The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-LAW-1

Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Labor laws and directives mandate sex segregation of the workforce, assigning specific jobs to women while impeding their access to others. Women’s retirement age is also set at 55 years, compared with 60 years for men, which has material consequences for women’s pension benefits, economic independence, and access to decision-making positions" (27).
Sept. 17, 2021, 10 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-LAW-1, ATFPA-LAW-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women and men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. Although the law prohibits discrimination in employment and requires equal rates of pay for equal or similar work, academics and watchdog groups argue that the lack of pay transparency hinders pursuing pay discrimination claims" (10).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law bans discrimination in a wide range of employment and employment- related areas. It defines discrimination as treating one person in a less favorable way than another person based on color and race, creed, origin, language, sex, civil or family status, sexual orientation, age, disability, medical condition, or membership in the Traveller community (also see section 6). The law specifically requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. The law provides the same legal protections to members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex community; divorcees; single parents working in state-owned or state- funded schools; and hospitals operating under religious patronage. The government effectively enforced...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"According to the Constitution an Estonian citizen has the right to freely choose his or her area of activity, profession and place of work. Citizens of foreign states...ILO Convention C45 (underground work of women) was denounced by Estonia in December 2007 abolishing general prohibition of these jobs to women. Additionally, together with coming into force of the new ECA in 2009, the list of physically strenuous jobs and of jobs posing a health hazard where the employment of women was prohibited, no longer exists." (29).
Aug. 20, 2021, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, sex, disability, religion, political opinion, birth, social origin, HIV-positive status, or union membership" (31).
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law and regulations prohibit employment discrimination based on race, sex, age, civil status, union affiliation, religion, political opinion, nationality, national extraction, social origin, disability, language, sexual orientation, or gender identity, HIV-positive status or other communicable diseases, refugee or stateless status, ethnicity or social status. The government and employers do not discriminate on the basis of refugee, stateless status, or ethnicity, but workers must have a work permit or be citizens to hold contracted jobs. The law also provides civil legal remedies to victims of employment discrimination based on race, ethnicity, nationality, socioeconomic situation, language, ideology or political opinion, religion or belief, association or participation in union organizations or lack...more
July 27, 2021, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Employers did not permit women to work in positions that might endanger their health, safety, or moralsAccording to the labor and social protection codes, such positions included night shifts in the manufacturing sector and certain positions in the mining, metallurgy, and chemical industries" (p 30).
July 21, 2021, 11:03 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Women must also not marry a non Saudi citizen and have to possess a high school education to be eligible to sign up" (Para 7). "But in spite of the reforms which allow women to work, drive and travel independently, women's rights are still a major issue amid a recent crackdown on dissenters" (Para 8).
July 21, 2021, 10:33 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Ms. Medvedeva had the necessary degree, training, and years of experience working aboard the passenger ships that ply the vast Volga River, which flows by her home town of Samara. But in 2012 she was denied advancement because commanding a riverboat was one of 456 professions in Russia legally barred to women for being considered too hazardous or arduous for them to perform. She ended up suing over the law" (Para 2). "'I was blocked from doing what I wanted not because I was unqualified, but just because I was a woman,' says Ms. Medvedeva. She spent five years fighting in the courts, received support from the United Nations, and...more
July 15, 2021, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"On July 18, 2019, the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation issued an order shortening the list of professions in which women’s employment is restricted. (Order of the Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation No. 512, On Approval of the List of Industries, Jobs and Positions with Harmful and (or) Dangerous Working Conditions, in Which the Use of Women’s Labor Is Restricted, July 18, 2019.) The ministerial order, which will take effect on January 1, 2021, lists 21 industries and 100 occupations in which women’s participation is restricted. The categorization of these occupations as dangerous for women and their inclusion on the...more
June 30, 2021, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-1

"Moscow's metro says it has hired its first female train drivers since controversial rules banning women from certain jobs were lifted last year" (para 1). "The profession [train driving] had been added to a list of jobs considered too physically demanding or dangerous for women to undertake. However, it was removed from this list - along with jobs including lorry drivers and boat skippers - after much of the physical aspects of the role became automated" (para 5-6). "It comes after doubts were raised over the reasons behind the profession appearing on a list of 356 jobs said to be too dangerous for women. One of the regulations says that...more
June 25, 2021, 6:20 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"A top Egyptian court has ruled in favour of banning female academic staff at Cairo University from wearing the Muslim face veil, saying it impedes interaction with students. The decision taken by the Supreme Administrative Court last week to ban staff from wearing the niqab was confirmed by lawyer Ahmed Mahran today" (para 1-2). Banning religious clothing can be a way to exclude people of that religion from working in that career (SFR - CODER COMMENT). "The [niqab] ban [for teachers] was introduced in 2015 by a previous head of Cairo University, two years after the 2013 military ouster of Islamist president Mohamed Morsi. Mahran said the decision was issued...more
June 25, 2021, 11:48 a.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, IIP-LAW-2

