The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-LAW-1

Jan. 15, 2022, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men with regard to family, employment" (14).
Jan. 8, 2022, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The labor code prohibits discrimination against persons in employment and occupation based on race, religion, national origin, color, sex, ethnicity, or disability, including physical, sensory, intellectual, and mental disability. The law does not address age or pregnancy" (40).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"...The law requires that one-third of the board members of publicly traded companies, but not private ones, be women. The law requires companies with at least 50 employees to provide a clear overview of their compensation plans, a detailed breakdown by gender of their wages and fringe benefits, a gender-neutral classification of functions, and the possibility of appointing a mediator to address and follow up on gender-related problems" (16).
Dec. 17, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal access to public or private employment and prohibits any discrimination in access to or in the pursuit of employment on the basis of sex" (29). "The government updated its labor laws to prevent women from doing certain jobs deemed 'work that exceeds the ability and physical capacity of women, or work that presents dangers which are likely to undermine their morality, for example, working underground or in the mines.' The government indicated that if a woman wanted to carry out any of the work on the 'prohibited list,' she needed to contact an inspector at the Ministry of Labor" (29).
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"[W]omen often encountered significant restrictions, including prohibitions on their employment in 456 jobs. Although the government promised to open most of these jobs to women by 2021, the approximately 100 jobs that the Ministry of Labor has ruled especially physically taxing, including firefighting, mining, and steam boiler repair, would remain off limits" (56). "The law restricts women’s employment in jobs with 'harmful or dangerous conditions or work underground, except in nonphysical jobs or sanitary and consumer services,' and forbids women’s employment in 'manual handling of bulk weights that exceed the limits set for their handling.' The law includes hundreds of tasks prohibited for women and includes restrictions on women’s employment...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations protecting women’s labor rights were enforced in the formal sector, although according to the World Economic Forum, women earned 36 percent less on average than men doing comparable jobs" (27-28). "The constitution prohibits employment discrimination of every citizen. The law prohibits discrimination based on age, race, sex,...more
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"PA labor law states that work is the right of every capable citizen; however, it regulates the work of women, preventing them from employment in dangerous occupations" (104).
Nov. 16, 2021, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for men and women and prohibits discrimination against women, although few laws exist to implement the provision. The constitution requires equal pay for equal work, but discrimination against women in employment existed" (16).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, and the government enforced laws prohibiting discrimination in all sectors. Women nonetheless experienced widespread discrimination, particularly with respect to employment (also see section 7.d. regarding pay disparities between genders)" (15).
Nov. 11, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law requires equal pay for equal work. The government’s Sixth Basic Plan on Equal Employment and Work-Life Balance provides a roadmap for a policy on women’s employment that consists of three pillars: creating nondiscriminatory working environments, preventing interruptions in women’s careers, and providing re-employment for “career-interrupted” women"(30).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"While the law provides that women enjoy the same rights as men, women experienced discrimination in employment. According to the government commissioner on gender policy, women on average received 30 percent lower salaries than men. The Ministry of Health maintained a list of 50 occupations that remain prohibited for women" (44).
Oct. 28, 2021, 12:31 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Labor laws and regulations related to employment or occupation prohibit discrimination regarding race, sex, gender, disability, language, sexual orientation or gender identity, HIV-positive (or other communicable disease) status, religion, age, or world view. The government effectively enforced these laws and regulations. Penalties for violations were sufficient to deter violations" (Page 15).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, CLCC-LAW-2

