The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-3

Nov. 17, 2022, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"For women working with the palm oil companies, it is hard work for a low pay. They walk long distances to work. There is no proper medical attention; there are dismissals without benefits; they don't have labour rights (they keep them as 'casual workers' without contract, and can be sacked at anytime); they have no health insurance or coverage for accidents on duty" (para 19).
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"...Moreover, there has been a marked increase in the number of women that hold decision-making, leadership and management positions, particularly in the public sector" (6).
July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In 2016, 1.6 per cent women held a managerial position (2,000 women) compared with 3.4 per cent men (6,100 men). As such, the share of women holding such position has been constant between 2013 and 2016 (about 30 per cent through all occupation groups)" (29).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Following the continuing gender imbalances on boards and in private decision- making processes, the Government in 2013 adopted landmark legislation in order to promote women’s access to leading positions. The law ensures that large companies set targets for the gender balance on their boards as well as ensures a range of activities to progress gender equality and women’s opportunities in these companies. As a result, the share of women e.g. on company boards has increased, and there is a higher awareness about the benefits of diversity in management" (5). "In 2017, the Committee for Music of the Danish Arts Foundation published a Charter for Diversity in Danish Music including gender...more
May 30, 2022, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"In general, women’s positions are less senior than men’s: many more women work as salaried employees without managerial functions, while men much more often work independently or as salaried members of management or perform an executive function. That inequality is present even when men and women have the same degree of education. Since the mid-1990s, the proportion of self-employed women has increased slightly. Among men, no significant change was found in their professional situation. Women constitute a third of employees in managerial and supervisory positions. That proportion has changed little since 1996. However, if we look at women’s representation on the governing bodies of the hundred largest Swiss companies over...more
May 27, 2022, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"As per the results of household employment survey, the rate of high or middle level female managers in the companies was raised to 16,3 per cent in 2018 from 14,4 per cent in 2012" (13).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Suriname Enterprise data furthermore suggest that Suriname’s female participation rate in top management is lowest among Latin American and Caribbean countries. Suriname has the lowest percentage of firms with female participation in ownership, 18.3 per cent (40.4 per cent for LAC), as well as one of the lowest percentages of women in top management positions, 15 per cent" (21).
May 12, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and women enjoyed the same legal status and rights as men. The law recognizes joint property in marriages. The law mandates equal pay for men and women in equivalent jobs. Although an illegal hiring practice, some employers continued to request pregnancy tests. There were two cases reported in the countryside of temporary workers who terminated their pregnancies once the condition became obvious, presumably due to fear of being fired" (12-13). "...NGOs noted that during job interviews, women were often asked if they were married, pregnant, or planned to have children in the future. It was common practice for human resources offices to terminate...more
April 17, 2022, 12:06 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2016 of the combined eighth and ninth periodic reports of the State party (CEDAW/C/SWE/8-9) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following: Amendments to the Discrimination Law, requiring employers to promote gender parity in management positions, in 2017" (1). "The Committee remains concerned at the low number of women in leadership positions in academia, in senior management positions and on the boards of private companies" (4).
March 28, 2022, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Latvia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There were instances of hiring and pay discrimination against women, particularly in the private sector" (13).
March 25, 2022, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The BSPK also reported instances of employers discriminating against female candidates in employment interviews and illegally firing women for being pregnant or requesting maternity leave" (32).
March 25, 2022, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women generally did not enjoy the same professional opportunities or wages as men, and employers often relegated them to more menial or lower-paying jobs" (41).
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women who worked in the private sector, and especially nonnationals, regularly did not receive equal benefits and reportedly faced discrimination in promotions and pay. Labor law prohibits women from working in hazardous, strenuous, or physically or morally harmful jobs" (29). "...Women who worked in the private sector, and especially nonnationals, regularly did not receive equal benefits and reportedly faced discrimination in promotions and equality of wages..." (38). "There is no national minimum wage. There was very limited information on average domestic, agricultural, or construction worker salaries or on public sector salaries. In some sectors minimum wages were determined by workers’ nationality and years of experience" (38). Wages being set based...more
March 10, 2022, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"...While the law prohibits discrimination in employment and educational opportunities based on gender, there was a persistent underrepresentation of women in high-ranking positions. Arbitrary dismissal of pregnant women and workplace discrimination against women were common. The law stipulates that women should receive equal pay for equal work, but women often were paid less than men. The National Institute of Statistics estimated that, as of 2018, women’s earnings were an average of 68 percent of their male counterparts’ earnings" (14).
Feb. 24, 2022, 10:11 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1, NGOFW-DATA-1

