The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 25, 2021, 9:48 p.m.
Countries: Czech Republic
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The SBLI conducted checks for unequal treatment and discrimination in 2018 and imposed penalties for violations of discrimination laws, mostly noncompliance with the requirement to employ a specific number of persons with disabilities, gender and age-based discrimination, or the publication of discriminatory job advertisements. The SBLI recorded a decrease in unequal treatment and discrimination at work in 2018 compared to 2017. According to CMKOS, labor discrimination cases usually involved gender pay gaps" (27).
Sept. 22, 2021, 6:25 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The harsh reality is that; harassment threats directly challenge the potential of young Pakistani girls. Numerous individuals refuse to procure education and execute jobs due to the realm of harassment possibility; as, harassers can linger in the form of professors, employers, religious teachers, and numerous other possibilities..." (para 4).
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with concern that laws protecting women’s labour rights are lacking, that the level of women’s labour force participation remains low and that women are concentrated in the informal economy, especially in agriculture, domestic work and unpaid care work, and have no access to social protection" (13). "The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Put effective mechanisms in place to implement legal provisions on women’s rights in employment, in particular, those in the Constitution (arts. 8 and 50, para. 4) and the Labour Law (art. 9, para. 1, and arts. 54 and 123–125); (b) Undertake an analysis of the barriers to women’s employment, in particular in the...more
Sept. 21, 2021, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Bates pointed to TUC/Everyday Sexism research that found 52% of women had experienced sexual harassment at work, and of the one in five who had reported it, three-quarters said nothing had changed, while 16% said they were treated worse as a result" (para 11).
Sept. 17, 2021, 10 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits discrimination with respect to employment and occupation. The government effectively enforced these prohibitions. The HRC has an equal opportunity employment team that focuses on workplace gender-related problems. This team regularly surveyed pay scales, conducted a census of women in leadership roles, and engaged public and private employers to promote compensation equality. The Office of Ethnic Affairs continued to take measures to promote ethnic diversity in occupation and employment. According to the New Zealand Council of Trade Unions, Maori and Pacific Island people--and women in particular--remained disadvantaged compared with the general population in terms of conditions of employment and wages" (17).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"It remained difficult for victims to file a sexual harassment complaint and for judges to reach a ruling on such cases. Many women remained unwilling to report incidents of sexual harassment, believing the justice system was ineffectual, according to official media. Several prominent media reports of sexual harassment went viral on social media, helping to raise awareness of the problem, particularly in the workplace" (65). "Although many women experienced workplace sexual harassment, very few reported it. Human Rights Watch cited one statistic showing nearly 40 percent of women said they experienced sexual harassment in the workplace" (66). "On July 11, a Chengdu court ruled in favor of Liu Li, who...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"INEGI reported in 2017 that 23 percent of working women experienced violence in the workplace within the past 12 months and 6 percent experienced sexual violence"(32).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:17 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, CL-PRACTICE-2

