The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-2

Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"A November 2018 Human Rights Watch survey of 36,000 civil service job advertisements between 2013 and 2018 found one in five specified a requirement or preference for men. Examples of discrimination included job advertisements seeking pretty women, preferring men, or requiring higher education qualifications from women compared with men for the same job. Survey results showed women were less likely to be invited for interviews or called back for a second round of interviews" (85).
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Experts say some men of that generation carry beliefs that women are best left at home, or should attend meetings but remain silent" (para 6).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Also, among the unemployed women and men the share of long term unemployed has risen compared to 2006, reaching 53,6% for women and 55,4% for men in 2012, which, on the other hand, are lower than e.g. in 2011" (26).
July 21, 2021, 10:33 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"'Even if the ban is lifted, it will still be hard to get in,' she says. 'The main obstacle is men. They just don’t like a woman intruding into what they regard as their space'" (Para 17).
June 29, 2021, 4 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Palestinian society generally assigns women to household work and bringing up children. There are some groups, including women, who believe that the proper place for women is in the house, cleaning, taking care of children and preparing food" (para 7).
June 29, 2021, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"First Lt. Sulaf Kazem Jaber, who works in the Adhamiya Traffic Section, performs her daily job on the street wearing her official uniform. She shared with Al-Monitor how the community’s perception of her work as a policewoman has changed since she began working for the traffic police in 2008. 'During the first year of my work, my colleagues and I faced many difficulties and were looked down upon. Today, people have become accustomed to our presence on the street and have started treating us with greater respect,' she said" (para 3-4). "Ibrahim told Al-Monitor that the attitudes of some of her males colleagues are among her greatest challenges, as many...more
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2

In Table 11, titled "Economic activity of population aged 15 and over according to sex in 2003-2010" it shows that in Q1 2003, there were (all numbers besides percentages in thousands) 16,901 economically active people in Poland, 13,348 of which were employed. In Q1 2010, there were 17, 413 ecnomically active people, with 15, 574 employed. In Q1 2003, 7,702 of the economically active were women, compared to 9,100 men. 6,092 of the women were employed, with 1,609 women unemployed. Men, on the other hand, had 7,256 employed and 1,844 unemployed of the economically active in Q1 2003. In Q1 2010, 7,929 women were economically active compared to 9, 484...more
May 24, 2021, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Sexual harassment in the workplace is a misdemeanor, and conviction carries a sentence of one year in prison and a fine equal to the sum of three to six months of salary. Union leaders reported that the law was not enforced and that sexual harassment remained a problem" (p 19).
March 6, 2021, 9:44 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, IIP-PRACTICE-1

"A judge can also deem a woman in breach of her spousal obligations if she leaves the house or takes a job deemed outside “the law, custom, or necessity,” or if the judge considers it against the family’s interests. This change was made gender neutral but prevailing social norms mean judges are more likely to consider it unnecessary for a woman to work than a man, resulting in discrimination against women" (para 9).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"In 2013 the unemployment level was 7.2 per cent, which is by 0.9 per cent lower than in 2010, among women the unemployment level over the same period has decreased form 6.8 per cent up to 6.2 per cent. Hidden unemployment remains significant" (7).
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

“With few employment avenues for young women and ballooning debt levels, rural Cambodian families make soft targets for brokers who ensnare the relatives of potential brides in their schemes, blurring the lines between victims and accomplices” (para 8).
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

Figure 8 “Employment rate by sex” shows the employment rate of Angola separated by sex (pp. 28).
Jan. 26, 2021, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

“In 2015, the Equatorial Guinean government recognized the low rate of participation of women in the labor force. A report published by the U.N. in 2014 showed how vulnerable employment rates continue to be higher for women than for men. In a vulnerable working environment, women might suffer low incomes, fundamental rights violations and inadequate working conditions” (para 1).
Jan. 7, 2021, 6:52 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

“Traditional livelihoods, such as shellfish collection carried out by women, have been “drastically affected” by the project. “Just over a third of the women now have no income at all from their former livelihoods,” the report said” (pp. 8).
Jan. 1, 2021, 4 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"There are all these stories in Finland about children who were asking their parents if a man can be president because they were so used to seeing the female president" (para 10). "Maarianvaara said he also got complaints from men apparently unhappy about the progress of women’s equality. When Marin’s female-dominated cabinet was named, he got three written complaints and one phone call about the gender balance. 'In the last government the cabinet was only 26% women and no one contacted us,' he said wryly" (para 26).
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:30 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-4

