The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-LAW-2

Sept. 22, 2023, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"At year’s end the penal code, which parliament passed in January, had not been published or entered into force. The law provides for equal pay for equal work" (19, 27).
Aug. 24, 2023, 1:08 a.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[T]he principle of equal pay for work of equal value was not included in the most recent revision of the Labour Code" (10).
Aug. 15, 2023, 5:22 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits criminal quid pro quo sexual harassment and authorizes penalties of up to B$5,000 ($5,000) and a maximum of two years’ imprisonment" (12). "The law prohibits discrimination in employment based on HIV/AIDS status" (15).
Aug. 15, 2023, 6:17 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Committee notes the adoption of Law No. 2015-532 of 20 July 2015 on the Labour Code and other measures taken by the State party to increase gender equality in employment. It is concerned, however, about the following: (a) The prevalence of violations against women and girls working in the informal sector and in domestic work, particularly with regard to sexual harassment in the workplace and violations of the principle of equal remuneration for work of equal value, the guarantee of the minimum salary, paid leave, maternity and paternity leave and the respect of maximum working hours (for domestic workers), the lack of implementation of relevant national legislation, and the...more
Aug. 8, 2023, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"There is no definition of discrimination against women in any existing national legislation. However, the committee for the review of laws and regulations that discriminate against women, established by Order No. 00936 of 27 January 2016 of the Minister of Justice and Keeper of the Seals, has proposed a reform of legislation relating to women’s rights. As part of the proposed reform, the definition of discrimination against women as set out in the Convention will be included in Act No. 81-77 of 10 December 1981 on the punishment of acts of racial, ethnic or religious discrimination." (2). "To guarantee equality between men and women, the Constitution of Senegal reaffirms the...more
July 25, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[There is no] law that defines and effectively prohibits violence and harassment, including sexual harassment, in the workplace, which is reportedly prevalent in the State party, particularly in the garment industry and while commuting to and from work" (11). "[The state does not] guarantee in national legislation of the principle of equal pay for work of equal value" (11).
July 21, 2023, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"According to Article 12 of the Code of Labor of the Republic of Azerbaijan that entered into force on 1 July 1999, an employer shall have the following obligations: hiring, promoting career, increasing professional skills, enabling the learning of new profession, exhibiting equal treatment and create equal opportunities for employees while increasing their professional qualification, evaluating the quality of work and dismissing them notwithstanding their gender, creating equal working conditions for employees performing the same job notwithstanding their gender, do not apply differing disciplinary actions in relation to the employees for the same violation and undertake necessary measures to prevent sexual discrimination and sexual harassment” (22).
July 14, 2023, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Article 8.0.4 of the Law of the Republic of Azerbaijan On Employment stipulates that one of main obligations of the State in area of employment is to ensure equal opportunities for all person to enjoy the right to choose freely their labor and employment notwithstanding race, ethnic background, religion, language, sex, health disabilities (except the cases when their limited abilities complicate the performance), marital status, public and social origins, place of residence, property status, convictions and affiliation to political parties, trade unions and other public organizations" (23).
July 14, 2023, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

