The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-2

June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"In 2016, the workforce (including all employed and unemployed persons) totalled 2.9 mill. persons. Women accounted for 1.38 mill. of these which corresponds to 47.4 percent of the entire workforce. Women’s participation rate is lower than men’s are. The participation rate for women was 73.5 percent in 2016. In comparison, men’s participation rate was 77.6 percent. The gap between women and men’s participation rate has continuously been narrowing from 2008 to 2014, but it increased from 2014 to 2016. The participation rate for immigrant and ethnic minority women from non-western countries is lower than for ethnic Danish women. In 2016, the participation rate for immigrant and ethnic minority women from...more
March 25, 2022, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"According to the 2017 World Bank study, Leveling the STEM Playing Field for Women, 'cultural stereotypes about the work women should engage in and their responsibilities at home present the strongest barrier to equality between women and men' in the country. Women also represented a larger share of the registered unemployed, and it took them a longer time to find work" (41).
March 21, 2022, 3:27 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, DMW-PRACTICE-1

"The persistence of deep-rooted stereotypes and the recent trend of re-establishing traditional roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and society, which undermines women’s social status, participation in the public life and their professional careers" (6).
March 10, 2022, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-5

"Societal prejudice and discrimination led to disproportionately high poverty and unemployment rates for women, who earned 30 percent less than their male counterparts. Women were more likely than men to work in the informal sector, such as in domestic work or as street vendors, resulting in lower wages and a lack of benefits. Women were also more likely to work in less safe occupations, such as factory work, exposing them to more occupational injuries and serious accidents" (23).
Dec. 17, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"While women in the formal sector received the same pay and paid the same taxes as men, reports of a reticence to hire women persisted" (29).
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-1

"...The NIHR reported in 2018 that 61 percent of the discrimination in employment claims it received were related to pregnancy. Female unemployment was higher than male, and female incomes lagged behind male counterparts" (22).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-2

"...According to the ILO, women not only earned less than men but also had difficulties entering the workplace: 78 percent of men held paid jobs, compared with 56 percent of women. Although the law prohibits gender discrimination in pay, professional training, and career advancement, the law was not enforced, and discrimination existed" (32).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Women experienced economic discrimination due to social norms that favored men, and their access to education and employment was limited" (23).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"A November 2018 Human Rights Watch survey of 36,000 civil service job advertisements between 2013 and 2018 found one in five specified a requirement or preference for men. Examples of discrimination included job advertisements seeking pretty women, preferring men, or requiring higher education qualifications from women compared with men for the same job. Survey results showed women were less likely to be invited for interviews or called back for a second round of interviews" (85).
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Experts say some men of that generation carry beliefs that women are best left at home, or should attend meetings but remain silent" (para 6).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Also, among the unemployed women and men the share of long term unemployed has risen compared to 2006, reaching 53,6% for women and 55,4% for men in 2012, which, on the other hand, are lower than e.g. in 2011" (26).
July 21, 2021, 10:33 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"'Even if the ban is lifted, it will still be hard to get in,' she says. 'The main obstacle is men. They just don’t like a woman intruding into what they regard as their space'" (Para 17).
June 29, 2021, 4 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Palestinian society generally assigns women to household work and bringing up children. There are some groups, including women, who believe that the proper place for women is in the house, cleaning, taking care of children and preparing food" (para 7).
June 29, 2021, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"First Lt. Sulaf Kazem Jaber, who works in the Adhamiya Traffic Section, performs her daily job on the street wearing her official uniform. She shared with Al-Monitor how the community’s perception of her work as a policewoman has changed since she began working for the traffic police in 2008. 'During the first year of my work, my colleagues and I faced many difficulties and were looked down upon. Today, people have become accustomed to our presence on the street and have started treating us with greater respect,' she said" (para 3-4). "Ibrahim told Al-Monitor that the attitudes of some of her males colleagues are among her greatest challenges, as many...more
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-2