"In a written response to HRW, the government disputed the claims and said that women could act as guardians to obtain passports or ID cards for their children, that women did not need permission to accept a scholarship or to work at ministries, government institutions or schools and that guardian approval was also not required for educational field trips at Qatar University" (para 24).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"Labor laws and regulations prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, sex, gender, disability, religion, political opinion, natural origin or citizenship, age, language, and sexual orientation or gender identity. Discrimination against individuals who are HIV positive or suffer from other communicable diseases is also prohibited. The government generally enforced the laws and regulations, although discrimination in employment occurred with respect to Afro-Brazilians, women, persons with disabilities, indigenous persons, and transgender individuals. The Ministry of Economy implemented rules to integrate promotion of racial equality in its programs, including requiring race be included in data for programs financed by the ministry. According to the ILO, women not only earned less than men...more
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Labor laws and directives mandate sex segregation of the workforce, assigning specific jobs to women while impeding their access to others. Women’s retirement age is also set at 55 years, compared with 60 years for men, which has material consequences for women’s pension benefits, economic independence, and access to decision-making positions" (27).
Sept. 17, 2021, 10 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, ATFPA-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women and men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. Although the law prohibits discrimination in employment and requires equal rates of pay for equal or similar work, academics and watchdog groups argue that the lack of pay transparency hinders pursuing pay discrimination claims" (10).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law bans discrimination in a wide range of employment and employment- related areas. It defines discrimination as treating one person in a less favorable way than another person based on color and race, creed, origin, language, sex, civil or family status, sexual orientation, age, disability, medical condition, or membership in the Traveller community (also see section 6). The law specifically requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. The law provides the same legal protections to members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex community; divorcees; single parents working in state-owned or state- funded schools; and hospitals operating under religious patronage. The government effectively enforced...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"According to the Constitution an Estonian citizen has the right to freely choose his or her area of activity, profession and place of work. Citizens of foreign states...ILO Convention C45 (underground work of women) was denounced by Estonia in December 2007 abolishing general prohibition of these jobs to women. Additionally, together with coming into force of the new ECA in 2009, the list of physically strenuous jobs and of jobs posing a health hazard where the employment of women was prohibited, no longer exists." (29).
Aug. 20, 2021, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, sex, disability, religion, political opinion, birth, social origin, HIV-positive status, or union membership" (31).
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law and regulations prohibit employment discrimination based on race, sex, age, civil status, union affiliation, religion, political opinion, nationality, national extraction, social origin, disability, language, sexual orientation, or gender identity, HIV-positive status or other communicable diseases, refugee or stateless status, ethnicity or social status. The government and employers do not discriminate on the basis of refugee, stateless status, or ethnicity, but workers must have a work permit or be citizens to hold contracted jobs. The law also provides civil legal remedies to victims of employment discrimination based on race, ethnicity, nationality, socioeconomic situation, language, ideology or political opinion, religion or belief, association or participation in union organizations or lack...more
July 27, 2021, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Employers did not permit women to work in positions that might endanger their health, safety, or moralsAccording to the labor and social protection codes, such positions included night shifts in the manufacturing sector and certain positions in the mining, metallurgy, and chemical industries" (p 30).
July 21, 2021, 11:03 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Women must also not marry a non Saudi citizen and have to possess a high school education to be eligible to sign up" (Para 7). "But in spite of the reforms which allow women to work, drive and travel independently, women's rights are still a major issue amid a recent crackdown on dissenters" (Para 8).
July 21, 2021, 10:33 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Ms. Medvedeva had the necessary degree, training, and years of experience working aboard the passenger ships that ply the vast Volga River, which flows by her home town of Samara. But in 2012 she was denied advancement because commanding a riverboat was one of 456 professions in Russia legally barred to women for being considered too hazardous or arduous for them to perform. She ended up suing over the law" (Para 2). "'I was blocked from doing what I wanted not because I was unqualified, but just because I was a woman,' says Ms. Medvedeva. She spent five years fighting in the courts, received support from the United Nations, and...more
July 15, 2021, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"On July 18, 2019, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation issued an order shortening the list of professions in which women’s employment is restricted. (Order of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation No. 512, On Approval of the List of Industries, Jobs and Positions with Harmful and (or) Dangerous Working Conditions, in Which the Use of Women’s Labor Is Restricted, July 18, 2019.) The ministerial order, which will take effect on January 1, 2021, lists 21 industries and 100 occupations in which women’s participation is restricted. The categorization of these occupations as dangerous for women and their inclusion on the...more
June 30, 2021, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Russia

"Moscow's metro says it has hired its first female train drivers since controversial rules banning women from certain jobs were lifted last year" (para 1). "The profession [train driving] had been added to a list of jobs considered too physically demanding or dangerous for women to undertake. However, it was removed from this list - along with jobs including lorry drivers and boat skippers - after much of the physical aspects of the role became automated" (para 5-6). "It comes after doubts were raised over the reasons behind the profession appearing on a list of 356 jobs said to be too dangerous for women. One of the regulations says that...more
June 25, 2021, 6:20 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"A top Egyptian court has ruled in favour of banning female academic staff at Cairo University from wearing the Muslim face veil, saying it impedes interaction with students. The decision taken by the Supreme Administrative Court last week to ban staff from wearing the niqab was confirmed by lawyer Ahmed Mahran today" (para 1-2). Banning religious clothing can be a way to exclude people of that religion from working in that career (SFR - CODER COMMENT). "The [niqab] ban [for teachers] was introduced in 2015 by a previous head of Cairo University, two years after the 2013 military ouster of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi. Mahran said the decision was issued...more
June 25, 2021, 11:48 a.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, IIP-LAW-2

"No single law, including laws against sexual violence, deals directly with sexual harassment, although several laws refer to it. Human rights organizations reported sexual harassment was widespread" (p 17).
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Act on employment promotion (…) also contains penal provisions concerning the procedure to be followed in case of violation of discrimination bans. According to these provisions, any person who runs an employment agency and does not comply with the prohibition of discrimination on account of gender, age, disability, race, nationality, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, political beliefs and religion or on the grounds of membership of a trade union or, for the above-mentioned reasons, refuses to employ a candidate to fill a vacant employment or vocational training position shall be subject to a fine of not less than PLN 3,000" (4).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"the legislation of Ukraine prohibits over 500 professions for women, which limits their opportunities" (35).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the: (a) Establishment of a financial services banking company for women in 2013, intended to advance the economic empowerment of women" (2).