The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-LAW-2

April 19, 2024, 3:06 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[The state does not review] wages in traditionally female and male sectors with a view to closing the gender pay gap" (13).
March 30, 2024, 2:46 p.m.
Countries: Lithuania
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[D]iscrimination against women on grounds of pregnancy and maternity and that not only sexual, but also other forms of harassment, are prohibited in the workplace" (2). "[W]omen who are employed, including as part -time workers, must be socially insured at the level of the minimum wage" (11).
March 15, 2024, 2:30 p.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Act No. 10/2016 of 16 September 2016 on countering harassment in the workplace has been promulgated. It defines harassment as any repeated behaviour that violates personal dignity or creates an intimidating, hostile, degrading, offensive or humiliating work environment. The Act distinguishes two forms of harassment, psychological harassment and sexual harassment. It also provides for penalties in cases of harassment" (2, 4). "[I]n the absence of specific legislation, the Penal Code establishes penalties for [sexual harassment]" (10).
March 14, 2024, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Act No. 10/2016 of 5 September 2016, on countering harassment in the workplace, defines harassment as any repeated behaviour which has the effect of violating personal dignity and creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, offensive or humiliating work environment. Psychological harassment is defined as conduct that subjects an employee or public official, while at the workplace or engaged in work, to repeated acts that have the object or effect of a negative impact on their working conditions, and which could violate their rights or dignity, affect their physical or mental health, or compromise their professional prospects" (17).
March 14, 2024, 10:22 a.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Basic Law and the Labour Code of the Gabonese Republic prohibit any wage discrimination; this applies to all sectors and all jobs. The same applies to employment applications. There is no legal provision that discriminates between men and women in recruitment" (17).
Feb. 20, 2024, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[A] married woman could not be recruited without her husband’s consent" (2).
Jan. 16, 2024, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Whereas the Botswana Constitution guarantees and promotes protection to every person residing within the Country irrespective of their race, tribe, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex, the definition of discrimination in the Constitution does not include discrimination against women" (9). "Whereas the Committee has called on the Government of Botswana to amend her Constitution to include discrimination against women as part of the definition of discrimination; and whereas the Government of Botswana is desirous to have an inclusive and public consultation on constitutional amendment and whereas that process is yet to start; the courts have always re-affirmed the view that the judiciary is obliged to interpret Botswana...more
Jan. 4, 2024, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[Egregious offences, such as outrage of modesty] are punishable under the Penal Code or can be taken up under the Protection from Harassment Act (POHA). This includes offences committed in workplace settings" (28). "Victims of harassment could also apply for Protection Orders requiring harassers to stop the harassing behaviour; and to prevent the spread of harassing communication" (36).
Nov. 6, 2023, 11:49 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Chinese laws do not impose any discriminatory restrictions on women with regard to other economic and social rights" (24).
Oct. 10, 2023, 3:49 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The 1978 Pregnancy Discrimination Act was an important law that made discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions illegal. Its passage was essential. It allowed more pregnant people to remain employed and continue to support their families while pregnant without the concern of being forced out of a job. While this legislation was not a blanket fix on pregnancy discrimination, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act was critical for ensuring women and people with the capacity for pregnancy could remain and advance in the workplace—before, during and after childbirth" (para 9-10).
Sept. 30, 2023, 4 p.m.
Countries: Kazakhstan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

The Committee notes that gender-based discrimination is prohibited by law in the State party, including through the law on State guarantees of equal rights and equal opportunities for men and women, also known as the law on gender equality. It also notes that a new bill on family and gender policy will encompass direct and indirect discrimination. However, the Committee remains concerned about the following: (a) The current definition of discrimination does not include intersecting forms of discrimination; (b) The legal framework on discrimination is fragmented and does not provide effective protection against discrimination in fields such as employment or in cases of gender-based violence" (p.3).
Sept. 25, 2023, 8:02 a.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits discrimination with respect to employment and occupation based on race, sex, gender, disability, language, social status, and national origin or citizenship" (14).
Sept. 22, 2023, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"At year’s end the penal code, which parliament passed in January, had not been published or entered into force. The law provides for equal pay for equal work" (19, 27).
Aug. 24, 2023, 1:08 a.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[T]he principle of equal pay for work of equal value was not included in the most recent revision of the Labour Code" (10).
Aug. 15, 2023, 5:22 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits criminal quid pro quo sexual harassment and authorizes penalties of up to B$5,000 ($5,000) and a maximum of two years’ imprisonment" (12). "The law prohibits discrimination in employment based on HIV/AIDS status" (15).
Aug. 15, 2023, 6:17 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Committee notes the adoption of Law No. 2015-532 of 20 July 2015 on the Labour Code and other measures taken by the State party to increase gender equality in employment. It is concerned, however, about the following: (a) The prevalence of violations against women and girls working in the informal sector and in domestic work, particularly with regard to sexual harassment in the workplace and violations of the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal value, the guarantee of the minimum salary, paid leave, maternity and paternity leave and the respect of maximum working hours (for domestic workers), the lack of implementation of relevant national legislation, and the...more
Aug. 8, 2023, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"There is no definition of discrimination against women in any existing national legislation. However, the committee for the review of laws and regulations that discriminate against women, established by Order No. 00936 of 27 January 2016 of the Minister of Justice and Keeper of the Seals, has proposed a reform of legislation relating to women’s rights. As part of the proposed reform, the definition of discrimination against women as set out in the Convention will be included in Act No. 81-77 of 10 December 1981 on the punishment of acts of racial, ethnic or religious discrimination." (2). "To guarantee equality between men and women, the Constitution of Senegal reaffirms the...more
July 25, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[There is no] law that defines and effectively prohibits violence and harassment, including sexual harassment, in the workplace, which is reportedly prevalent in the State party, particularly in the garment industry and while commuting to and from work" (11). "[The state does not] guarantee in national legislation of the principle of equal pay for work of equal value" (11).
July 21, 2023, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"According to Article 12 of the Code of Labor of the Republic of Azerbaijan that entered into force on 1 July 1999, an employer shall have the following obligations: hiring, promoting career, increasing professional skills, enabling the learning of new profession, exhibiting equal treatment and create equal opportunities for employees while increasing their professional qualification, evaluating the quality of work and dismissing them notwithstanding their gender, creating equal working conditions for employees performing the same job notwithstanding their gender, do not apply differing disciplinary actions in relation to the employees for the same violation and undertake necessary measures to prevent sexual discrimination and sexual harassment” (22).
July 14, 2023, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Article 8.0.4 of the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan On Employment stipulates that one of main obligations of the State in area of employment is to ensure equal opportunities for all person to enjoy the right to choose freely their labor and employment notwithstanding race, ethnic background, religion, language, sex, health disabilities (except the cases when their limited abilities complicate the performance), marital status, public and social origins, place of residence, property status, convictions and affiliation to political parties, trade unions and other public organizations" (23).
July 14, 2023, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