"No single law, including laws against sexual violence, deals directly with sexual harassment, although several laws refer to it. Human rights organizations reported sexual harassment was widespread" (p 17).
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Act on employment promotion (…) also contains penal provisions concerning the procedure to be followed in case of violation of discrimination bans. According to these provisions, any person who runs an employment agency and does not comply with the prohibition of discrimination on account of gender, age, disability, race, nationality, ethnic origin, sexual orientation, political beliefs and religion or on the grounds of membership of a trade union or, for the above-mentioned reasons, refuses to employ a candidate to fill a vacant employment or vocational training position shall be subject to a fine of not less than PLN 3,000" (4).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"the legislation of Ukraine prohibits over 500 professions for women, which limits their opportunities" (35).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the: (a) Establishment of a financial services banking company for women in 2013, intended to advance the economic empowerment of women" (2).
Jan. 18, 2021, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"In late July, Saudi Arabia’s Council of Ministers promulgated landmark amendments to the three laws that will begin to dismantle the country’s discriminatory male guardianship system. [ . . . ] Finally, changes to the Labor Law clarified that a 'worker' can be female as well as male and introduced a new protection against discrimination in employment on the basis of sex, disability, or age. This major advance should make it illegal for private employers to demand that potential female employees obtain approval of their male guardian to work (para 19 - 22).
Dec. 21, 2020, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Women also enjoy the same legal status, claim to titles, access to education, the right to practice professions, and the right to inherit property as men" (para 1). "UAE labour law prohibits discrimination between employees, which would weaken equal access to employment and promotion opportunities and continue to have equal rights. The law also prohibits gender discrimination in similar jobs" (para 7). "All the restrictions on women working at night hours, working in a broad and subjective category of jobs deemed hazardous, arduous or morally or socially inappropriate and Women working in the mining, construction, manufacturing, energy, water, and agriculture and transportation sectors has been removed to give the Women...more
Dec. 20, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"…and women in Bahrain do not face legal exclusions from the workplace" (3). "Under Article 301 of the Private Labor Law, with the exception of doctors, nurses and other healthcare professions, women are restricted from working between 20:00 and 04:00, and from doing heavy industrial work" (7). "There is currently a draft labor law undergoing legislative review that is considering giving women protections in the private sector. The law would increase benefits for women in the private sector, giving them access to bereavement loans, anf financial support for childcare. The law also aims to reduce gender-based discrimination in the provision of benefits, training, wages, and the payment of bonuses" (8).more
Nov. 23, 2020, 6:34 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"It is also concerned that other statutory and customary norms that discriminate against women remain in force, in particular those contained in: (a) Section 8 (1) (b) of the Chieftaincy Act, which permits disqualification of women as candidates for chieftaincy election based on tradition; (b) The Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Act No. 12 of 1972, which provides for different minimum ages for men and women to qualify as jurors; (c) Customary law pertaining to marriage consent and women’s right to inheritance" (Article 10).
Aug. 11, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

“In Air India v. Nargis Mirza (AIR 1981 SC 1829), the Supreme Court struck down the discriminatory Rules of Indian Airlines. An Air Hostess in Indian Airline challenged certain provisions of their service rile wherein an Air Hostess could have the job up to 35 years of age, but can be terminated if she gets married within 4 years of her recruitment or her first pregnancy as unreasonable and invalid. The Supreme Court held that this provision compelled the Air Hostess not to have children which is against the human nature. The Supreme Court also upheld the right of the Air Hostess to work up to age of 45 years...more
Aug. 10, 2020, 6:56 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The labour has been amended in 2019 to repeal all the restrictions on women working night hours, in jobs deemed hazardous, arduous, or morally inappropriate and industries".
Aug. 10, 2020, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The UAE has amended the hatred and discrimination law in 2019 to criminalize any discrimination based on gender".
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Labour Code establishes additional guarantees for women in respect of hiring pregnant women and women with children, requiring women to work only during working hours and limiting the assignment of women and persons with family responsibilities to night work, overtime work, work on weekends or holidays, and official travel (chapter 12)" (6).
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"Under the Labour Law, employees are guaranteed equal pay for equal work or work of equal value and any decision of the employer or agreement with the employee that breach this provision are null and void. Employees are entitled to compensation of damage in case of violation of this right" (31). "The Draft Law on Gender Equality outlaws unequal pay for equal work or work of equal value. It also outlaws harassment, sexual harassment and sexual blackmail of women in the workplace" (31). "The Labour Law prohibits harassment and sexual harassment. In case of discrimination, a job-seeker or an employee may sue the employer for damages before the competent court,...more
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Socialist Labour Law and the Law on Labour Protection contain provisions of special protection of working women" (4). "The Law on Labour Protection adopted on July 8, 2010 stipulates the obligations of the institutions, enterprises, organizations and individuals to provide working people with safe and hygienic working conditions and to protect their lives and promote their health. In particular, the law provides that pregnant women shall be given light work before they take maternity leave and nursing women shall be ensured breastfeeding breaks (art. 24), that institutions, enterprises and organizations shall not, in consideration of women’s constitutional features, assign them arduous, harmful or dangerous work, put pregnant or lactating...more
May 15, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The percentage of women with more than a secondary education who have employer-based insurance increased from 0% in 2008 to 11% in 2018. Among men with more than a secondary education, the percentage increased from less than 1% to 12%" (49).
April 28, 2020, 8:53 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law provides that women enjoy the same rights as men and are entitled to receive equal pay for equal work. In practice, women received lower salaries than men and were prohibited from working in nearly 500 occupations." (38). "Women held few elected or appointed offices at the national and regional levels. In addition, the law limits women’s employment opportunities although a ban on women for approximately 500 occupations, including bulldozer operator and bus driver." (49).
April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the measures taken to address discrimination against women in employment, including through the implementation of Law No. 13/2009 of 27 May 2009 regulating labour in Rwanda, which, inter alia, provides for equal opportunities and equal pay for work of equal value and prohibits discrimination based on sex, marital status or family responsibilities, as well as gender-based violence against women and sexual harassment in the workplace" (10).
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1

"The law does not specifically provide for protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation, gender identity, HIV status, or other communicable diseases" (38).