The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Beyond the overall limited formal employment opportunities, two important factors contribute to limit women’s participation in the labour force: gender roles and family duties,180 as well as education attainment" (29). "The two major labour related policies developed in the reporting period include gender concerns. The 2016-2020 Decent Work Country Programme (DWCP) intends to improve access to employment services and opportunities in the private sector and the National Employment Strategy (NES) 2017 - 2030 aims at 'increasing the current low labour force participation […], in particular women'" (30). "The Secretary of State for Vocational Training and Employment (SEPFOPE) is on track to achieve the establishment of career guidance and employment centres...more
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Indonesian government also promotes the role of women in ICT-based economy through capacity building in computer programming (coding) aimed at housewife and women migrant workers" (29). "The government supports women participation in labour by running various programmes and campaigns such as providing microfinance loans, capacity building, granting awards for leading females and public lobbying" (29).
June 21, 2022, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: DACH-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-1, IRP-DATA-2, DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee expresses concern at the high rates of exploitation of prostitution in the State party, especially at mining sites and in border regions. It is further concerned that women in prostitution are at high risk of abuse and gender-based violence, including extortion and abuse by the police, and of discrimination, including by health practitioners and in the workplace" (8).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"...The Board of Equal Treatment has processed a large number of complaints regarding discrimination on grounds of e.g. gender since its establishment in 2009. During the years 2013–2017, 623 cases on gender were processed. In 39 percent of these cases, the Board voted in favour of the complainant" (4). "Measures are taken by the labour market and colleges to encourage women and men to choose non-traditional fields of education and career paths, such as science and technology for women and caregiving roles for men. With reference to concluding observation 28(a), the Ministry of Education launches a nation-wide effort to develop and disseminate good practice on educational environments, with focus on...more
June 10, 2022, 1:22 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women have also been disproportionately affected by job losses, particularly women of color and ethnic minorities. Worldwide, women lost more than 64 million jobs in 2020 alone, resulting in an estimated US$800 billion loss of income" (Para. 2). "Mirroring these trends, women in Aotearoa New Zealand faced greater economic, social and health challenges than men. In 2020, women made up 90% of pandemic-related redundancies. In 2021, many more women were working in “precarious” jobs. Wāhine Māori and Pacific women, already facing greater inequalities, have been even harder hit by job losses" (Para. 3). "While some governments have taken steps to address women’s well-being during the pandemic, such as introducing shorter...more
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Government has cooperated with civil society organizations in more than 200 cities to carry out the “Spring Breeze Action”, offering jobs and services to unemployed women, migrant women workers from rural areas and female university graduates. In 2009 alone, 1.8 million women received training and 1.08 million women found employment" (10). " The National Natural Science Foundation of China has adopted a series of policies and measures to increase the proportion of women among researchers receiving funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China. For instance, the upper age limit for women to apply for funds from the Young Scientists Fund was raised from 35 to 40. In...more
May 27, 2022, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The International Labor Organization noted allegations that the law restricting the maximum age of employees in the public sector, adopted in 2015, is discriminatory because it obliges women workers in the public sector to retire at age 62, whereas male workers can work up to the age of 65. The law states that the retirement age for women will continue to increase incrementally until the retirement age is 65 for both men and women" (38).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Public discussions on issues such as domestic violence (against women), sexual harassment at the workplace or the position of inequality of women living in common law settings" (6). "The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and Fisheries has paid attention to gender equality in the agricultural sector policy since 2005. During the agricultural census of 2008, gender data was gathered from the agricultural sector; and" (12). "Although national data on the position of women in higher education show that women pursue higher education more than men, data gathered through the Suriname Enterprise Survey, Compete Caribbean 2011, show gender inequality in privately owned domestic firms, particularly in the manufacturing and services sector....more
May 12, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in cases of employer- employee relations in the public and private sectors and in teacher-student relations. Violators face a maximum three-year prison sentence. The extent of the problem was difficult to determine, because convictions for sexual harassment were rare, pre-employment sexual harassment was not actionable, and there was a lack of formal reports. During the year the Ministry of Labor, UN Development Program, and NGO SUMARSE began to develop a protocol for private sector employers on how to investigate and deal with labor and sexual harassment within companies" (12). "The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and women enjoyed the same legal status and rights...more
April 29, 2022, 5:43 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"However, the Committee notes with concern:... [t]he long list of restricted occupations and sectors that pose a risk to women’s safety or health, despite the adoption of Ministry of Labour Order No. 512n of July 2019, seeking to reduce the number of restricted occupations from 456 to 100" (11).