“Part I of Article 16 of the said Code stipulates that it is strictly forbidden in working relationship to make any discrimination among employees, define directly or indirectly privileges and exemptions, and restrict the rights on the basis of citizenship, sex, race, religion, nationality, language, place of residence, property status, public and social origins, age, family status, convictions, political views, membership to trade unions or other public unions, status of service, and other factors not related to the working skills, professionalism and work outcomes of employees" (22-23).
July 10, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Law Number 18/2016 (Gender Equality Act) was enacted on 23rd August 2016, and came into force 6 months thereafter. This Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender and promotes gender equality in all aspects of public and family life. A historic law, long-awaited by the women’s movement, the Act outlines explicit duties and responsibilities on State and private parties, prohibits victimization and introduces remedies for gender-based discrimination..."(5). "Law Number 16/2014 (Sexual Harassment Act) provides protection from all forms of sexual harassment at the place of employment and in public spaces. The Act further allows for investigation to be conducted within the organisation where a special committee is required to...more
June 27, 2023, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits discrimination with respect to employment, salary, and work environment based on age, gender, social and marital status, family links, political conviction, disability, national origin, and affiliation with a union" (37).
June 20, 2023, 9:30 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Constitution provides for the human development of all Nicaraguans and protects them from all forms of exploitation, exclusion and discrimination based on sex. 7 In that connection, legal and policy instruments have been established that incorporate the Convention’s definition of discrimination and implement it, namely, the Equal Rights and Opportunities Act (No. 648), 8 the gender policy and the national human development plan. Institutions must contribute to the development of a positive environment and to the elimination of obstacles to non-discrimination and effective and real equality between women and men." (5). "The principle of equality between women and men has been implemented with the adoption and regulation of the...more
June 14, 2023, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Bolivian Social Seals stipulate 'that the activities carried out by productive units must be carried out in accordance with Act No. 045 against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination and Act No. 348, which prohibit any discriminatory practice and the use of any form of violence within productive units that violate the economic, social and cultural rights of persons, because of gender'" (22).
June 13, 2023, 11:14 a.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"About 50.6% of voters coming out in favour of raising women's retirement age to 65 from 64 while 55.1% endorsed an increase in value added tax (VAT), according to the official final results" (Para.1). "Opponents of the reform have conceded defeat, denouncing the result as an 'insult for women'. They said women had to pay a high price and were still the victims of wage discrimination." (Para.3).
April 1, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"…[T]he legislation adopted included: the Administrative Procedures Act of 8 January 2018; the Code of Civil Procedure of 22 January 2018; the Code of Economic Procedure of 24 January 2018 and the Code of Administrative Procedure of 25 January 2018..."(3-4)(NF - CODER COMMENT - The restructuring of the judicial, administrative, and economic procedures allows women to file for cases regarding civil and economic matters). "... and in 2019 the legislation adopted included:...the Public-Private Partnership Act of 10 May 2019..."(4)(NF - CODER COMMENT - This act creates clear regulations on how partnerships between the public sector and private sector should be handled and what constitutes a parternships. Additionally, this law prohibits...more
March 31, 2023, 2:31 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Act No. 81 of 2016 on civil service guarantees the right of citizens to hold civil service jobs and prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in the application of laws" (2). "[T]he Labour Code prohibits wage discrimination on the ground of sex" (10). "[T]he Penal Code does not explicitly criminalize sexual harassment in the workplace" (10).
March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Ethiopian law provides comprehensive protection against all forms of discrimination on any ground including sex" (3). "The law ensures the right to work including the freedom to choose one’s profession; equality and non-discrimination during recruitment, promotion, salary as well as other aspects of employment based on sex as well as the right to equal remuneration to work of equal value" (16). "The legal frameworks further provide for paid maternity leave and guarantee job security during pregnancy and immediately after delivery. In addition, the Civil Servants Proclamation provides for paid paternity leave for five working days at the time of delivery" (16).
March 16, 2023, 3:32 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

“In some cases, legislation that is designed to protect women is used to discriminate against them. Forms of protection, such as long maternity leave; the inability to send a pregnant woman or one with children under the age of 3 on a business trip; women’s prohibition from strenuous work, night work or overtime — in some cases these provisions disadvantage women by depriving them of opportunities for professional development. Such extensive protection for women employees sometimes makes employers less inclined to hire women, or to employ them without legal contracts and therefore having no access to social security benefits. In the trade, textile and food sectors, 46 per cent of...more