"Unemployment disproportionately affected women, who faced hiring discrimination and received salaries that generally were not commensurate with their education and experience. The NGO Sisma Mujer reported that on average women were paid 28 percent less than men. In a previous year, a senior government official estimated that 85 percent of persons with disabilities were unemployed. Afro-Colombian labor unions reported discrimination in the port sector" (40).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women generally enjoyed the same legal status and rights as men. Nonetheless, gender-related discrimination was widespread. Women experienced more difficulty than men in securing employment" (14).
Feb. 11, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination with respect to employment occurred against LGBTI persons, women, and migrant workers" (48).
Feb. 4, 2022, 7:59 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Under the law public and private authorities must advance gender equality in all areas of society. The law mandates that 40 percent of the members of boards of directors of publicly listed companies be women. Although women have the same legal status as men, they experienced discrimination in terms of gaining employment as well as discrimination in the workplace itself (see section 7.d.). As of September, 78 of 300 (26 percent) complaints reported to the tribunal involved gender discrimination" (11).
Jan. 21, 2022, 9:22 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women faced widespread employment discrimination, because employers usually preferred to hire men, with women overrepresented in low-paying positions" (27).
Jan. 15, 2022, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"[W]omen experienced discrimination in employment, including in pay and promotion to managerial and executive positions" (21).
Jan. 14, 2022, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Belize
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, AFE-PRACTICE-2, AFE-PRACTICE-3, NGOFW-DATA-1

"Despite legal provisions for gender equality and government programs aimed at empowering women, NGOs and other observers reported women faced social and economic discrimination. Although participating in all spheres of national life and outnumbering men in university classrooms and having higher high school graduation rates, women held relatively few top managerial or government positions" (12).
Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"No law mandates nondiscrimination based on gender in hiring, although the law prohibits discrimination in employment based on sex. Nonetheless, women continued to face discrimination on the job as well as in hiring (see section 7.d.)" (28). "...[I]n June a transgendered professor at the University of the Philippines disclosed that the reviewing committee denied her tenure application by citing both professional and interpersonal concerns. She believes her denial was due, in part, to her being transgender. Women faced discrimination both in hiring and on the job. Some labor unions claimed female employees suffered punitive action when they became pregnant. Although women faced workplace discrimination, they continued to occupy positions at...more
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. According to the Economist’s 2018 glass ceiling index, women held 14.5 percent of the members of company boards, based on 2017 data. Women’s rights organizations asserted that Romani women could suffer multiple forms of discrimination on the basis of gender, ethnicity, and class, and experienced barriers to equal access in education, health care, housing, employment, and justice" (26). "Observers asserted that discrimination in employment and occupation occurred with respect to Roma, women, and persons with disabilities. According to NGOs, there was economic discrimination against women in the workplace, particularly against job seekers older than 50...more
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Discrimination based on gender in compensation, professional training, hiring, and dismissal was common. Employers often preferred to hire men to save on maternity and child-care costs and to avoid the perceived unreliability associated with women with small children" (71).
Nov. 17, 2021, 8:27 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"As of June the council reported that women’s representation on boards of the largest 100 companies listed on the Singapore Exchange was 15.7 percent, while women filled 24.5 percent of positions on statutory boards, and 27.4 percent of those on registered nongovernment organizations and charities" (32).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"The law prohibits discrimination with respect to employment and occupation and the government effectively enforced the law, although discrimination in employment and occupation still occurred with respect to race and ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation. The government requires companies with more than 50 workers to reserve 2 percent of their jobs for persons with disabilities" (25).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Women received lower salaries due to limited opportunities for advancement and the types of industries that employed them. According to the State Statistics Office, men earned on average 23 percent more than women. The gap was not caused by direct discrimination in the setting of wages, but by horizontal and vertical stratification of the labor market: Women were more likely to work in lower-paid sectors of the economy and in lower positions. Women held fewer elected or appointed offices at the national and regional levels. In July government research on women and men in the energy sector was presented to identify possible ways to resolve the problem of gender imbalance...more
Oct. 28, 2021, 12:31 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"Female employees in the private sector may invoke laws prohibiting discrimination against women. Depending on the Federal Equality Commission’s findings, labor courts may award the equivalent of up to four months’ salary to women found to have experienced gender discrimination in promotion, despite being better qualified than their competitors. The courts may also order compensation for women denied a post despite having equal qualifications" (Page 15).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3

"There was discrimination against women with respect to employment and occupation" (21).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-LAW-2

"Women are often asked to have permission from a male guardian even if it’s not written in the regulations. So, the government told us that women don’t need male permission to work, yet in many government jobs HR [human resources departments] were saying: ‘Show us a letter from a man'" (para 9).