“Part I of Article 16 of the said Code stipulates that it is strictly forbidden in working relationship to make any discrimination among employees, define directly or indirectly privileges and exemptions, and restrict the rights on the basis of citizenship, sex, race, religion, nationality, language, place of residence, property status, public and social origins, age, family status, convictions, political views, membership to trade unions or other public unions, status of service, and other factors not related to the working skills, professionalism and work outcomes of employees" (22-23).
July 10, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Law Number 18/2016 (Gender Equality Act) was enacted on 23rd August 2016, and came into force 6 months thereafter. This Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender and promotes gender equality in all aspects of public and family life. A historic law, long-awaited by the women’s movement, the Act outlines explicit duties and responsibilities on State and private parties, prohibits victimization and introduces remedies for gender-based discrimination..."(5). "Law Number 16/2014 (Sexual Harassment Act) provides protection from all forms of sexual harassment at the place of employment and in public spaces. The Act further allows for investigation to be conducted within the organisation where a special committee is required to...more
June 27, 2023, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits discrimination with respect to employment, salary, and work environment based on age, gender, social and marital status, family links, political conviction, disability, national origin, and affiliation with a union" (37).
June 20, 2023, 9:30 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Constitution provides for the human development of all Nicaraguans and protects them from all forms of exploitation, exclusion and discrimination based on sex. 7 In that connection, legal and policy instruments have been established that incorporate the Convention’s definition of discrimination and implement it, namely, the Equal Rights and Opportunities Act (No. 648), 8 the gender policy and the national human development plan. Institutions must contribute to the development of a positive environment and to the elimination of obstacles to non-discrimination and effective and real equality between women and men." (5). "The principle of equality between women and men has been implemented with the adoption and regulation of the...more
June 14, 2023, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Bolivian Social Seals stipulate 'that the activities carried out by productive units must be carried out in accordance with Act No. 045 against Racism and All Forms of Discrimination and Act No. 348, which prohibit any discriminatory practice and the use of any form of violence within productive units that violate the economic, social and cultural rights of persons, because of gender'" (22).
June 13, 2023, 11:14 a.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"About 50.6% of voters coming out in favour of raising women's retirement age to 65 from 64 while 55.1% endorsed an increase in value added tax (VAT), according to the official final results" (Para.1). "Opponents of the reform have conceded defeat, denouncing the result as an 'insult for women'. They said women had to pay a high price and were still the victims of wage discrimination." (Para.3).
April 1, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"…[T]he legislation adopted included: the Administrative Procedures Act of 8 January 2018; the Code of Civil Procedure of 22 January 2018; the Code of Economic Procedure of 24 January 2018 and the Code of Administrative Procedure of 25 January 2018..."(3-4)(NF - CODER COMMENT - The restructuring of the judicial, administrative, and economic procedures allows women to file for cases regarding civil and economic matters). "... and in 2019 the legislation adopted included:...the Public-Private Partnership Act of 10 May 2019..."(4)(NF - CODER COMMENT - This act creates clear regulations on how partnerships between the public sector and private sector should be handled and what constitutes a parternships. Additionally, this law prohibits...more
March 31, 2023, 2:31 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Act No. 81 of 2016 on civil service guarantees the right of citizens to hold civil service jobs and prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in the application of laws" (2). "[T]he Labour Code prohibits wage discrimination on the ground of sex" (10). "[T]he Penal Code does not explicitly criminalize sexual harassment in the workplace" (10).
March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Ethiopian law provides comprehensive protection against all forms of discrimination on any ground including sex" (3). "The law ensures the right to work including the freedom to choose one’s profession; equality and non-discrimination during recruitment, promotion, salary as well as other aspects of employment based on sex as well as the right to equal remuneration to work of equal value" (16). "The legal frameworks further provide for paid maternity leave and guarantee job security during pregnancy and immediately after delivery. In addition, the Civil Servants Proclamation provides for paid paternity leave for five working days at the time of delivery" (16).
March 16, 2023, 3:32 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2

“In some cases, legislation that is designed to protect women is used to discriminate against them. Forms of protection, such as long maternity leave; the inability to send a pregnant woman or one with children under the age of 3 on a business trip; women’s prohibition from strenuous work, night work or overtime — in some cases these provisions disadvantage women by depriving them of opportunities for professional development. Such extensive protection for women employees sometimes makes employers less inclined to hire women, or to employ them without legal contracts and therefore having no access to social security benefits. In the trade, textile and food sectors, 46 per cent of...more
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

