The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Jan. 15, 2022, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In practice, women experienced discrimination in employment and occupation" (14). "[S]poradic discrimination in employment or occupation occurred on the bases of gender... The government did not effectively enforce the law and the penalties for discrimination were not sufficient to deter violations" (21).
Jan. 14, 2022, 6:24 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Union leaders reported the law [on sexual harassment in the workplace] was not enforced and that sexual harassment remained a problem" (18).
Jan. 13, 2022, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"...The labor code prohibits discrimination based on age, ethnicity, gender, religion, race, sexual orientation, civil status, political opinion, nationality, social status, affiliation, disability, labor union membership, or economic situation. The government effectively enforced these laws and regulations, and penalties were sufficient to deter violations. The Labor Ministry reported seven cases of discrimination from January to June. The ministry continued to implement a gender-equality perspective into labor inspections to identify areas of vulnerability" (18).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment in the workplace persisted. The law does not criminalize sexual harassment but includes measures to identify companies that fail to prevent it. Prefectural labor offices and the MHLW provided these companies with advice, guidance, and recommendations. Companies that fail to comply with government guidance may be publicly identified, although this has not happened in years. The government has a set of measures to prevent sexual harassment, including requiring all senior national government officials to take mandatory training courses as well as setting up a consultation mechanism in each ministry and agency to which the general public can report sexual harassment. Nonetheless, harassment continued in government agencies. Public reports...more
Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-2

"The law prohibits sexual harassment, and violations are punishable by imprisonment from one to six months, a fine of from 10,000 to 20,000 pesos ($187-$374), or both. Sexual harassment remained widespread and underreported, including in the workplace due to victims’ fear of losing their jobs. A 2016 Social Weather Stations study showed that 60 percent of women in Metro Manila were harassed at least once in their lifetime. In July, President Duterte signed the Safe Streets and Public Spaces Act to prevent and punish acts of sexual harassment in public places, online workplaces, and educational institutions..." (27).
Jan. 6, 2022, 1:30 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

""Like most women in this business, she depends, on men to catch the fish. Men dominate the fishing sector. It is considered "men work' in Somali society" (2).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:19 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Photography in Somalia is considered a man's trade 'especially when it comes to street photography. Women are not expected to be outside documenting day-to-day life, in a place where most people are still busy simply surviving'" (6).
Dec. 27, 2021, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women experienced some discrimination in employment" (12). "Latest available statistics showed that among the 201 sex discrimination cases reported in 2017, the majority involved forced resignations due to pregnancy. 141 sexual harassment cases and 118 unfair treatment or work equality cases were reported the same year. Scholars said these numbers significantly understated the problem due to workers’ fear of retaliation from employers and difficulties in finding new employment if the worker has a history of making complaints" (21).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law aims to prevent violence and harassment at work, obliging companies to set up internal procedures to handle employee complaints. Sexist remarks and attitudes targeting a specific individual are illegal; fines for violations range from 50 to 1,000 euros ($55 to $1,100). The government generally enforced antiharassment laws. Politicians and organizations such as the Federal Institute for the Equality of Men and Women worked to raise awareness of the problem" (10). "Women have the same legal rights as men. The law requires equal pay for equal work and prohibits discrimination on the grounds of gender, pregnancy, or motherhood as well as in access to goods, services, social welfare, and...more
Dec. 17, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Human rights organizations continued to report [employment] discrimination with respect to gender" (29).
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. According to the Economist’s 2018 glass ceiling index, women held 14.5 percent of the members of company boards, based on 2017 data. Women’s rights organizations asserted that Romani women could suffer multiple forms of discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity, and class, and experienced barriers to equal access in education, health care, housing, employment, and justice" (26). "Observers asserted that discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to Roma, women, and persons with disabilities. According to NGOs, there was economic discrimination against women in the workplace, particularly against job seekers older than 50...more
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Moscow opened an investigation into a Moscow police station after two female employees complained of sexual harassment by one of its directors. Both stated that he pressured them into intimate relationships and threatened them with career repercussions when they did not comply. One victim told journalists that when she reported the incidents to the station’s management, they told her to keep quiet and ignore them" (56).
