The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-LAW-1

March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law ensures the right to work including the freedom to choose one’s profession; equality and non-discrimination during recruitment, promotion, salary as well as other aspects of employment based on sex as well as the right to equal remuneration to work of equal value" (16).
March 16, 2023, 3:32 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

“In some cases, legislation that is designed to protect women is used to discriminate against them. Forms of protection, such as long maternity leave; the inability to send a pregnant woman or one with children under the age of 3 on a business trip; women’s prohibition from strenuous work, night work or overtime — in some cases these provisions disadvantage women by depriving them of opportunities for professional development. Such extensive protection for women employees sometimes makes employers less inclined to hire women, or to employ them without legal contracts and therefore having no access to social security benefits. In the trade, textile and food sectors, 46 per cent of...more
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

“The international instrument that guarantees the specific rights of women is the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), was ratified in 1982. Its significant provisions include: a clear definition of discrimination against women; the obligation of the state to take measures to combat the discrimination of women by any person, organization or enterprise; and the agreement to undertake all necessary measures for the elimination of discrimination against women in the field of employment by applying equal criteria for hiring, and ensuring equal opportunities for women and men in the choice of profession, at the workplace, for promotion, pay, vocational training and retraining”...more
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Pursuant to the provisions of the Labour Law ('Official Gazette of Montenegro,' No. 74/19), among other grounds, direct and indirect discrimination of persons seeking employment and employees on the grounds of sex, gender reassignment, gender identity, or sexual orientation is prohibited" (20). "The Labour Law does not contain provisions prohibiting an employed woman from working in a workplace where particularly heavy physical work, underground, or underwater work is performed, but the said prohibition now applies only to the category of employees under the age of 18. With this change, applying the equal treatment principle, women are exempted from this prohibition and equal in this respect with men, which gives them...more
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Constitution provides separate provision on rights of women and guarantees the following:...Women shall have the right to obtain special opportunity in education, health, employment and social security, on the basis of positive discrimination;" (5). "The Constitution ensures the proportional representation of women in all State bodies, and the right to acquire special opportunity in education, health, employment and social security" (6). "Under the Women Development Program, in an effort to provide life skill education and training for girls and women, rural out-of-school adolescent girls have been imparted with life skill education and training" (14). "Programs such as the small farmer program under the concept of a loan program for...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

“Action Plan “Entrepreneurship” 2020 – Bulgaria. The plan covers the promotion and support of entrepreneurship for under-represented and disadvantaged groups with a focus on women and youth” (18). “Operational Programme Innovation and Competitiveness (OPIC) 2014-2020. This programme provides support for enterprises in specific areas, e.g. creative and cultural industries, companies developing new products and services related to an ageing population, and healthcare. Support is intended for ideas implemented by social entrepreneurs and cooperatives of people with disabilities, women entrepreneurs and entrepreneurs up to 29 years and aged over 50” (18). “One of the goals of the Strategy for Promoting Gender Equality 2017-2023 is to promote entrepreneurship among women in line...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 12:45 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“The Action Plan Entrepreneurship 2020 for Bulgaria is the national response to the Entrepreneurship Europe 2020 Action Plan, adopted in 2015. The third pillar of the action plan covers groups that are under-represented within the entrepreneurial population and especially within founders of start-ups: young people, women, people with a disability and migrants. Compared with the EU targets, the national plan puts a strategic emphasis on youth and women, while no targets have been introduced regarding the participation of minorities, migrants, the long-term unemployed, those with low educational attainments, people with disabilities, and seniors” (7).
Feb. 22, 2023, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"(In reference to International Women’s Entrepreneurship Day) This year Bulgaria joins the initiative for the fourth time. Starting on 24 November under the motto "Women in their different roles", the aim of the event in Sofia is to focus on all the roles that every woman has to play in her daily life” (directly above the WED flyer).
Feb. 19, 2023, 1:18 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“While the law provides women the same legal status and rights as men, women faced some discrimination in economic participation and political empowerment. The law provides for equal opportunities in all spheres of public, economic, and political life; equal access to public resources; equal treatment; exclusion of gender-based discrimination and violence; balanced representation of men and women in all decision-making bodies; and overcoming gender-based stereotypes” (p. 23).
