The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-4

March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Universities are implementing programs to help female students that have not been able to academically progress. Some government universities have remedial programs that consist of short-term skill trainings in different areas like Information Technology (IT), surveying, hotel management, hairdressing and secretary in TVET Colleges. This intervention helps female students to start their own business or get employment. During the remedial program, female students are provided with dormitory and cafeteria service at the University" (15).
March 16, 2023, 3:33 a.m.
Countries: Hungary, Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“These problems appear similar to those faced by female-headed businesses in other CEE countries. For example, in Russia women entrepreneurs cited high taxes (90 per cent); an unstable legal environment (81 per cent); limited access to capital (67 per cent); corruption and racketeering (55 per cent), and the Mafia (40 per cent) as the major problems. However, in Hungary women mentioned that the major problems were in finding premises and equipment (40 per cent); lack of demand (40 per cent); need for capital (21 per cent); and high interest rates and taxes (17 per cent)” (41).
March 16, 2023, 3:32 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“Women entrepreneurs appear to have a restricted network structure. However, informal sources of information are used more often than formal ones, no matter whether the question is about internal and external markets, or about specific information for the management of a firm. More women entrepreneurs contact their friends and families (59 per cent); their clients (51 per cent); their partners (41 per cent), and business collaborators (37 per cent), than business associations, chambers of commerce or women’s NGOs. Only a small percentage (8 per cent) stated that they would consult other businesswomen. Businesswomen active in the hotels and restaurants management, in particular, rely on personal contacts (73 per cent of...more
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“The survey indicates that women-owned companies start with less capital than men’s businesses. In 56 per cent of surveyed cases, companies owned by women were established with less than US$1,000 of start-up capital. Approximately 28 per cent of surveyed firms were established with between US$ 1,000 and US$ 5,000, and only 8 per cent were founded with over US$ 10,000. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that women may ask for a smaller amount of capital. There are various reasons for this, as women tend to start in sectors where less capital is required (i.e. trade or services) and they tend to be more averse to risk” (33). “In...more
March 14, 2023, 7:28 a.m.
Countries: Albania, Hungary, Russia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“In Albania, 40 per cent of women-owned companies used family savings to start-up their enterprise; in Hungary this figure is approximately 26 per cent. In contrast, 22 per cent of Russian businesswomen used formal sources (a bank credit), which is higher than in any of the other transition countries documented.”
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Women remain under-represented on the boards of directors of public agencies and administrations, and are less represented in management positions in public enterprises and legal entities with high financial power and profitable business operations. Their presence is growing in lower decision-making positions, especially in executive positions with no influence on decision-making. Roma and Egyptian women, women with disabilities, and members of other vulnerable groups are visibly absent from public and political life" (16). "[O]ne in two citizens believes that successful business women must inevitably neglect their families" (32).
Feb. 22, 2023, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“Opportunity-driven entrepreneurship is slightly higher among women than men in Bulgaria and the gap in participation in early-stage entrepreneurial activities is much lower than the EU average. Nonetheless, it is estimated that gender gaps remain significant in participation in self-employment, part-time employment; entrepreneurship and decision-making processes” (26). “The under-representation of women among entrepreneurs and managers can be attributed to gender specific challenges and empirical research indicates a gender gap in perception of barriers to business creation. Obstacles often cited by women include a lack of business idea and difficulties combining self-employment with family responsibilities” (26). “Indeed, Bulgarian women still bear most of responsibility of care for family and dependents, limiting...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 12:45 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“The rate of youth who are not in employment, education or training (NEETs) is well above the EU average, despite the implementation of the Youth Guarantee and is particularly high among Roma youth (61 percent) especially girls. The majority of NEETs are women and Bulgaria has the highest share of NEETs due to family responsibilities (above 30 percent) among those with basic education in the EU” (9). “Nearly 43.4 percent of the population reported that a fear of failure was a barrier to business creation over the 2013-17 period, which was slightly below the EU average (46.2 percent). Seniors and women were the most likely to indicate that a fear...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“Alternatively, more and more mothers are looking for opportunities in some form of economic activity – own business, small family business, partnership. Extremely important for mothers is the possibility of new, flexible forms of employment and business activity, balancing with the obligations at home. In addition to funding programs and sources of financing, mothers are trying to find appropriate legal form for doing business, and a relevant tax framework. There is also a lack of supporting structures – business incubators, accelerators, networks” (second paragraph). “Young mothers find the most support in their family, with grandparents and close relatives traditionally involved in raising children and helping family or family businesses. Many...more
