The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-LAW-2

March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Ethiopian law provides comprehensive protection against all forms of discrimination on any ground including sex" (3). "The law ensures the right to work including the freedom to choose one’s profession; equality and non-discrimination during recruitment, promotion, salary as well as other aspects of employment based on sex as well as the right to equal remuneration to work of equal value" (16). "The legal frameworks further provide for paid maternity leave and guarantee job security during pregnancy and immediately after delivery. In addition, the Civil Servants Proclamation provides for paid paternity leave for five working days at the time of delivery" (16).
March 16, 2023, 3:32 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

“In some cases, legislation that is designed to protect women is used to discriminate against them. Forms of protection, such as long maternity leave; the inability to send a pregnant woman or one with children under the age of 3 on a business trip; women’s prohibition from strenuous work, night work or overtime — in some cases these provisions disadvantage women by depriving them of opportunities for professional development. Such extensive protection for women employees sometimes makes employers less inclined to hire women, or to employ them without legal contracts and therefore having no access to social security benefits. In the trade, textile and food sectors, 46 per cent of...more
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

“In June 2000, Bulgaria ratified selected Articles of Part II of the Social Charter of the Council of Europe, which included provisions for gender equality and some special protections for women, such as the right of women and men workers to equal pay for work of equal value, the right to maternity leave and the payment of adequate benefits” (50). “However, Bulgarian legislation is also lacking in several areas. Most important to the question of women in the labour force is that it does not comply with ratified ILO conventions, namely Convention 100, establishing the right to equal remuneration of women and men for work of equal value. This provision...more
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Pursuant to the provisions of the Labour Law ('Official Gazette of Montenegro,' No. 74/19), among other grounds, direct and indirect discrimination of persons seeking employment and employees on the grounds of sex, gender reassignment, gender identity, or sexual orientation is prohibited (Article 7). The Labour Law kept the proclamation of equal pay for work for the same work or work of equal value (Article 99). However, the wording of the provision does not mention men and women, which had been the case with the previous text of the law" (20).
Feb. 27, 2023, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Motivating Korean women to reconsider marriage and children involves infusing every aspect of their lives with agency and equality. A feminist approach would remove obstacles to motherhood simply by enforcing existing laws against workplace discrimination." (para 19).
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The National Plan of Action on Decent Work is in place along with the National Labour Policy and labour laws with provisions for decent work. The GoN is fully committed in developing an appropriate legal and administrative system for ensuring decent work for domestic workers, and after developing the requisite legal, policy and institutional mechanisms, the GoN will consider towards joining the ILO Convention No. 189." (15). "The GoN has been undertaking sectoral interventions to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and girl children. Caste Based Discrimination and Untouchability (Offence and Punishment) Act, 2011, Witchcraft related Accusation (Offence and Punishment) Act, 2015, and Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Control) Act,...more
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women]…remains concerned about…[t]he absence of legislation to ensure the application of the principle of equal pay for work of equal value, which is enshrined in article 20 of the Labour Code and article 5 of the Act on State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Opportunities for Men and Women, and to combat sexual harassment in the workplace" (10-11).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"However, several pieces of legislation are in place to combat all forms of sexual harassment, namely the Labour Act, Act No.11 of 2007, the Combating of Rape Act, Act No.8 of 2000 as well as the Criminal Procedure Act, Act No. 51 of 1977. Moreover, in an effort to sensitise all public servants on the issue of sexual harassment and to strengthen measures on prohibiting sexual harassment in the public service, the Office of the Prime Minister issued staff rules on sexual harassment in 2019 and all public servants were required to sign as proof of their awareness and undertaking to adhere to the new staff rule." (18). Whereas, Article...more
Feb. 4, 2023, 8:40 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"the Labour Act (No. 37), guarantees equality between women and men and prohibits discrimination and sexual harassment in the workplace" (1-2). "[T]he adoption of Cabinet decision No. 99 (2015), encourages ministries to recruit women to senior-level positions" (8).
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined seventh and eighth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/AUT/7-8) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the following: (a) Adoption of the amendments to the Equal Treatment Act, the Act on the Equal Treatment Commission and on the Ombud for Equal Treatment, in 2013; (b) Repeal of restrictions for female workers in the Regulation Governing Employment Bans and Restrictions for Female Workers, in 2015...(f) Adoption of the Law on Equality of Women and Men in Supervisory Boards of Companies, in 2017. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating...more
Jan. 13, 2023, 4:13 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2, ERBG-DATA-1