"About half of working women in Japan are employed in part-time or contract jobs without benefits, according to government data, compared with close to one in five men. That has reinforced a sense among some men that their paid work takes priority over their wives’ jobs, leaving women to carry the bulk of household chores" (para 17).
Dec. 31, 2020, 3:26 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"The Church of England overturned centuries of tradition on Monday with a final vote allowing women to become bishops...Two decades after the first female priest was ordained, the issue of women taking senior roles in the church hierarchy remains divisive. As recently as 2012, the proposal had been defeated by six votes" (para 1, 4).
Dec. 24, 2020, 12:53 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Women were one of the groups hit hardest by unemployment during the pandemic" (para 7).
Dec. 20, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Female participation in the workplace doubled between 1980-2000, and families are coming to also rely on female income. The importance of the financial contribution made by women to the overall financial stability of families has been important in changing social and personal attitudes to women entering the workforce" (7). "It is important to note however, that upward mobility for women remains restricted. Bahrain's employment market is goverened by systems of patronage. Both Shia and Sunni women are less likely to be in high-level positions than their male counterparts" (8).
Dec. 5, 2020, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-PRACTICE-1

“During their rule in the late 1990s, the Taliban banned women from working and going to school, and ordered them to be fully covered when leaving their homes” (para 13).
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Despite the fact that the State report is silent about the impact of gender stereotypes and prejudices on women’s access to the labour market, in Armenia this is a very urgent issue. Society does not perceive women as someone who can be active and successful in different sectors of public life. Existing model of ‘Armenian family’ where the whole burden of childcare and household duties is put on women severely limits women’s employment opportunities. Women at the workplace are often judged by their appearance over their professional abilities. Vacancy announcements widely use discriminatory requirements of being ‘young and attractive’ and of age from 20/25-40 as criteria for hiring women. Unemployed...more
Sept. 26, 2020, 6:47 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"A man can prohibit his wife from working if it is deemed to negatively affect the family interests" (para 17).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, CL-DATA-1, CWC-DATA-4

"Women continue to be particularly affected by the ongoing transition to a market economy, poor economic development, high levels of unemployment, poverty, male out-migration, especially in recent years" (para 4).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:09 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ASR-PRACTICE-2, ASR-LAW-2

“Simple tasks like buying a cell phone, registering children for school, applying for a job, getting a bank account, are all hugely complicated and require asking men for permission, time, money and help. Forget any sports in public” (para 1).
July 26, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Japan's post-war employment system is wellknown for being distinctly gendered, and has been described as having a gender fault line". The system is founded on the male breadwinner model, with men primarily responsible for productive roles and women for reproductive roles within the family unit and more broadly in society. At its core, this division of labour is premised on harnessing the strong commitment of a core male workforce with stable employment while making use of a supporting non-regular workforce which has increasingly comprised female workers. While the male breadwinner model was certainly not unique to Japan in the early post-war years, its persistence as an ideology over time is...more
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"The share of Roma women in the total number of Roma included in active employment policy measures between 1 July and 31 December 2013 was 45.90 per cent; in 2014 it was 48.09 per cent, in 2015 it was 44.31 per cent and in 2016 it was 42.98 per cent" (13). "In accordance with the Bylaw on the Content and Manner of submitting Plans of Measures to Eliminate or Mitigate Gender Imbalance and Annual Reports on their Implementation, the Ministry of Labour received 428 plans and reports from economic operators in 2016 and 409 such plans by 31 March 2017. In 2015, labour inspectors conducted 3,157 inspections of compliance with...more
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Between the National Income and Employment Survey (ENEI) carried out in 2012 and the survey done in the first half 2013, underemployment fell by 1 per cent (in the case of women, from 41.2 per cent in 2012 to 35.3 per cent in 2013)" (30).
March 29, 2020, 6:41 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Employment: Four in ten (42%) of women and 77% of men were employed in the 7 days preceding the survey. Over half of women and 16% of men had not been employed in the past 12 months" (33).
Dec. 31, 2019, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Looking at what’s next on the gender agenda, Campello concludes: 'Women should improve their selfconfidence, keep their feminine characteristics, fight for their place in the market and keep working to show that their results are as good as those achieved by men. We should also all understand that diversity – both of gender, opinions, culture and education – is better for the decision making process. It is richer and more successful in most cases' (para. 40).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:22 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"That study found that only 15 percent of Afghan men think women should be allowed to work outside of their home after marriage, and that two-thirds of Afghan men think women already have too many rights in Afghanistan" (para. 27).