Feb. 22, 2023, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“Bulgaria is a good model in Europe for a high share of women in business, Slavyanka Stoykova, President of the Selena Association of Women Entrepreneurs in Bulgaria and ambassador of the Women’s Entrepreneurship Day Organization in Bulgaria, told BNR-Varna” (first paragraph). “Slavyanka would describe herself as an "entrepreneur at heart". She has several businesses of her own, the main one being the distribution of cosmetic products. According to her, retail and services in areas such as accounting, marketing, law, cosmetics, medicine and education are areas where Bulgarian businesswomen find their niche. Although their companies are usually micro, small and medium in scale, Stoykova said” (second paragraph). "(In reference to the...more
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women] recommends that the State party...[p]romote women's access to markets for their goods and products and economically protect women's intergenerational intellectual property in their textile, artisanal and craft production" (13). "The Committee notes with concern…[t]he concentration of women's entrepreneurship in low-profit sectors, such as wholesale and retail trade and agriculture, and in home-based work" (13). "The Committee...notes with concern...[r]ural women's very limited access to land ownership and agricultural assets and the low percentage of women leading small agribusinesses and working on contracts in agriculture" (13-14).
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined seventh and eighth periodic reports (CEDAW/C/AUT/7-8) in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the following: (a) Adoption of the amendments to the Equal Treatment Act, the Act on the Equal Treatment Commission and on the Ombud for Equal Treatment, in 2013; (b) Repeal of restrictions for female workers in the Regulation Governing Employment Bans and Restrictions for Female Workers, in 2015...(f) Adoption of the Law on Equality of Women and Men in Supervisory Boards of Companies, in 2017. The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating...more
Jan. 12, 2023, 8:01 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"During the Somoza dictatorship, supported by the US and its allies, many women lived in slave-like conditions. They were prevented from owning property, accessing health care, directly receiving salaries, or attending formal education" (para 4) (NF - CODER COMMENT - The laws and practices that were in place under the Somoza dictatorship completely barred women from owning land and/or property, essentially preventing them from owning businesses. Additionally, women were unable to receive direct salaries, thus causing major roadblocks to women who wanted to enter the workforce). "'At the very young age of 11 years (during the Somoza dictatorship), I worked in the fields, the campesino life. I didn’t have land;...more
Sept. 16, 2022, 6:02 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"'I have felt in my career that there is no differentiation between men and women in business,' Kowtow's founder and creative director Gosia Piatek told me. She did add that on occasion she felt judged for choosing to run a business while being a mother. But Piatek says that has changed since Jacinda Ardern was elected prime minister last year and has shown that working mothers can run a country and have a baby" (para 3). "Of course, there's still a way to go. There's always a way to go. By all accounts Deanna Yang's Moustache Milk & Cookie Bar is a success. They've been open for six years. They...more
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"In 2019, the Women’s Economic Project award was given to a deserving female entrepreneur, one of the recipients of the Head of State Award for the Advancement of Women" (21). "As part of this project, the State has developed income-generating activities and management training for those women. More than 300 women from five regions were provided with equipment to begin producing handicrafts" (25). "The women, who are grouped into associations or cooperatives, have received capacity-building training in order to better learn how these types of groups are organized and operate" (25). "Since the project was launched, dozens of fairs have been organized in various tourist sites and major hotels, allowing...more
July 6, 2022, 10:19 a.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"A lack of gender parity in the business world also plays a role, since certain male business owners and shareholders will benefit from various tax credits" (11).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The Indonesian Government has provided wider access for women entrepreneurs to finance through various financial capital sources such as government-subsidized micro loans/Kredit Usaha Rakyat (KUR), revolving fund management institution (LPDB), community saving and loan groups or cooperatives, and micro finance institutions" (29).