Dec. 3, 2021, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, NGOFW-DATA-1

"The Commission on Equality in the Workplace and in Employment, composed of representatives of the government, employers’ organizations, and labor unions, examines, but does not adjudicate, complaints of sexual harassment. In 2018 the NGO Association for Victim Support received reports of 23 cases of sexual harassment" (10).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment is illegal and punishable by fines and a prison sentence of one to three years. Although allegedly common in the workplace, sexual harassment cases were rarely reported" (27).
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"...In June the Dutch Association of Journalists released a survey of 350 female journalists in which half of the respondents stated they had been exposed to violence or intimidation in their work, and 70 percent believed these conditions were a threat to freedom of the press" (6). "...The government enforced the law effectively, although there were some reports of discrimination in employment" (13). "The NIHR focused on discrimination in the labor market, such as discrimination in the workplace, unequal pay, termination of labor contracts, and preferential treatment of ethnically Dutch employees. Although the NIHR’s rulings are not binding, they were usually adhered to by parties. In 2018 the NIHR addressed...more
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Reports of gender-based employment discrimination in Gaza against women are common, and factories often do not hire pregnant or newly married women in order to avoid the need to approve maternity leave" (96). "While PA laws prohibit discrimination based on gender and disabilities, penalties were insufficient to deter violations, and the PA did not effectively enforce those laws and regulations in the West Bank, nor did Hamas in Gaza" (104). "Women endured prejudice and, in some cases, repressive conditions at work" (104).
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:33 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The government effectively enforced applicable law [against discrimination in employment], and penalties were sufficient to deter violations" (50). "Civil society organizations reported discrimination in the employment or pay of women, Ethiopian-Israelis, and Arab citizens. In one case the commission joined a Muslim dentist in an antidiscrimination lawsuit against the New Shen Clinic in Netanya, which asked her to remove her hijab (Muslim religious women’s head covering) at work. On September 8, a labor court ruled the clinic must pay compensatory damages for discrimination based on religion" (50).
Nov. 16, 2021, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The penalties for obstructing trade union activity range from fines to community service. The government did not effectively enforce applicable laws. Resources, inspections, and remediation efforts were not adequate, and the small fines imposed as punishment were an ineffective deterrent to employers. Administrative and judicial procedures were subject to lengthy delays and appeals. Unions alleged that the government did not consistently enforce laws prohibiting retribution against strikers. On April 10, the international company Orpea disciplinarily fired Anna Bacia, a physical therapist with 16 years of experience, who was a chairperson of the trade union representing company workers. According to All Poland’s Trade Union, the dismissal, which happened shortly after she...more
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, and the government enforced laws prohibiting discrimination in all sectors. Women nonetheless experienced widespread discrimination, particularly with respect to employment (also see section 7.d. regarding pay disparities between genders)" (15). "Discrimination based on gender, religion, disability, sexual orientation, and gender identity also occurred. The government implemented some information campaigns, promoting diversity and tolerance, including in the workplace. In many cases victims of discrimination were unwilling to request the forms of protection provided by employment laws or collective contracts, according to labor unions. According to Eurostat, in 2017 women’s gross hourly earnings were on average 5 percent lower than those of...more
Nov. 9, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"On March 7, chiefly female employees in the Flormar cosmetic company ended their strike and called for a boycott of the company’s products after 297 days protesting the firing of 132 women who complained of low pay and poor safety conditions in May 2018. The women accepted the company’s compensation offer" (69). "Discrimination in employment or occupation occurred with regard to sex... Penalties were insufficient to prevent violations" (71).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in the workplace, but few cases came to trial. The punishment in minor cases may be between three and five months in jail or fines of six to eight months’ salary. Harassment continued to be a problem, according to media reporting" (16).