, women entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs up to 29 years and aged over 50” (18). “One of the goals of the Strategy for Promoting Gender Equality 2017-2023 is to promote entrepreneurship among women in line...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 12:45 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“The Action Plan Entrepreneurship 2020 for Bulgaria is the national response to the Entrepreneurship Europe 2020 Action Plan, adopted in 2015. The third pillar of the action plan covers groups that are under-represented within the entrepreneurial population and especially within founders of start-ups: young people, women, people with a disability and migrants. Compared with the EU targets, the national plan puts a strategic emphasis on youth and women, while no targets have been introduced regarding the participation of minorities, migrants, the long-term unemployed, those with low educational attainments, people with disabilities, and seniors” (7).
Feb. 22, 2023, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"(In reference to International Women’s Entrepreneurship Day) This year Bulgaria joins the initiative for the fourth time. Starting on 24 November under the motto "Women in their different roles", the aim of the event in Sofia is to focus on all the roles that every woman has to play in her daily life” (directly above the WED flyer).
Feb. 19, 2023, 1:18 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“While the law provides women the same legal status and rights as men, women faced some discrimination in economic participation and political empowerment. The law provides for equal opportunities in all spheres of public, economic, and political life; equal access to public resources; equal treatment; exclusion of gender-based discrimination and violence; balanced representation of men and women in all decision-making bodies; and overcoming gender-based stereotypes” (p. 23).
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women] recommends that the State party…[a]mend articles 218 and 303 of the Labour Code, which restrict women’s access to certain categories of work, and review the list of industries, jobs, occupations and posts with harmful and dangerous working conditions in which the employment of women is prohibited (Government Decision No. 158 of 24 March 2000); facilitate women’s access to such industries, jobs, occupations and posts; and ensure that any restrictions are proportionate and applied individually and not across the board to all women" (11).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Harambee Prosperity Plan is a targeted Action Plan to accelerate development in clearly defined priority areas, which lay the basis for attaining prosperity in Namibia. The Plan does not replace, but complements the long term goal of the National Development Plans [NDPs] and Vision 2030. HPP introduces an element of flexibility in the Namibian planning system by fast tracking development in areas where progress is insufficient. It also incorporates new development opportunities and aims to address challenges that have emerged after the formulation of NDPs. The plan aims to achieve the following key outcomes: A more transparent Namibia, [a] culture of high performance and citizen-centred service delivery, [a] significant reduction...more
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined seventh and eighth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/AUT/7-8) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the following: (a) Adoption of the amendments to the Equal Treatment Act, the Act on the Equal Treatment Commission and on the Ombud for Equal Treatment, in 2013; (b) Repeal of restrictions for female workers in the Regulation Governing Employment Bans and Restrictions for Female Workers, in 2015...(f) Adoption of the Law on Equality of Women and Men in Supervisory Boards of Companies, in 2017. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating...more
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The adoption of Act No. 221/AN/17/8 L amending and supplementing Act No. 133/AN/05/5 L of 28 January 2006 on the Labour Code of 25 June 2018, which prohibits sexual harassment, which is now punishable by a fine of one to two million Djibouti francs and a term of one month of imprisonment. A repeat offence shall be punishable by a term of two months of imprisonment or a doubled fine, or both" (13). "Vocational training in sewing, hairdressing, cookery and preschool instruction is provided to young girls who left school early. There are 202 students enrolled in the training, split up into first-year and second-year levels" (13).
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Promotion of Employment (August 2007) stipulates that the state shall ensure that women enjoy labour rights equal to those of men. When an employer recruits employees, it shall not refuse to recruit women or increase the thresholds for recruitment of women on gender grounds, in violation of relevant laws" (16). "In order to eliminate discrimination in employment and occupation, in January 2006 China ratified the International Labour Organization’s Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention of 1958. Then, on 30 August 2007, the NPC Standing Committee considered and adopted the Law of the People’s Republic of China On Promotion of Employment, which dedicated...more
May 27, 2022, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"[E]xcept for biological reasons or reasons related to the nature of the job, the employer must not make any discrimination, either directly or indirectly, against an employee in the conclusion, conditions, execution and termination of her/his employment contract due to the employee’s sex or maternity; and as per sub-paragraph (d) of paragraph 3 of Article 18 sub-titled 'Justification of termination with a valid reason', race, colour, sex, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin shall not constitute a valid reason for termination" (28).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Integral Gender Action Plans 2000 2005; 2006 2010 and the Gender Work Plan 2013 are based on the programmes of action of the MDG’s, ICPD, CEDAW, the Bel m do Par Convention, BPFA, Government Statements 2005 2010, 2010, 2016, National Government Programmes for corresponding periods and on the evaluation of the implementation of former Plans of Action. Priorities as formulated in the Integral Gender Action Plans involve institutional arrangements, poverty, economy and the labour market, voice and decision making, violence against women, education, health, media and environment. It provides a framework for implementing initiatives and actions under these priority areas by various key institutions/players at governmental and civil society...more
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Women who worked in the private sector, and especially nonnationals, regularly did not receive equal benefits and reportedly faced discrimination in promotions and pay. Labor law prohibits women from working in hazardous, strenuous, or physically or morally harmful jobs" (29). "...Labor law prohibits women from working in hazardous, strenuous, or physically or morally harmful jobs. The domestic worker law also prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, gender, religion, political opinion, national, or social origin..." (38).
March 4, 2022, 6:57 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law prohibits employment discrimination and stipulates that every employer pay male and female workers equal pay for work of equal value. The law prohibits women working underground but places no other legal limitations on the employment of women. Workers may file legal complaints of sexual harassment in the workplace" (23).