"The gender pay gap for secondary school leaders grew by more than a third in the last year, a new analysis shows. School Workforce data from the Department of Education shows the average difference between male and female earnings stood at £3,698 in the 2021/22 academic year. In 2020/21, male secondary headteachers earnt £2,702 more on average a year than females" (para 1-3). "The average gender pay gap for headteachers aged 60 and over has also increased. In the last academic year, men earned an average £18,296 more than women – a 5 per cent rise from £17,334 last year" (para 5). "Other leadership roles, including deputy and assistant heads,...more
Oct. 7, 2022, 4:17 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment is a crime, with penalties ranging from one to eight years in prison. If perpetrated by a superior in the workplace, the penalty is up to two years in prison, or more in cases of 'aggravated coercion.' " (13).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Examples of preventive mechanism [sic] include:... Issuing Guidelines on Prevention of Sexual Violence at the Workplace, a set of recommendations for the protection of women against sexual violence and also a settlement process for victims and perpetrators. The Guideline was circulated by MoM through the District Goverments at gubernatorial, regent and mayoral level" (13-14).
June 29, 2022, 11:33 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[T]he Committee notes with concern:... The absence of a comprehensive law that defines and effectively prohibits gender-based violence and harassment, including sexual harassment, in the workplace" (11-12).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Legislation requiring the largest companies to set a target figure and establish a policy for the gender composition of management came into force in 2013. In 2017, more than 1.000 companies were subject to the law" (14). "Both direct and indirect discrimination is prohibited under the Equal Treatment Act. Discrimination due to pregnancy, maternity, paternity and parental leave is considered direct discrimination. Concerning dismissal during pregnancy, maternity, paternity and parental leave, the burden of proof is reversed. Thus, the employer must prove that the dismissal is not related to pregnancy, maternity, paternity or parental leave. The average compensation awarded in cases regarding dismissal due to pregnancy, maternity, paternity and parental...more
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Labour Contracts, which was adopted in June 2007, came into effect in January 2008. According to the law, the conclusion of a labour contract shall be based on the principles of lawfulness, fairness, equality, mutual consent, negotiated consensus and good faith; an employer shall not terminate a labour contract of a female employee because of her pregnancy, childbirth or nursing needs" (7). "The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Promotion of Employment, which was adopted in August 2007, came into effect in January 2008. According to its General Provisions, the law gives workers the right to equal employment and...more
May 30, 2022, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"A legally enforceable right to equal pay for equal work has long been part of the Swiss Constitution (art. 8, para. 3, sentence 3: the right to equal pay for work of equal value) and is enshrined in the Federal Act on Gender Equality" (29).
May 27, 2022, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Pursuant to Article 5 of the Labour Law No. 4857 titled 'Principle of Equal Treatment', no discrimination based on language, race, sex, political opinion, philosophical belief, religion and sect or similar reasons shall be permissible in the employment relationship" (28).
May 27, 2022, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment of men and women is a crime punishable by imprisonment for up to six months in cases that do not involve domestic abuse or a power relationship, and for up to one year for abuse of a subordinate or dependent" (26). That sexual harassment of a subordinate is illegal indicates that it is illegal in the workplace (SFR - CODER COMMENT).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Draft legislation on “Sexual harassment at the Workplace” has been formulated as a combined effort of the Ministry of Home Affairs (NBG) and an NGO (Ilse Henar Foundation for Women’s Rights). This was a result of the 3 year programme (2008 2011) on the prevention and elimination of sexual harassment at the workplace as implemented by the Foundation. The draft has been discussed at several national platforms involving all relevant stakeholders. This draft legislation is currently being finalized" (9-10). "Women as well as men are protected against arbitrary dismissal of employees through the law “Dismissal Permits” (‘Ontslagvergunning’). This law determines that an employer is required to obtain a permit from...more
May 12, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in cases of employer- employee relations in the public and private sectors and in teacher-student relations. Violators face a maximum three-year prison sentence. The extent of the problem was difficult to determine, because convictions for sexual harassment were rare, pre-employment sexual harassment was not actionable, and there was a lack of formal reports. During the year the Ministry of Labor, UN Development Program, and NGO SUMARSE began to develop a protocol for private sector employers on how to investigate and deal with labor and sexual harassment within companies" (12). "The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and women enjoyed the same legal status and rights...more
April 29, 2022, 5:43 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"However, the Committee notes with concern:... [t]he absence of legislation explicitly criminalizing sexual harassment in the workplace" (11).
March 28, 2022, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Latvia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment was prosecuted under discrimination statutes. Penalties range from a reprimand to imprisonment. Victims have the right to submit complaints to the Office of the Ombudsman and the State Labor Inspectorate" (13).
March 25, 2022, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2, IIP-LAW-2