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While the law prohibits coercing a person to have sexual intercourse, legal experts stated that safeguards against harassment were inadequate. The law puts sexual harassment in the same category as discrimination and sets penalties ranging from a fine to three years in prison. Women’s rights groups reported continuing and widespread sexual harassment, including coerced sex, in the workplace. Women rarely sought legal recourse because courts declined to hear their cases and rarely convicted perpetrators" (43-44). "The government did not effectively enforce the law, and employment discrimination reportedly occurred with respect to gender, disability, nationality, race, minority status, sexual orientation or gender identity, and HIV-positive status. The agriculture, construction, mining, heavy...more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"GoIRA has taken various measures to ensure safety of women in the workplaces, such as enforcement of the Law on Prevention of Sexual Harassment in 2016, the Penal Code with specific provisions preventing harassment of women, ensuring human security, physical safety, and psychological safety of women, as well as the draft on Prevention of Discrimination is also prepared" (1). "The Ministry of Women’s Affairs reviewed the law but no amendments were made. Essentially, the law failed to preempt, prevent and address gender-discriminatory practices which are endemic to sexual harassment cases in Afghanistan" (2).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"[A]ttacks on civilian women and children as they go to work or school have increased by 20 per cent in the past 12 months" (8). "Many families think that government and NGOs are not suitable environments for women to work. Many women working in the governmental sector work as teachers" (16). "Teachers usually teach for half a day then the other half of the day is spent doing household chores and taking care of their own children" (17). "To improve rural numbers, Save the Children has implemented high school training programs so girls can become teachers right after graduation" (17).
Oct. 28, 2021, 12:31 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to women, persons with disabilities, and members of certain minorities" (Page 15).
Oct. 25, 2021, 3:32 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Nannies, cooks, construction workers, farmhands and other women who are primarily employed in India’s informal jobs sector are still routinely sexually harassed and abused at work because a groundbreaking federal law is rarely enforced, a study has found. Ninety-five percent of India’s female workers, some 195 million people, are employed in so-called informal jobs, according to Human Rights Watch, which found that the country’s federal and local governments have not done enough to promote and carry out the functions of the country’s 2013 Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act" (para 2-3). "The Human Rights Watch report focuses on workplace harassment, but Indian women are routinely subjected to harassment and...more
Oct. 25, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Discriminatory hiring practices existed, including discrimination related to gender, age, disability, and marital status. Women were expected to retire at age 60, compared with age 62 for men, affecting women’s ability to rise to managerial ranks and have higher incomes and pensions" (40-41). "Many women above the age of 35 found it difficult to find a job, and there were reports of women receiving termination letters at 35" (41).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits gender-based harassment of both men and women in the workplace... The government enforced the law" (20). "The labor code prohibits discrimination based upon an individual’s national origin; sex... Authorities generally enforced this prohibition, and penalties were sufficient to deter violations in this area" (33). "A gender equality law provides measures to reinforce equality in the workplace as well as sanctions against companies whose noncompliance could prevent women from bidding for public contracts. The law also requires employers to conduct yearly negotiations with employees on professional and pay equity between women and men in companies with more than 50 employees" (33).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women interviewed for the report described how their guardians denied them permission to drive, travel, study, work or marry someone of their own choosing. Some spoke of how this had affected their mental health, contributing to self-harm, depression, stress and suicidal thoughts" (para 5). "'Women are often asked to have permission from a male guardian even if it’s not written in the regulations. So, the government told us that women don’t need male permission to work, yet in many government jobs HR [human resources departments] were saying: "Show us a letter from a man"'" (para 9).
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-DATA-1

"The law provides for equal pay for equal work. In March the Federal Statistical Office found the gross hourly wages of women in 2017 were on average 21 percent lower than those of men. It blamed pay differences in the sectors and occupations in which women and men were employed, as well as unequal requirements for leadership experience and other qualifications as the principal reasons for the pay gap. Women were underrepresented in highly paid managerial positions and overrepresented in some lower-wage occupations (see section 7.d.). FADA reported women were also at a disadvantage regarding promotions, often due to career interruptions for child rearing" (34).