“In June 2000, Bulgaria ratified selected Articles of Part II of the Social Charter of the Council of Europe, which included provisions for gender equality and some special protections for women, such as the right of women and men workers to equal pay for work of equal value, the right to maternity leave and the payment of adequate benefits” (50). “However, Bulgarian legislation is also lacking in several areas. Most important to the question of women in the labour force is that it does not comply with ratified ILO conventions, namely Convention 100, establishing the right to equal remuneration of women and men for work of equal value. This provision...more
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Pursuant to the provisions of the Labour Law ('Official Gazette of Montenegro,' No. 74/19), among other grounds, direct and indirect discrimination of persons seeking employment and employees on the grounds of sex, gender reassignment, gender identity, or sexual orientation is prohibited (Article 7). The Labour Law kept the proclamation of equal pay for work for the same work or work of equal value (Article 99). However, the wording of the provision does not mention men and women, which had been the case with the previous text of the law" (20).
Feb. 27, 2023, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Motivating Korean women to reconsider marriage and children involves infusing every aspect of their lives with agency and equality. A feminist approach would remove obstacles to motherhood simply by enforcing existing laws against workplace discrimination." (para 19).
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The National Plan of Action on Decent Work is in place along with the National Labour Policy and labour laws with provisions for decent work. The GoN is fully committed in developing an appropriate legal and administrative system for ensuring decent work for domestic workers, and after developing the requisite legal, policy and institutional mechanisms, the GoN will consider towards joining the ILO Convention No. 189." (15). "The GoN has been undertaking sectoral interventions to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and girl children. Caste Based Discrimination and Untouchability (Offence and Punishment) Act, 2011, Witchcraft related Accusation (Offence and Punishment) Act, 2015, and Sexual Harassment at Workplace (Control) Act,...more
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women]…remains concerned about…[t]he absence of legislation to ensure the application of the principle of equal pay for work of equal value, which is enshrined in article 20 of the Labour Code and article 5 of the Act on State Guarantees of Equal Rights and Opportunities for Men and Women, and to combat sexual harassment in the workplace" (10-11).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"However, several pieces of legislation are in place to combat all forms of sexual harassment, namely the Labour Act, Act No.11 of 2007, the Combating of Rape Act, Act No.8 of 2000 as well as the Criminal Procedure Act, Act No. 51 of 1977. Moreover, in an effort to sensitise all public servants on the issue of sexual harassment and to strengthen measures on prohibiting sexual harassment in the public service, the Office of the Prime Minister issued staff rules on sexual harassment in 2019 and all public servants were required to sign as proof of their awareness and undertaking to adhere to the new staff rule." (18). Whereas, Article...more
Feb. 4, 2023, 8:40 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"the Labour Act (No. 37), guarantees equality between women and men and prohibits discrimination and sexual harassment in the workplace" (1-2). "[T]he adoption of Cabinet decision No. 99 (2015), encourages ministries to recruit women to senior-level positions" (8).
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined seventh and eighth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/AUT/7-8) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the following: (a) Adoption of the amendments to the Equal Treatment Act, the Act on the Equal Treatment Commission and on the Ombud for Equal Treatment, in 2013; (b) Repeal of restrictions for female workers in the Regulation Governing Employment Bans and Restrictions for Female Workers, in 2015...(f) Adoption of the Law on Equality of Women and Men in Supervisory Boards of Companies, in 2017. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating...more
Jan. 13, 2023, 4:13 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2, ERBG-DATA-1

"The gender pay gap for secondary school leaders grew by more than a third in the last year, a new analysis shows. School Workforce data from the Department of Education shows the average difference between male and female earnings stood at £3,698 in the 2021/22 academic year. In 2020/21, male secondary headteachers earnt £2,702 more on average a year than females" (para 1-3). "The average gender pay gap for headteachers aged 60 and over has also increased. In the last academic year, men earned an average £18,296 more than women – a 5 per cent rise from £17,334 last year" (para 5). "Other leadership roles, including deputy and assistant heads,...more
Oct. 7, 2022, 4:17 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment is a crime, with penalties ranging from one to eight years in prison. If perpetrated by a superior in the workplace, the penalty is up to two years in prison, or more in cases of 'aggravated coercion.' " (13).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"Examples of preventive mechanism [sic] include:... Issuing Guidelines on Prevention of Sexual Violence at the Workplace, a set of recommendations for the protection of women against sexual violence and also a settlement process for victims and perpetrators. The Guideline was circulated by MoM through the District Goverments at gubernatorial, regent and mayoral level" (13-14).
June 29, 2022, 11:33 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2

"[T]he Committee notes with concern:... The absence of a comprehensive law that defines and effectively prohibits gender-based violence and harassment, including sexual harassment, in the workplace" (11-12).