In Table 11, titled "Economic activity of population aged 15 and over according to sex in 2003-2010" it shows that in Q1 2003, there were (all numbers besides percentages in thousands) 16,901 economically active people in Poland, 13,348 of which were employed. In Q1 2010, there were 17, 413 ecnomically active people, with 15, 574 employed. In Q1 2003, 7,702 of the economically active were women, compared to 9,100 men. 6,092 of the women were employed, with 1,609 women unemployed. Men, on the other hand, had 7,256 employed and 1,844 unemployed of the economically active in Q1 2003. In Q1 2010, 7,929 women were economically active compared to 9, 484...more
May 24, 2021, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Sexual harassment in the workplace is a misdemeanor, and conviction carries a sentence of one year in prison and a fine equal to the sum of three to six months of salary. Union leaders reported that the law was not enforced and that sexual harassment remained a problem" (p 19).
March 6, 2021, 9:44 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, IIP-PRACTICE-1

"A judge can also deem a woman in breach of her spousal obligations if she leaves the house or takes a job deemed outside “the law, custom, or necessity,” or if the judge considers it against the family’s interests. This change was made gender neutral but prevailing social norms mean judges are more likely to consider it unnecessary for a woman to work than a man, resulting in discrimination against women" (para 9).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"In 2013 the unemployment level was 7.2 per cent, which is by 0.9 per cent lower than in 2010, among women the unemployment level over the same period has decreased form 6.8 per cent up to 6.2 per cent. Hidden unemployment remains significant" (7).
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

“With few employment avenues for young women and ballooning debt levels, rural Cambodian families make soft targets for brokers who ensnare the relatives of potential brides in their schemes, blurring the lines between victims and accomplices” (para 8).
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

Figure 8 “Employment rate by sex” shows the employment rate of Angola separated by sex (pp. 28).
Jan. 26, 2021, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

“In 2015, the Equatorial Guinean government recognized the low rate of participation of women in the labor force. A report published by the U.N. in 2014 showed how vulnerable employment rates continue to be higher for women than for men. In a vulnerable working environment, women might suffer low incomes, fundamental rights violations and inadequate working conditions” (para 1).
Jan. 7, 2021, 6:52 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

“Traditional livelihoods, such as shellfish collection carried out by women, have been “drastically affected” by the project. “Just over a third of the women now have no income at all from their former livelihoods,” the report said” (pp. 8).
Jan. 1, 2021, 4 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"There are all these stories in Finland about children who were asking their parents if a man can be president because they were so used to seeing the female president" (para 10). "Maarianvaara said he also got complaints from men apparently unhappy about the progress of women’s equality. When Marin’s female-dominated cabinet was named, he got three written complaints and one phone call about the gender balance. 'In the last government the cabinet was only 26% women and no one contacted us,' he said wryly" (para 26).
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:30 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-DATA-4

"About half of working women in Japan are employed in part-time or contract jobs without benefits, according to government data, compared with close to one in five men. That has reinforced a sense among some men that their paid work takes priority over their wives’ jobs, leaving women to carry the bulk of household chores" (para 17).
Dec. 31, 2020, 3:26 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"The Church of England overturned centuries of tradition on Monday with a final vote allowing women to become bishops...Two decades after the first female priest was ordained, the issue of women taking senior roles in the church hierarchy remains divisive. As recently as 2012, the proposal had been defeated by six votes" (para 1, 4).
Dec. 24, 2020, 12:53 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Women were one of the groups hit hardest by unemployment during the pandemic" (para 7).
Dec. 20, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Female participation in the workplace doubled between 1980-2000, and families are coming to also rely on female income. The importance of the financial contribution made by women to the overall financial stability of families has been important in changing social and personal attitudes to women entering the workforce" (7). "It is important to note however, that upward mobility for women remains restricted. Bahrain's employment market is goverened by systems of patronage. Both Shia and Sunni women are less likely to be in high-level positions than their male counterparts" (8).
Dec. 5, 2020, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-PRACTICE-1

“During their rule in the late 1990s, the Taliban banned women from working and going to school, and ordered them to be fully covered when leaving their homes” (para 13).
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"Despite the fact that the State report is silent about the impact of gender stereotypes and prejudices on women’s access to the labour market, in Armenia this is a very urgent issue. Society does not perceive women as someone who can be active and successful in different sectors of public life. Existing model of ‘Armenian family’ where the whole burden of childcare and household duties is put on women severely limits women’s employment opportunities. Women at the workplace are often judged by their appearance over their professional abilities. Vacancy announcements widely use discriminatory requirements of being ‘young and attractive’ and of age from 20/25-40 as criteria for hiring women. Unemployed...more
Sept. 26, 2020, 6:47 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2

"A man can prohibit his wife from working if it is deemed to negatively affect the family interests" (para 17).