The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-3

March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"[T]he Federal Civil Service Proclamation incorporate affirmative action favouring female candidates who have equal or close scores to that of male candidates" (8). "[To increase recruitment and promotion] the government provided leadership training to women and avails scholarship opportunities for female employees to obtain the required educational qualifications (1st and 2nd degree)" (13). It is easier for men to obtain qualifications (MV-coder comment). "[A]ffirmative measures that accord 3 additional points for women are implemented during recruitment and promotion. This has resulted in the promotion of 38 women to higher positions in 2013/14" (13). "Women are concentrated in jobs of lower positions. Women hold only 27 per cent of managerial positions...more
March 16, 2023, 3:32 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“The survey findings also show that there are some small differences in the profile and performance of women-owned companies in relation to Bulgarian SMEs in general. All entrepreneurs face barriers: socio-cultural, legal, economic, financial, regulatory and fiscal, and educational, although, these barriers are greater for Bulgarian women than for men. It is also possible that this survey presents skewed results because the researchers only interviewed successful and surviving women entrepreneurs. It is possible, given the various forms of gender discrimination in the formal sector that women face even greater limitations to becoming a successful entrepreneur than those barriers alluded to above” (46). “The interviewers found that in general Bulgarian women...more
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

“Approximately 72 per cent of businesswomen believe that when hiring personnel qualifications are much more important than the sex of their employees. Except in the case of the construction sector where there is a greater demand for male employees, businesswomen from all the sectors believe that being a women or a man “does not matter”. However, 23 per cent of women entrepreneurs prefer to employ women because they consider women better employees — they are more precise and more accurate. Women entrepreneurs who prefer to hire men cite as reasons, the characteristics of the job, male qualities such as reliability, and their easygoing nature” (36).
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women remain under-represented on the boards of directors of public agencies and administrations, and are less represented in management positions in public enterprises and legal entities with high financial power and profitable business operations. Their presence is growing in lower decision-making positions, especially in executive positions with no influence on decision-making" (16). "A project related to providing legal aid to parents in exercising their employment rights is offered by the Association Parents. To their knowledge, women who lose their jobs when they become mothers rarely choose to protect their rights and speak publicly about it. This happens most often because they are not aware of their rights and because there...more
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Programs such as the small farmer program under the concept of a loan program for disadvantaged groups, a productive loan program for rural women, a rural independent fund, the establishment of rural development bank, institutionalization of poverty alleviation funds and the establishment of the Ministry of Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation have been instrumental in creating employment for rural women. In cooperative sector, 30,065 female have got employment as compared to 25,620 men. Likewise, women hold 34 percent of executive positions, around 45 percent in membership, and 47 percent in management of the cooperatives" (15). "Of the total 45,632 key position holders in PAF supported Community Organizations (COs), 63 percent are...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 10:40 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“We found another interesting piece of data as well: only 2% of the companies are founded entirely by women, and 20% have a female co-founder, stats the latest report by EDIT. Our observation, however not backed by any data, is that women are rather the business development engines in tech companies, regardless of the fact that some of them come from engineering backgrounds and others did not have any technology experience in previous careers” (second paragraph).
Feb. 22, 2023, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“About 70,000 women become mothers each year in Bulgaria according to various studies and at least 18,000 mothers remain outside the labor market. For many mothers, it is difficult to return to their workplace under previous conditions – working time, distance from home, pay. On the one hand, in a situation of brain drain, labour shortages and needs of qualified staff, companies are trying to retain the experienced workers. On the other hand, there are a number of factors which stop employers of hiring mothers, for example part of the sick leave burden, is taken over by the company” (first paragraph).
Feb. 19, 2023, 1:18 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“While the law provides women the same legal status and rights as men, women faced some discrimination in economic participation and political empowerment. The law provides for equal opportunities in all spheres of public, economic, and political life; equal access to public resources; equal treatment; exclusion of gender-based discrimination and violence; balanced representation of men and women in all decision-making bodies; and overcoming gender-based stereotypes” (p. 23).
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women] remains concerned about…barriers to women's promotion to management positions, higher-paid jobs and decision-making positions, including in national and local administrations" (10).
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined seventh and eighth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/AUT/7-8) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the following: (a) Adoption of the amendments to the Equal Treatment Act, the Act on the Equal Treatment Commission and on the Ombud for Equal Treatment, in 2013; (b) Repeal of restrictions for female workers in the Regulation Governing Employment Bans and Restrictions for Female Workers, in 2015...(f) Adoption of the Law on Equality of Women and Men in Supervisory Boards of Companies, in 2017. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating...more
Jan. 13, 2023, 7:19 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Maryam said she had worked her way up over many years within the ministry to head of the department...Since they came [to power], the Taliban have demoted me and reduced my salary. I cannot even afford my son’s school fees. When I questioned this, an official rudely told me to get out of his office and said that my demotion was not negotiable...It is not clear if women from other state departments have also been asked to send male relatives to do their job. However, Maryam said she was aware of at least 60 female colleagues from the finance department who had received similar calls" (para 7-10).
Jan. 6, 2023, 10:37 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Another investigative report in 2019 by The Hindu was particularly scathing about doctors’ involvement. It claimed that 'Cane-cutting contractors are unwilling to hire women who menstruate, so hysterectomies have become the norm' " (para 7).