April 17, 2022, 12:06 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee nevertheless notes with concern: […] The reported high prevalence of sexual harassment in the workplace and educational settings despite the repeated initiatives of the State party to combat this trend" (5-6).
March 28, 2022, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Latvia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"During the year there were no complaints of sexual harassment" (13).
March 25, 2022, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"According to women’s rights organizations, harassment was common at workplaces in both the public and private sectors and in public institutions of higher education" (24). "Women’s rights organizations reported sexual abuse and harassment occurred on the job but went unreported due to fear of dismissal or retaliation" (33).
March 25, 2022, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Observers believed sexual harassment of women in the workplace and the political arena was widespread and was not adequately addressed by the government, which did not have a functioning, all-encompassing labor inspectorate or other avenues to report such harassment" (30). "Many employers reportedly practiced age and gender discrimination, most commonly requiring job applicants to be of a specific gender, age, and appearance. Such discrimination appeared to be widespread, but there were no reliable surveys, and authorities did not take any action to mitigate it. While there was little awareness of and no comprehensive reporting to indicate the scale of sexual harassment in the workplace, media reports suggested such abuse was...more
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The government has a Gender Balance Council to promote a greater role for female citizens, but not noncitizens, working outside the home" (29). "...Women who worked in the private sector, and especially nonnationals, regularly did not receive equal benefits and reportedly faced discrimination in promotions and equality of wages..." (38).
March 19, 2022, 9:01 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Despite being shunned by their conservative community for not having a male guardian, the enterprising sisters supported themselves financially by sewing at home. Their work helped them secure a contract with the Parwan prosecutor’s office, making uniforms for the prisoners. Earning 6,000 afghanis a month (£55), they were able to survive in a small, dilapidated house"(para 17). This suggests that women are not free to work outside if they do not have male guardians (ST- CODER COMMENT).
March 15, 2022, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Gretchen Carlson, the former Fox News presenter, has worked to end the use of forced arbitration proceedings ever since she sued network boss Roger Ailes for sexual harassment" (Para. 2). "An estimated 60 million workers are bound by forced arbitration clauses slipped into their employment contracts, with many unaware the language exists, Biden said. Private arbitration keeps them from knowing who else may have suffered similar indignities. As a result of the #MeToo movement, the widespread practice has come under fire for forcing employees to seek recourse without a jury, a chance to appeal an arbitrator's decision or the sunlight of a public court process" (Para. 11-13). "Defenders of the...more
March 10, 2022, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"Societal prejudice and discrimination led to disproportionately high poverty and unemployment rates for women, who earned 30 percent less than their male counterparts. Women were more likely than men to work in the informal sector, such as in domestic work or as street vendors, resulting in lower wages and a lack of benefits. Women were also more likely to work in less safe occupations, such as factory work, exposing them to more occupational injuries and serious accidents" (23).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"99.6% of teachers in the kindergartens are women versus 59.7% of women in the high schools" (54). In the table 'Women teachers between 2006 and 2007' it notes that not only are over 99% of kindergarten teachers are women, but also over 99% of primary school teachers are women as well (54). "Women who suffered or continue to suffer from various forms of violence, especially sexual offenses and mobbing [meaning bullying at work] (In this regard, it may be recalled that there are various types and degrees of violence which women can be subjected to: physical violence and sexual violence but also psychological" (84).
March 3, 2022, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"At the same time, the authorities, ever leery of grass-roots organizing, have detained outspoken feminist activists and sought to control the country’s fledgling #MeToo movement. Sexual harassment lawsuits — already rare — have been dismissed. Women have been fired or fined for lodging accusations. When Peng Shuai, a star tennis player, recently said on social media that a top Chinese leader had pressured her into sex, she was censored within minutes, and many worry that she is under surveillance. Women have also been increasingly pushed out of the workplace and into traditional gender roles since China’s leader, Xi Jinping, assumed power. Some fear that the campaign to encourage childbirth could...more
Feb. 28, 2022, 4:35 p.m.
