The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Jan. 15, 2022, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"[W]omen experienced discrimination in employment, including in pay and promotion to managerial and executive positions" (21).
Jan. 14, 2022, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Belize
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, AFE-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-3, NGOFW-DATA-1

"Despite legal provisions for gender equality and government programs aimed at empowering women, NGOs and other observers reported women faced social and economic discrimination. Although participating in all spheres of national life and outnumbering men in university classrooms and having higher high school graduation rates, women held relatively few top managerial or government positions" (12).
Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"No law mandates nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring, although the law prohibits discrimination in employment based on sex. Nonetheless, women continued to face discrimination on the job as well as in hiring (see section 7.d.)" (28). "...[I]n June a transgendered professor at the University of the Philippines disclosed that the reviewing committee denied her tenure application by citing both professional and interpersonal concerns. She believes her denial was due, in part, to her being transgender. Women faced discrimination both in hiring and on the job. Some labor unions claimed female employees suffered punitive action when they became pregnant. Although women faced workplace discrimination, they continued to occupy positions at...more
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. According to the Economist’s 2018 glass ceiling index, women held 14.5 percent of the members of company boards, based on 2017 data. Women’s rights organizations asserted that Romani women could suffer multiple forms of discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity, and class, and experienced barriers to equal access in education, health care, housing, employment, and justice" (26). "Observers asserted that discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to Roma, women, and persons with disabilities. According to NGOs, there was economic discrimination against women in the workplace, particularly against job seekers older than 50...more
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination based on gender in compensation, professional training, hiring, and dismissal was common. Employers often preferred to hire men to save on maternity and child-care costs and to avoid the perceived unreliability associated with women with small children" (71).
Nov. 17, 2021, 8:27 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"As of June the council reported that women’s representation on boards of the largest 100 companies listed on the Singapore Exchange was 15.7 percent, while women filled 24.5 percent of positions on statutory boards, and 27.4 percent of those on registered nongovernment organizations and charities" (32).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law prohibits discrimination with respect to employment and occupation and the government effectively enforced the law, although discrimination in employment and occupation still occurred with respect to race and ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. The government requires companies with more than 50 workers to reserve 2 percent of their jobs for persons with disabilities" (25).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women received lower salaries due to limited opportunities for advancement and the types of industries that employed them. According to the State Statistics Office, men earned on average 23 percent more than women. The gap was not caused by direct discrimination in the setting of wages, but by horizontal and vertical stratification of the labor market: Women were more likely to work in lower-paid sectors of the economy and in lower positions. Women held fewer elected or appointed offices at the national and regional levels. In July government research on women and men in the energy sector was presented to identify possible ways to resolve the problem of gender imbalance...more
Oct. 28, 2021, 12:31 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Female employees in the private sector may invoke laws prohibiting discrimination against women. Depending on the Federal Equality Commission’s findings, labor courts may award the equivalent of up to four months’ salary to women found to have experienced gender discrimination in promotion, despite being better qualified than their competitors. The courts may also order compensation for women denied a post despite having equal qualifications" (Page 15).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There was discrimination against women with respect to employment and occupation" (21).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-LAW-2

"Women are often asked to have permission from a male guardian even if it’s not written in the regulations. So, the government told us that women don’t need male permission to work, yet in many government jobs HR [human resources departments] were saying: ‘Show us a letter from a man'" (para 9).
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for equal pay for equal work. In March the Federal Statistical Office found the gross hourly wages of women in 2017 were on average 21 percent lower than those of men. It blamed pay differences in the sectors and occupations in which women and men were employed, as well as unequal requirements for leadership experience and other qualifications as the principal reasons for the pay gap. Women were underrepresented in highly paid managerial positions and overrepresented in some lower-wage occupations (see section 7.d.). FADA reported women were also at a disadvantage regarding promotions, often due to career interruptions for child rearing" (34). "The law imposes a gender...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 8:33 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"On June 19[2019], parliament passed legislation calling for women to occupy at least 30 percent of corporate board positions and 20 percent of corporate management positions in enterprises with a minimum of 250 employees. The nonbinding policy requires businesses that fail to reach the targets to submit a written justification to the government"(22).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-2, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-2