"[T]he law addresses lewd acts and indecent behavior, it does not specifically prohibit sexual harassment" (30).
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"No specific law prohibits or regulates discrimination regarding sex, political opinion, national origin or citizenship, social origin, disability, sexual orientation or gender identity, age, language, or communicable disease status in employment or occupation..." (37). "...Labor law prohibits women from working in hazardous, strenuous, or physically or morally harmful jobs. The domestic worker law also prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, gender, religion, political opinion, national, or social origin..." (38).
March 21, 2022, 3:27 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The 2009 Law on Employment and Insurance in Case of Unemployment which also provides for gender equality and protection against discrimination" (2).
March 15, 2022, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"President Joe Biden on Thursday signed a law to protect the rights of victims of sexual harassment in the workplace, allowing them to seek justice in court, accompanied by one of the nation's most prominent campaigners for the measure" (Para. 1). "Biden signed into law the Ending Forced Arbitration of Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment Act, which bars employment contracts from forcing people to settle claims of sexual assault or harassment through private arbitration proceedings instead of in a court of law. Employers often benefit from the process, which keeps misconduct allegations from becoming public. The law is retroactive, freeing individuals who have been bound by arbitration language to pursue...more
March 15, 2022, 11:02 a.m.
Countries: Lithuania
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits employment discrimination but does not specifically address HIV-positive or other communicable disease status, or gender identity. The law obliges the employer to implement the principles of gender equality and nondiscrimination, which prohibit direct and indirect discrimination, and psychological and sexual harassment. The employer must apply the same selection criteria and conditions when hiring new employees; provide equal working conditions, opportunities for professional development, and benefits; apply equal and uniform criteria for dismissal; pay equal wages for the same work and for work of equal value; and take measures to prevent psychological and sexual harassment in the workplace. The government effectively enforced the law, issuing penalties adequate to...more
March 11, 2022, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: Iceland

"For the past 11 years Iceland has led the World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap Index, earning the country the label of “the best place in the world to be a woman.” Iceland has some of the world’s strongest laws on workplace equality and equal pay, as well as high outcomes for women in issues of health, education, economic opportunity, and political representation" (Para. 1).
March 10, 2022, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law provides for equality among all citizens and prohibits employment discrimination based on race, gender" (43). "According to the UN Population Fund, the labor law does not explicitly prohibit sexual harassment in the workplace; it merely gives an employee the right to resign without prior notice in the event that the employer or representative committed an indecent offense towards the employee or a family member. There are, however, no legal consequences for the perpetrator" (44).