The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"[W]omen reported discrimination, unfair dismissal, demotion, and wage discrepancies were significant problems" (69). "A November 2018 Human Rights Watch survey of 36,000 civil service job advertisements between 2013 and 2018 found one in five specified a requirement or preference for men. Examples of discrimination included job advertisements seeking pretty women, preferring men, or requiring higher education qualifications from women compared with men for the same job. Survey results showed women were less likely to be invited for interviews or called back for a second round of interviews. In interviews some women were asked whether they had children, how many children they had, and whether they planned to have children or...more
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The government did not effectively enforce the law or regulations. According to a 2017 INEGI survey, 12 percent of women had been illegally asked to take a pregnancy test as a prerequisite to being hired"(32).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, DMW-PRACTICE-1, CONST-LAW-1

"The law provides that women and men have the same legal status and rights. The government enforced the law effectively, although inequalities in pay and promotions persisted in both the public and private sectors. In 2017 the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women noted a persistence of 'discriminatory stereotypes concerning the roles and responsibilities of women and men in the family and in society.' It also observed a low level of participation of Traveller (a minority traditionally itinerant ethnic group), Roma, and migrant women in political and public life" (10).
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Government plans to put women in 30% of senior management roles by 2020 across the workforce were quietly pushed back to 2030 last year, after it proved too ambitious" (para 23).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for equal work without discrimination, but there are no provisions for equal pay for equal work. The law criminalizes interference with a woman's right to work. Women faced discrimination in access to employment and terms of occupation" (34). "Women continued to face discrimination and hardship in the workplace. Women made up only 7 percent of the workforce. Many women faced pressure from relatives to stay at home and encountered hiring practices that favored men. Older and married women reported it was more difficult for them than for younger, single women to find jobs. Women who worked reported they encountered insults, sexual harassment, lack of transportation, and an...more
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women were underrepresented in many fields at the highest levels" (p 19).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"and machine operator (18,5%). 12,5% of men and 5,9 % of women worked as managers in 2012. Altogether, 31,9% of managers were women that year. Also in the public sector women occupy most of the specialist and chief specialist posts but are the minority when it comes to higher positions" (29).
Aug. 4, 2021, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, BR-PRACTICE-2

"Some women pointed out that the government had already barred employers from asking women about their marital or childbearing status in 2019, and the problem was weak enforcement. The government has often encouraged women to retreat to more traditional gender roles, in an effort to increase the birthrate" (Para 24).
Aug. 2, 2021, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for gender equality. Nevertheless, women often experienced discrimination in employment, credit, and pay equity for similar work, as well as in owning and managing businesses" (p 21). "Discrimination in employment took many forms. Although women generally had equal access to employment, few women had senior positions in business; in the public sector or in elected positions, women’s independence and influence were limited" (p 29).
July 23, 2021, 2:27 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1

"Women’s wages lagged behind those of men, and few women occupied management positions" (p 34).
July 21, 2021, 10:33 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Some women have found a niche, or a way around the rules. Olga Silantyeva drives an emergency vehicle for a first-responder team in the Moscow region. She says that she has earned the respect of the men she works with and enjoys her job. But there have been frustrations. As a qualified automotive engineer, she had previously applied for jobs as a truck driver and been turned down. On one occasion she’d been told that the position was filled, but later discovered that it was still open" (Para 14).
July 13, 2021, 1:26 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. The law requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. The government generally enforced these laws. Women experienced discrimination in such areas as hiring, career advancement, conditions of employment, and pay" (p 16).
July 9, 2021, 7:11 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1, CRPLB-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"For example, in January 2021, the Seoul city government uploaded guidance for pregnant women to make sure to check if there is plenty of toilet paper in the house, make meals for husbands, and to pay attention to their looks by hanging smaller size clothes to motivate themselves to lose weight after giving birth. And the discrimination against pregnant women begins long before the actual pregnancy. In hiring processes, interviewers routinely ask women invasive questions about their plans to get pregnant, with some openly telling female candidates it would be difficult to hire them because the company does not want to pay for maternity leave. According to a local survey,...more
July 7, 2021, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"New mothers returning to work after maternity leave could receive greater protection against being made redundant.Theresa May said last night she wanted to see current rules that safeguard women's jobs during their baby's first year extended for six months after they go back.The change is designed to end the perceived default situation that when a business has to make staff cutbacks, the new mother is usually one of the first to be offered redundancy"(para 1-3)."Government figures suggest that every year more than 50,000 women lose their job unfairly as a result of becoming pregnant or spending up to a year on maternity leave.The Prime Minister said Brexit was an opportunity...more
July 1, 2021, 2:29 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Once there were almost no women in police uniform, and now about a quarter of the officers are women. This is significant in a country where gender equality is a distant dream. Many jobs are still considered too demanding for women, so seeing women in uniform on a regular basis could be a first step toward changing social attitudes" (para 4).
June 29, 2021, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Capt. Shaimaa Ali Ibrahim, head of the Women's Division at the Community Police Directorate, was among the first to graduate from the institute in 2011 and is set to be promoted to a higher rank next year" (para 10).
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Between 2002 and 2009, data on women holding the post of head of primary, lower secondary or upper secondary schools were not collected. In the 2009-2010 school year, women accounted for 74.81 per cent of heads of primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, of which in primary schools – 77.60 per cent of heads, in lower secondary schools – 62.69 per cent and in upper secondary schools – 55.33 per cent" (44).
May 31, 2021, 5:31 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"However, women's rights activists say women are still being systemically discriminated against in the professional world, job security and advancement are limited, and protections for women facing harassment, abuse and violence are lacking" (para 8).
May 15, 2021, 8:42 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-2