"...According to the ILO, women not only earned less than men but also had difficulties entering the workplace: 78 percent of men held paid jobs, compared with 56 percent of women. Although the law prohibits gender discrimination in pay, professional training, and career advancement, the law was not enforced, and discrimination existed" (32).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women experienced economic discrimination due to social norms that favored men, and their access to education and employment was limited" (23). "The labor law prohibits discrimination in employment and occupation based on race, gender, religion, political opinion, nationality, disability, social status, HIV- positive status, and color. The government’s Labor Inspection Agency is responsible for investigating and preventing discrimination based on race, gender, religion, political opinion, nationality, or ethnicity, but the law was not effectively enforced. Penalties were insufficient to deter violations. Discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to gender, sexual orientation, disability, and ethnicity (see section 6). The government was the major formal-sector employer and ostensibly paid women...more
Sept. 25, 2021, 9:48 p.m.
Countries: Czech Republic
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In March Prague Gas, a state-owned company, apologized to a woman for discriminating against her while selecting a new financial manager. The woman sued in 2006 and requested an apology, appointment to the position, and financial compensation of one million crowns ($43,000). In 2017 a court ordered the company to apologize, and the appellate court upheld the decision in November 2018. The courts rejected the woman’s other claims" (27). "At the beginning of the year, the Prague Municipal Court ruled a woman who was demoted from a management position two days before starting maternity leave faced gender discrimination... The victim was the former head of the human rights section at...more
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"KINU reported that discrimination against women emerged in the form of differentiated pay scales, promotions, and types of work assigned to women" (20).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"[W]omen reported discrimination, unfair dismissal, demotion, and wage discrepancies were significant problems" (69). "A November 2018 Human Rights Watch survey of 36,000 civil service job advertisements between 2013 and 2018 found one in five specified a requirement or preference for men. Examples of discrimination included job advertisements seeking pretty women, preferring men, or requiring higher education qualifications from women compared with men for the same job. Survey results showed women were less likely to be invited for interviews or called back for a second round of interviews. In interviews some women were asked whether they had children, how many children they had, and whether they planned to have children or...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The government did not effectively enforce the law or regulations. According to a 2017 INEGI survey, 12 percent of women had been illegally asked to take a pregnancy test as a prerequisite to being hired"(32).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, DMW-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides that women and men have the same legal status and rights. The government enforced the law effectively, although inequalities in pay and promotions persisted in both the public and private sectors. In 2017 the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women noted a persistence of 'discriminatory stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society.' It also observed a low level of participation of Traveller (a minority traditionally itinerant ethnic group), Roma, and migrant women in political and public life" (10).
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Government plans to put women in 30% of senior management roles by 2020 across the workforce were quietly pushed back to 2030 last year, after it proved too ambitious" (para 23).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for equal work without discrimination, but there are no provisions for equal pay for equal work. The law criminalizes interference with a woman's right to work. Women faced discrimination in access to employment and terms of occupation" (34). "Women continued to face discrimination and hardship in the workplace. Women made up only 7 percent of the workforce. Many women faced pressure from relatives to stay at home and encountered hiring practices that favored men. Older and married women reported it was more difficult for them than for younger, single women to find jobs. Women who worked reported they encountered insults, sexual harassment, lack of transportation, and an...more
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women were underrepresented in many fields at the highest levels" (p 19).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"and machine operator (18,5%). 12,5% of men and 5,9 % of women worked as managers in 2012. Altogether, 31,9% of managers were women that year. Also in the public sector women occupy most of the specialist and chief specialist posts but are the minority when it comes to higher positions" (29).
Aug. 4, 2021, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, BR-PRACTICE-2

"Some women pointed out that the government had already barred employers from asking women about their marital or childbearing status in 2019, and the problem was weak enforcement. The government has often encouraged women to retreat to more traditional gender roles, in an effort to increase the birthrate" (Para 24).
Aug. 2, 2021, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for gender equality. Nevertheless, women often experienced discrimination in employment, credit, and pay equity for similar work, as well as in owning and managing businesses" (p 21). "Discrimination in employment took many forms. Although women generally had equal access to employment, few women had senior positions in business; in the public sector or in elected positions, women’s independence and influence were limited" (p 29).
July 23, 2021, 2:27 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1

"Women’s wages lagged behind those of men, and few women occupied management positions" (p 34).
July 21, 2021, 10:33 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Some women have found a niche, or a way around the rules. Olga Silantyeva drives an emergency vehicle for a first-responder team in the Moscow region. She says that she has earned the respect of the men she works with and enjoys her job. But there have been frustrations. As a qualified automotive engineer, she had previously applied for jobs as a truck driver and been turned down. On one occasion she’d been told that the position was filled, but later discovered that it was still open" (Para 14).
July 13, 2021, 1:26 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. The law requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. The government generally enforced these laws. Women experienced discrimination in such areas as hiring, career advancement, conditions of employment, and pay" (p 16).
July 9, 2021, 7:11 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1, CRPLB-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"For example, in January 2021, the Seoul city government uploaded guidance for pregnant women to make sure to check if there is plenty of toilet paper in the house, make meals for husbands, and to pay attention to their looks by hanging smaller size clothes to motivate themselves to lose weight after giving birth. And the discrimination against pregnant women begins long before the actual pregnancy. In hiring processes, interviewers routinely ask women invasive questions about their plans to get pregnant, with some openly telling female candidates it would be difficult to hire them because the company does not want to pay for maternity leave. According to a local survey,...more