Nov. 17, 2022, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"For women working with the palm oil companies, it is hard work for a low pay. They walk long distances to work. There is no proper medical attention; there are dismissals without benefits; they don't have labour rights (they keep them as 'casual workers' without contract, and can be sacked at anytime); they have no health insurance or coverage for accidents on duty" (para 19).
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"...Moreover, there has been a marked increase in the number of women that hold decision-making, leadership and management positions, particularly in the public sector" (6).
July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In 2016, 1.6 per cent women held a managerial position (2,000 women) compared with 3.4 per cent men (6,100 men). As such, the share of women holding such position has been constant between 2013 and 2016 (about 30 per cent through all occupation groups)" (29).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Following the continuing gender imbalances on boards and in private decision- making processes, the Government in 2013 adopted landmark legislation in order to promote women’s access to leading positions. The law ensures that large companies set targets for the gender balance on their boards as well as ensures a range of activities to progress gender equality and women’s opportunities in these companies. As a result, the share of women e.g. on company boards has increased, and there is a higher awareness about the benefits of diversity in management" (5). "In 2017, the Committee for Music of the Danish Arts Foundation published a Charter for Diversity in Danish Music including gender...more
May 30, 2022, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In general, women’s positions are less senior than men’s: many more women work as salaried employees without managerial functions, while men much more often work independently or as salaried members of management or perform an executive function. That inequality is present even when men and women have the same degree of education. Since the mid-1990s, the proportion of self-employed women has increased slightly. Among men, no significant change was found in their professional situation. Women constitute a third of employees in managerial and supervisory positions. That proportion has changed little since 1996. However, if we look at women’s representation on the governing bodies of the hundred largest Swiss companies over...more
May 27, 2022, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"As per the results of household employment survey, the rate of high or middle level female managers in the companies was raised to 16,3 per cent in 2018 from 14,4 per cent in 2012" (13).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Suriname Enterprise data furthermore suggest that Suriname’s female participation rate in top management is lowest among Latin American and Caribbean countries. Suriname has the lowest percentage of firms with female participation in ownership, 18.3 per cent (40.4 per cent for LAC), as well as one of the lowest percentages of women in top management positions, 15 per cent" (21).
May 12, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and women enjoyed the same legal status and rights as men. The law recognizes joint property in marriages. The law mandates equal pay for men and women in equivalent jobs. Although an illegal hiring practice, some employers continued to request pregnancy tests. There were two cases reported in the countryside of temporary workers who terminated their pregnancies once the condition became obvious, presumably due to fear of being fired" (12-13). "...NGOs noted that during job interviews, women were often asked if they were married, pregnant, or planned to have children in the future. It was common practice for human resources offices to terminate...more
April 17, 2022, 12:06 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2016 of the combined eighth and ninth periodic reports of the State party (CEDAW/C/SWE/8-9) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following: Amendments to the Discrimination Law, requiring employers to promote gender parity in management positions, in 2017" (1). "The Committee remains concerned at the low number of women in leadership positions in academia, in senior management positions and on the boards of private companies" (4).
March 28, 2022, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Latvia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There were instances of hiring and pay discrimination against women, particularly in the private sector" (13).
March 25, 2022, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The BSPK also reported instances of employers discriminating against female candidates in employment interviews and illegally firing women for being pregnant or requesting maternity leave" (32).
March 25, 2022, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women generally did not enjoy the same professional opportunities or wages as men, and employers often relegated them to more menial or lower-paying jobs" (41).
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women who worked in the private sector, and especially nonnationals, regularly did not receive equal benefits and reportedly faced discrimination in promotions and pay. Labor law prohibits women from working in hazardous, strenuous, or physically or morally harmful jobs" (29). "...Women who worked in the private sector, and especially nonnationals, regularly did not receive equal benefits and reportedly faced discrimination in promotions and equality of wages..." (38). "There is no national minimum wage. There was very limited information on average domestic, agricultural, or construction worker salaries or on public sector salaries. In some sectors minimum wages were determined by workers’ nationality and years of experience" (38). Wages being set based...more
March 10, 2022, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"...While the law prohibits discrimination in employment and educational opportunities based on gender, there was a persistent underrepresentation of women in high-ranking positions. Arbitrary dismissal of pregnant women and workplace discrimination against women were common. The law stipulates that women should receive equal pay for equal work, but women often were paid less than men. The National Institute of Statistics estimated that, as of 2018, women’s earnings were an average of 68 percent of their male counterparts’ earnings" (14).
Feb. 24, 2022, 10:11 p.m.
Countries: Colombia

"Unemployment disproportionately affected women, who faced hiring discrimination and received salaries that generally were not commensurate with their education and experience. The NGO Sisma Mujer reported that on average women were paid 28 percent less than men. In a previous year, a senior government official estimated that 85 percent of persons with disabilities were unemployed. Afro-Colombian labor unions reported discrimination in the port sector" (40).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women generally enjoyed the same legal status and rights as men. Nonetheless, gender-related discrimination was widespread. Women experienced more difficulty than men in securing employment" (14).
Feb. 11, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination with respect to employment occurred against LGBTI persons, women, and migrant workers" (48).
Feb. 4, 2022, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Under the law public and private authorities must advance gender equality in all areas of society. The law mandates that 40 percent of the members of boards of directors of publicly listed companies be women. Although women have the same legal status as men, they experienced discrimination in terms of gaining employment as well as discrimination in the workplace itself (see section 7.d.). As of September, 78 of 300 (26 percent) complaints reported to the tribunal involved gender discrimination" (11).