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women] recommends that the State party…[a]mend articles 218 and 303 of the Labour Code, which restrict women’s access to certain categories of work, and review the list of industries, jobs, occupations and posts with harmful and dangerous working conditions in which the employment of women is prohibited (Government Decision No. 158 of 24 March 2000); facilitate women’s access to such industries, jobs, occupations and posts; and ensure that any restrictions are proportionate and applied individually and not across the board to all women" (11).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Harambee Prosperity Plan is a targeted Action Plan to accelerate development in clearly defined priority areas, which lay the basis for attaining prosperity in Namibia. The Plan does not replace, but complements the long term goal of the National Development Plans [NDPs] and Vision 2030. HPP introduces an element of flexibility in the Namibian planning system by fast tracking development in areas where progress is insufficient. It also incorporates new development opportunities and aims to address challenges that have emerged after the formulation of NDPs. The plan aims to achieve the following key outcomes: A more transparent Namibia, [a] culture of high performance and citizen-centred service delivery, [a] significant reduction...more
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined seventh and eighth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/AUT/7-8) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the following: (a) Adoption of the amendments to the Equal Treatment Act, the Act on the Equal Treatment Commission and on the Ombud for Equal Treatment, in 2013; (b) Repeal of restrictions for female workers in the Regulation Governing Employment Bans and Restrictions for Female Workers, in 2015...(f) Adoption of the Law on Equality of Women and Men in Supervisory Boards of Companies, in 2017. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating...more
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The adoption of Act No. 221/AN/17/8 L amending and supplementing Act No. 133/AN/05/5 L of 28 January 2006 on the Labour Code of 25 June 2018, which prohibits sexual harassment, which is now punishable by a fine of one to two million Djibouti francs and a term of one month of imprisonment. A repeat offence shall be punishable by a term of two months of imprisonment or a doubled fine, or both" (13). "Vocational training in sewing, hairdressing, cookery and preschool instruction is provided to young girls who left school early. There are 202 students enrolled in the training, split up into first-year and second-year levels" (13).
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Promotion of Employment (August 2007) stipulates that the state shall ensure that women enjoy labour rights equal to those of men. When an employer recruits employees, it shall not refuse to recruit women or increase the thresholds for recruitment of women on gender grounds, in violation of relevant laws" (16). "In order to eliminate discrimination in employment and occupation, in January 2006 China ratified the International Labour Organization’s Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention of 1958. Then, on 30 August 2007, the NPC Standing Committee considered and adopted the Law of the People’s Republic of China On Promotion of Employment, which dedicated...more
May 27, 2022, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"[E]xcept for biological reasons or reasons related to the nature of the job, the employer must not make any discrimination, either directly or indirectly, against an employee in the conclusion, conditions, execution and termination of her/his employment contract due to the employee’s sex or maternity; and as per sub-paragraph (d) of paragraph 3 of Article 18 sub-titled 'Justification of termination with a valid reason', race, colour, sex, marital status, family responsibilities, pregnancy, religion, political opinion, national extraction or social origin shall not constitute a valid reason for termination" (28).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Integral Gender Action Plans 2000 2005; 2006 2010 and the Gender Work Plan 2013 are based on the programmes of action of the MDG’s, ICPD, CEDAW, the Bel m do Par Convention, BPFA, Government Statements 2005 2010, 2010, 2016, National Government Programmes for corresponding periods and on the evaluation of the implementation of former Plans of Action. Priorities as formulated in the Integral Gender Action Plans involve institutional arrangements, poverty, economy and the labour market, voice and decision making, violence against women, education, health, media and environment. It provides a framework for implementing initiatives and actions under these priority areas by various key institutions/players at governmental and civil society...more
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Women who worked in the private sector, and especially nonnationals, regularly did not receive equal benefits and reportedly faced discrimination in promotions and pay. Labor law prohibits women from working in hazardous, strenuous, or physically or morally harmful jobs" (29). "...Labor law prohibits women from working in hazardous, strenuous, or physically or morally harmful jobs. The domestic worker law also prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, gender, religion, political opinion, national, or social origin..." (38).