June 28, 2022, 2:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Overall, one in five (20%) ever-married women are self-employed" (33). "Eighty-seven percent of ever-married women age 15-49 have access to Grameen Bank, 91% have access to BRAC income-generating activities, and 89% have access to ASA. Women’s access to BRAC income-generating activities increased from 80% to 91% between 2014 and 2017-18. Similarly, women’s access to ASA increased from 74% to 89%" (248). "Women in rural areas are more likely than women in urban areas to have access to Grameen Bank (91% versus 77%), BRAC (94% versus 83%), and ASA (91% versus 84%). Twenty-three percent of women in urban areas have access to cottage industries of the Bangladesh Small Industries Corporation (BSIC),...more
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"...Men work to a higher degree than women in professions sensitive to the business cycle. Therefore, men’s unemployment rate might fluctuate more between recession and boom than women’s" (21).
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"To solve the problem of bottlenecks created by insufficient venture capital for women, since 2009 a policy of providing small secured loans with government interest rate subsidies to urban and rural women has been put in place. As of the end of December 2010, women nationwide had received 23.686 billion yuan in small secured loans, with the central and local governments providing a total of nearly 989 million yuan for interest rate subsidies, thus enabling 543,200 urban and rural women to become entrepreneurs, benefiting more than 3 million people" (10).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The Government, in collaboration with development partners, NGOs and the private sector (banks, credit cooperatives), has invested in the provision of microfinance credit to address immediate household needs of poor households, support women in the development of small scale women businesses and increase access of female entrepreneurs to credits" (37). "In this context, the Micro Credit Fund (‘Micro Kredietfonds’) was established in February 2010, enabling small scale entrepreneurs (the majority of whom is female) access to small loans from SRD 5,000 tot SRD 6,000 with or without collateral. The funds which were reserved for this programme are being managed by the ‘Suritrust Bank’, while loans are being provided through the...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Female entrepreneurship today represents 24% of the totality (June 2008), with the rate over the average in the following fields: Agriculture (29.3%); hotels and restaurants (33.7%); and trade (27.5%). The prevalent form is the individual firm, but also joint-stock companies and cooperative societies have grown too. 5,523 new female companies were born from June 2007 through June 2008" (101). "The international financial crisis has struck in recent years the entrepreneurial sector. From the data of the Bank of Italy (2008), it strongly emerges the restriction of credit and the associated problems’ of the banks to disburse it, which predominantly affects small and medium-sized enterprises and craft, where the female component...more
Feb. 23, 2022, 3:02 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Women experienced discrimination in employment and operating businesses" (24).
Feb. 11, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"In media reports the RTP cited the need for this requirement given that police investigations require hard work and the perception that female officers take frequent sick leave or abruptly resign" (34).
Jan. 6, 2022, 3 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Saynab Abdikarin first woman to drive a rickshaw taxi in the streets of Somalia, commonly known as 'Bajaaj.' This industry is seen more for men than women" (1).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali

"Women experienced economic discrimination due to social norms that favored men, and their access to education and employment was limited" (23).
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The Committee notes with concern the lack of initiatives to expand the scope and scale of rural women’s entrepreneurship, the focus of which is mainly on traditional micro-level and home-based activities" (15).
Sept. 14, 2021, 9:15 a.m.
Countries: Ghana

"The camp is densely populated by women who’ve similarly been accused of using 'black magic,' perhaps because they were successful farmers, were good in school, had profitable businesses, or dared to interfere with matters reserved only for men. Sometimes, even inevitable occurrences like deaths or illnesses in a village are enough to land a woman in exile. Widows left with land but without a man to protect their interests are particularly common targets. So are the mentally ill, or any other females deemed difficult or undesirable by their villages. 'To get me out of their community, [my husband’s family] accused me of using witchcraft,' says Tachira. 'I am a freeloader...more
Aug. 17, 2021, 2:50 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone

"Discrimination occurred in access to credit, equal pay for similar work, and the ownership and management of a business" (p 20).
Aug. 3, 2021, 12:21 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Lagos, Nigeria — For many years, Rose's clothing store was the destination of choice for Lagos women in search of a new outfit for a party or occasion. She traveled regularly to textile hubs in Turkey to source high-quality fabrics for her clients and her children helped out in the family business on busy days during December festivities. The small store in Oshodi -- in the heart of the bustling Nigerian city -- did a booming trade until personal tragedy struck the businesswoman in 2015" (para 1-3). "African women are often excluded from social and economic plans -- safety nets they desperately need -- after the death of a spouse...more