"The think tank pointed out that women are employed in just 14.7 percent of senior roles as judged by its economic participation index despite 72 percent of Japanese women being in the labor force" (para 11).
May 15, 2021, 7:45 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The proportion of women on the boards of the 100 biggest listed companies rose 1.4 percentage points to 17.6% as of end-2020 from a year earlier, according to the Council for Board Diversity. The target was 20%. Some companies didn’t view board diversity as a priority last year as they battled the global outbreak, the council said...While there were more first-time directors appointed to boards of the top 100 firms, they remain mostly male. One common feedback from companies is that many female candidates don’t have prior board experience, the council said" (para 2, 6, 7).
March 25, 2021, 7:54 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"A radio and television broadcaster in eastern Afghanistan that has had four of its female employees murdered since December has said it will not hire any more women until security in the country improves" (para 1).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There are only 16 per cent of men engaged in the process of school education that usually occupy leadership positions. That is why girls of school age perceive men as the only managers, because such pattern they observe within the walls of their educational establishment" (34). "The most obvious manifestation and result of gender inequality in the labour sphere is significant gender gap in the level of employment revenue that accumulates and reflects the influence of other inequality aspects: gender based occupational segregation, manifestation of discrimination practice by employers...roles of the dominating gender stereotypes regarding distribution of social roles in society etc" (35).
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:30 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Japan’s prime minister, Shinzo Abe, has long promoted a platform of elevating women in the workplace. Yet many women are held back because they bear a heavy load at home" (para 15).
Dec. 31, 2020, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Mothers face so much wage and hiring discrimination that many hide their children’s photos, while proud new dads often get raises" (para 3).
Dec. 23, 2020, 2:47 p.m.
Countries: Libya
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The past two years have had serious impact on and for women, many of whom have emerged as voices in the political arena and as community change agents, running NGOs and providing services" (2).
Aug. 13, 2020, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"A relatively small proportion of women occupy decision-making positions in the business, political, and public sectors, and there is a 35 percent wage gap between men and women. The Economist magazine’s 'Glass Ceiling Index,' which evaluates women’s higher education, women in managerial positions, and number of female members in parliament, gives South Korea the lowest rank among countries that belong to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)" (para. 3).
July 26, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"A key focus of Abe's womenomics policy has been the so-called 30% targets, which aim to increase the presence of women in leadership positions to 30% by 2020. It is important to note that the 30% targets are not new policy initiatives. Rather, they have been a key strategy of the Gender Equality Bureau, a division of the Japanese Cabinet Office, since its establishment in 2001 during a shake-up of government ministries. In 2005, the Gender Equality Bureau announced its Second Basic Plan for Gender Equality with the aim: "to expand women's participation in every field so that women will have at least 30% of the leadership positions in all...more
June 28, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

The figure titled "Roughly four-in-ten working women say they've experienced gender discrimination at work" shows the percentage of adults who have experienced workplace discrimination because of their gender. The figure shows that 5% of men and 10% of women had been passed over for the most important assignments, 5% of men and 7% of women had been denied a promotion because of their gender, and 4% of men and 7% of women had been turned down for a job because of their gender (para 4).
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The significant underrepresentation of women in management positions in private companies" (9).
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Out of the 2,050 employees in the Administration of the City of Belgrade, 1,241 are women (60 per cent). The gender structure of middle and higher management is biased towards women, with 268 women (63.8 per cent) compared with 171 men (36.2 per cent). Out of this number of women in managerial positions, 259 have higher education qualifications" (27).