March 4, 2022, 6:57 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law prohibits employment discrimination and stipulates that every employer pay male and female workers equal pay for work of equal value. The law prohibits women working underground but places no other legal limitations on the employment of women. Workers may file legal complaints of sexual harassment in the workplace" (23).
Feb. 5, 2022, 9:24 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"The law provides the same legal status and rights for women as for men; however, the government did not enforce the law effectively. The law does not specifically require equal pay for equal work, nor does it prohibit discrimination based on gender in hiring. The law contains provisions that limit excessive physical work or night shift requirements during pregnancy. The law contains special provisions to protect women against abuse; however, these provisions were rarely enforced" (16).
Feb. 2, 2022, 12:28 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"In rural areas, where most of the population engaged in subsistence farming, traditional social structures tended to favor entrenched gender roles, leading to a pattern of discrimination against women. While there was little discrimination in access to employment and credit, women often did not receive equal pay for substantially similar work. The law does not permit women to work in positions that might endanger their health, safety, or morals. According to the labor and social protection codes, such positions included night shifts in the manufacturing sector and certain positions in the mining, metallurgy, and chemical industries, and this was generally respected in the formal sectors" (30).
Jan. 15, 2022, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men with regard to family, employment" (14).
Jan. 8, 2022, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The labor code prohibits discrimination against persons in employment and occupation based on race, religion, national origin, color, sex, ethnicity, or disability, including physical, sensory, intellectual, and mental disability. The law does not address age or pregnancy" (40).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"...The law requires that one-third of the board members of publicly traded companies, but not private ones, be women. The law requires companies with at least 50 employees to provide a clear overview of their compensation plans, a detailed breakdown by gender of their wages and fringe benefits, a gender-neutral classification of functions, and the possibility of appointing a mediator to address and follow up on gender-related problems" (16).
Dec. 17, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The constitution provides for equal access to public or private employment and prohibits any discrimination in access to or in the pursuit of employment on the basis of sex" (29). "The government updated its labor laws to prevent women from doing certain jobs deemed 'work that exceeds the ability and physical capacity of women, or work that presents dangers which are likely to undermine their morality, for example, working underground or in the mines.' The government indicated that if a woman wanted to carry out any of the work on the 'prohibited list,' she needed to contact an inspector at the Ministry of Labor" (29).
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"[W]omen often encountered significant restrictions, including prohibitions on their employment in 456 jobs. Although the government promised to open most of these jobs to women by 2021, the approximately 100 jobs that the Ministry of Labor has ruled especially physically taxing, including firefighting, mining, and steam boiler repair, would remain off limits" (56). "The law restricts women’s employment in jobs with 'harmful or dangerous conditions or work underground, except in nonphysical jobs or sanitary and consumer services,' and forbids women’s employment in 'manual handling of bulk weights that exceed the limits set for their handling.' The law includes hundreds of tasks prohibited for women and includes restrictions on women’s employment...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men under the constitution. Women and men are legally equal in marriage, and the law provides for gender equality in exercising the right to work. The law specifies that employers must not discriminate against women with regard to pay or working conditions. According to the Ministry of Labor and the Confederation of Workers, regulations protecting women’s labor rights were enforced in the formal sector, although according to the World Economic Forum, women earned 36 percent less on average than men doing comparable jobs" (27-28). "The constitution prohibits employment discrimination of every citizen. The law prohibits discrimination based on age, race, sex,...more
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"PA labor law states that work is the right of every capable citizen; however, it regulates the work of women, preventing them from employment in dangerous occupations" (104).
Nov. 16, 2021, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"The constitution provides for the same legal status and rights for men and women and prohibits discrimination against women, although few laws exist to implement the provision. The constitution requires equal pay for equal work, but discrimination against women in employment existed" (16).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, CONST-LAW-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, and the government enforced laws prohibiting discrimination in all sectors. Women nonetheless experienced widespread discrimination, particularly with respect to employment (also see section 7.d. regarding pay disparities between genders)" (15).
Nov. 11, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law requires equal pay for equal work. The government’s Sixth Basic Plan on Equal Employment and Work-Life Balance provides a roadmap for a policy on women’s employment that consists of three pillars: creating nondiscriminatory working environments, preventing interruptions in women’s careers, and providing re-employment for “career-interrupted” women"(30).