"The Miranda et. al. study linked its findings to the continued progress of gender revolution in Scandinavia, where women are given greater opportunities to develop their potential as actors in the public sphere. It underscored that daughters are deemed more valuable to parents in terms of socially desirable traits, including wage-earning and dutiful caring" (para 5).
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"During the economic miracle, women were largely relegated to the domestic sphere or occupied clerical and secretarial roles in offices, largely due to attitudes at that time. '(The older generation) think back then society worked better and the economy was better -- there's that arrogance,' said Choo" (para 12-13). "In recent years, campaigns such as #MeToo and #KuToo -- which saw women petition against wearing high heels to work -- have put Japan's gender inequality and human rights issues in the spotlight, even though the movements failed to garner as much support in the country as they did in the West" (para 36).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The UN secretary-general’s 2018 Children and Armed Conflict Report, released in May, cites 19 verified incidents of child abduction affecting 41 boys and two girls. Thirty-two child abductions were attributed to the Taliban, six to ISIS-K, one to a progovernment militia, and four to unknown perpetrators. Media reports stated that kidnapping was more frequent during the year and targeted persons of all income levels. On March 10, a girl was abducted in Kabul for a $300,000 ransom and was killed when the ransom was not paid. Businesswomen claimed they faced a constant threat of seeing their children abducted and held for ransom" (15). "Journalists reported facing threats of violence from...more
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In many communities, women experienced societal discrimination based on traditional social norms subordinating women to men" (p 19).
Aug. 23, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits sexual harassment of women in the workplace. There were reports women were asked for sexual favors in return for promotions. According to the Women’s Legal Aid Center, police rarely investigated reported cases. Those cases that were investigated, were often dropped before they got to court--in some instances by the plaintiffs due to societal pressure and in others by prosecutors due to lack of evidence" (p 23).
Aug. 20, 2021, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"A 2017 study by CARE International found that nearly one-third of female garment workers experienced sexual harassment at their workplace during the previous 12 months" (22). "Cultural traditions and child-rearing responsibilities limited the ability of women to reach senior positions in business and government or even participate in the workforce" (22). "The government generally did not enforce these laws. Penalties for employment discrimination include fines, civil, and administrative remedies. Penalties were not sufficient to deter violations. Harassment of women was widespread. A BFC report in March 2018 said more than 38 percent of workers surveyed felt uncomfortable 'often' or 'sometimes' because of behavior in their factory, and 40 percent did...more
Aug. 17, 2021, 2:50 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Women also experienced discrimination in access to employment, and it was common for an employer to dismiss a woman if she became pregnant during her first year on the job. The law does not prohibit dismissal of pregnant workers based on pregnancy" (p 20).
Aug. 14, 2021, 9:47 a.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Recently, however, some informal trade unions have been established [in Morocco], such as the 'National Coordination Body of Street Vendors and Pavement Traders' , and the association of 'Southern Women' in Agadir, which supports the organization of female workers in the informal sectors of Souss-Massa-Draa. Struggles achieved some success, for example to secure negotiations between street vendors, local authorities and shopkeepers to provide spaces for street vendors to be concentrated in overcrowded centers and squares" (30).
Aug. 13, 2021, 11 a.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The report also discusses the situation of Mauritanian female migrant workers who went to work in Saudi Arabia and stayed there for two years, and the problems they faced, such as not being paid salaries and other forms of harassment, including heavy working hours" (19).
Aug. 13, 2021, 11 a.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Bahrain's report indicates that 2,500 to 3,000 Bahraini female teachers and sitters work in kindergartens as per contracts that are renewed annually. They are not allowed to claim annual leave and social security. The head of the Kindergarten Syndicate points out that, contrary to the law, kindergartens’ workers are denied their official leaves. Workers are also forced to pay their share and the employer's share of the social security without benefiting from its services. This inequity includes many female workers and part-time workers" (18).
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"The government effectively enforced applicable laws and regulations prohibiting employment discrimination. Authorities generally enforced the law in cases of sexual harassment, and there was no evidence of police or judicial reluctance to act. Companies may receive 'special sanctions' for infractions such as denying maternity leave. Such penalties were generally sufficient to deter violations..." (21).
Aug. 4, 2021, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Pregnancy discrimination is widespread in China, with women reporting being fired or demoted after telling their bosses they were expecting a child. Some women have even reported being forced to sign contracts promising not to get pregnant within a certain period at new jobs. 'As a woman, you’re inherently at a disadvantage in the workplace,' Ms. Li said" (Para 19-20).
July 28, 2021, 10:51 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"'Even the participation of women from all walks of life is unprecedented,' she said. 'Especially young women – the so-called Generation Z – are organising across the spectrum; they are visible and vocal. They are factory workers, teachers, health and bank workers. I would say that more than 50% of those joining the disobedience movement are women'" (Para 13).
July 27, 2021, 7:20 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"The kingdom has also allowed women to enter sports stadiums, previously a male-only arena, and is pushing for greater participation of women in the workforce as it seeks to diversify its oil-dependent economy" (para 17).
July 27, 2021, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"In rural areas, where most of the population engaged in subsistence farming, traditional social structures tended to favor entrenched gender roles, leading to a pattern of discrimination against women. While there was little discrimination in access to employment and credit, women often did not receive equal pay for substantially similar work. Employers did not permit women to work in positions that might endanger their health, safety, or morals" (p 30).
July 26, 2021, 12:32 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Federal securities regulations require publicly listed companies to report annually on their gender diversity policies for boards. A Toronto-Dominion Bank study in March found women accounted for 24 percent of directors on corporate boards of the 243 members of the S&P/TSX Composite Index as of 2018, up from 13 percent in 2014. Separately, seven provinces and two territories require private-sector companies to report annually on their efforts to increase the number of women appointed to executive corporate boards"(10).
July 23, 2021, 2:27 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-LAW-2

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in the workplace and provides a sentencing guideline of three months to three years in prison for violations. Sexual harassment of women in the workplace was a problem, and victims generally did not bring cases forward due to fear of publicity and possible loss of employment" (p 26).
July 22, 2021, 5:07 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"While strong provisions, Articles 10 and 27 of the Constitution are not necessarily enforced with the vigor required to break the glass ceiling, compounded by unique obstacles that slow women’s professional advancement. These include gender stereotypes, lack of mentorship and support networks for women, and even sexual harassment" (Para 10). "'There is unequal pay in the law firms for female advocates. Many of my colleagues talk about unequal pay comparing themselves to their male counterparts, being given less important assignments (female lawyer’s competency being doubted, less are allowed to be partners), poor maternity cover or none at all and sexual harassment from their male employers,' reported another respondent" (Para 11).more
July 21, 2021, 10:33 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"But it’s not much help for Ms. Medvedeva, whose qualifications were deemed to be outdated after her long legal battle, and who now works in a maintenance station for oil tankers in Samara. And experts warn that occupational equality still has a long way to go, both in terms of jobs still barred to women and in subtler gender discrimination outside legal obstacles" (Para 5). "'I know a lot of cases when women were fired because of their gender. Women will still be prevented from being divers, miners, and steelworkers. There are women who work in the firefighting service but, no matter what they may wish, remained confined to office...more
July 20, 2021, 8 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"'Of course there are some instances where it isn't in the law, but in some cases you find people asking women for their guardian's permission when they're applying for jobs or looking for apartments,' Ms Zayadin says. 'But that is not in the laws themselves. It's most apparent in the laws when it comes to marriage and divorce'" (Para 10).
July 20, 2021, 7:53 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"'Of course there are some instances where it isn't in the law, but in some cases you find people asking women for their guardian's permission when they're applying for jobs or looking for apartments,' Ms Zayadin says. 'But that is not in the laws themselves. It's most apparent in the laws when it comes to marriage and divorce'" (Para 10).
July 20, 2021, 11:47 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"According to a 2019 law, companies listed on the Milan stock exchange were required to apply a quota to ensure that two-fifths of their board appointments from 2020 forward were women. That rule strengthened a one-third quota requirement imposed by a 2011 law"(para 2).
July 16, 2021, 4:02 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1

"Minister of Education Dr. Hamad Al-Sheikh issued directives for a big increase in the number of women teachers, representing 50 percent of the total teaching staff in the kindergartens during the next academic year"(para 1).