Countries: El Salvador
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law establishes sentences of one to three years in prison for public officials who deny a person’s civil rights based on gender and six months to two years for employers who discriminate against women in the workplace, but employees generally did not report such violations due to fear of employer reprisals"(19)."On March 6[2019], the Permanent Working Group for Labor, Justice, and Labor Unions reported that more than 100 women had been arbitrarily fired from different municipal governments, including in San Salvador, Santa Ana, Ciudad Delgado, and Ilopango. On August 28, ORMUSA reported that of 1,090 women who participated in its survey, 18 percent claimed to have been victims of...more
Feb. 27, 2022, 4:12 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"...Or, as another Cambodian woman living in a village just outside of Siem Reap points out, it could be just because she works in a restaurant" (Para. 6). As she explains: ‘In the village where I’m from, people think that a woman who works in a restaurant must be poor so that means that she wants to have sex with everyone and is a whore'" (Para. 7-8). "I shake my head, in disbelief. It is hard to credit that just working in a restaurant in Cambodia – a perfectly normal form of employment in most parts of the world – could constitute a woman as being a whore. How should...more
Feb. 24, 2022, 10:11 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides measures to deter and punish harassment in the workplace, such as sexual harassment, verbal abuse or derision, aggression, and discrimination, which carries a penalty of one to three years’ imprisonment. Nonetheless, NGOs reported sexual harassment remained a pervasive and underreported problem in workplaces and in public" (25).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"...In July, following a meeting at the Asuncion City Council, a taxi-union leader called journalists 'callous' and said they should be 'executed using cannon balls.' Later in July, during taxi-driver-led protests against Uber, a member of the union pushed and groped a female journalist. Prosecutors opened an investigation against the alleged aggressor" (8). "The law prohibits sexual harassment and stipulates a penalty of two years in prison or a fine, although sexual harassment remained a widespread problem for many women, especially in workplace environments. Prosecutors found sexual harassment and abuse claims difficult to prove due to victims’ fear of workplace retaliation and societal pressures against victims. Many dropped their complaints...more
Feb. 11, 2022, 5:23 p.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While the law provides female employees re-entering the workforce after maternity leave the right to return to their previous or a similar job, pregnant women and other women of childbearing age could still suffer unacknowledged discrimination in the labor market" (35).
Feb. 11, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs claimed the legal definition of harassment was vague and prosecution of harassment claims difficult, leading to ineffective enforcement of the law" (32). "Women generally enjoy the same legal status and rights as men, but sometimes experienced discrimination particularly in employment" (33). "[T]he RTP listed 'being a male' as a requirement in an employment announcement for new police investigators; the NHRCT and the Association of Female Police Investigators objected publicly to this announcement. In media reports the RTP cited the need for this requirement given that police investigations require hard work" (34).
Feb. 5, 2022, 9:24 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment remained pervasive in business, government, schools, and broadly in society. There is no legislation on sexual harassment in public places outside of schools. By law a teacher who abuses or sexually harasses a student through orders, threats, or coercion may be fined up to 20 times the teacher’s monthly salary" (15-16).
Feb. 4, 2022, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"The law provides that 'employees shall not be subjected to harassment or other unseemly behavior,' and the government effectively enforced this provision. Employers who violate the law are subject to fines or prison sentences of up to two years, depending on the seriousness of the offense. The costs and resources needed to bring such cases to court have been barriers to victims seeking redress in all but the most egregious cases. A new Antidiscrimination Tribunal became operational and assumed jurisdiction for such complaints from the LDO" (11). "Under the law public and private authorities must advance gender equality in all areas of society. The law mandates that 40 percent of...more
Feb. 2, 2022, 12:28 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In 2018 BIANCO, in collaboration with UNDP, conducted a study on sexual harassment and corruption. The results of the study revealed sexual harassment qualified as gender-based corruption and prevailed in all professional sectors, including in universities. Victims of harassment, however, generally did not complain, due to fear or shame. At a workshop connected to the study, students testified dissertation supervisors compelled them to provide sexual services in exchange for validation of their theses. The collaboration between BIANCO and UNDP led to the development of a strategy to combat sexual harassment, which resulted in the setting up a prevention committee to receive anonymous complaints, protecting the confidentiality of victims’ identities and...more
Jan. 24, 2022, 1:07 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual harassment remained a serious problem" (46). "A study conducted by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, found home-based garment workers consisted almost entirely of women and girls from historically oppressed ethnic communities and earned approximately 10 rupees ($0.15) per hour" (55).