The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for ERBG-PRACTICE-4

June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Between 2004 and 2006, supportive measures, such as business start-up subsidies, were provided under Measure 1.6 Occupational integration and re-integration of women of the Sectoral Operational Programme Human Resources Development. 3,665 such business start-up subsidies were granted to women under that measure...Until the end of 2010, 35,988 women and 60,904 men received subsidies to start their own businesses under the OP HC" (50).
May 18, 2021, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"To promote gender equality in the workforce, the U.N. Economic Empowerment Program in Albania provides resources for programs and initiatives. Such initiatives aim to expand vocational training and encourage female entrepreneurship throughout the country" (para 1).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Female entrepreneurship today represents 24% of the totality (June 2008), with the rate over the average in the following fields: Agriculture (29.3%); hotels and restaurants (33.7%); and trade (27.5%). The prevalent form is the individual firm, but also joint-stock companies and cooperative societies have grown too. 5,523 new female companies were born from June 2007 through June 2008" (101). "The international financial crisis has struck in recent years the entrepreneurial sector. From the data of the Bank of Italy (2008), it strongly emerges the restriction of credit and the associated problems’ of the banks to disburse it, which predominantly affects small and medium-sized enterprises and craft, where the female component...more
March 16, 2021, 3:56 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“Women entrepreneurs have also made a significant impact in all segments of the economy. The impact of women entrepreneurs on economic development of Rwanda, a case study of women entrepreneurs in expo 2010 organised by Rwanda private sector federation, states Rwanda has the second-highest ratio of female entrepreneurs in Africa” (para 27).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Highly motivated for entrepreneurial activity Ukrainian women are not yet sufficiently involved in business the overall score of Ukraine according to Policy Index in small and medium business is 1.5 out of 5 possible" (35). "According to the study of gender equality in the entrepreneurship carried out by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) it is more difficult to start a business for women in Ukraine because of lack of access to the resources. It is more difficult for a woman to get a bank loan. Privatization in Ukraine is actually passed by the women 95 per cent of the capital is concentrated in the hands of men, and only 5...more
Jan. 7, 2021, 6:52 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“According to the report, almost all the women interviewed have lost sources of income since the project began, due to land confiscation, destruction of farmlands and restricted access to the coast” (para. 6). “Traditional livelihoods, such as shellfish collection carried out by women, have been “drastically affected” by the project. “Just over a third of the women now have no income at all from their former livelihoods,” the report said” (para. 8).
Dec. 24, 2020, 12:53 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, CL-PRACTICE-1

"The overrepresentation of women in low-paying industries, the imbalanced care burden placed on women, discrimination, and lack of female representation in executive positions all contribute to the pay gap" (para 11).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-PRACTICE-1

"The 2011 survey conducted by the National Statistical Service of Armenia and the UNFPA also highlights such ways of violence against women as economic disempowerment, including economic deprivation (e.g. witholding of money, confiscation of earnings and savings, forbidding a woman to work)" (para 11).
Aug. 26, 2020, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LBHO-PRACTICE-2

“Kaavya Kaushik is co-chair of Liberal Youth, the youth and student wing of the Lib Dems. She referred to ‘men who end up not taking women politicians seriously.’ She also said sometimes men can be so scared of causing offence that they become highly patronising, which can be equally off putting” (para 20-21) Some men do not take women in politics seriously, implying that they see politics as more of a male’s job (MLB-CODER COMMENT).
Aug. 26, 2020, 1:29 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

“My name is Julienne Lusenge and I’m an activist for women’s rights in the DRC…[The] Family Code says that a married woman is basically a minor. At the age of 55 today I can’t own any property. I can’t own a house, I can’t even own a dog or a car. First I have to ask my husband for permission. He can then sign to say, yes she has bought it. So we’re working to get rid of all that from our Family Code” (para 2, 12) This law in the Famile Code creates barriers for female entrepreneurs wanting to obtain land, property, or other assets (MLB-CODER COMMENT).more
June 28, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Roughly three-quarters of U.S. adults (73%) see gender discrimination in the tech industry as at least a minor problem. Women and men have different views of the size of the problem, though. Among women, 44% say such discrimination is a major problem, a view shared by 29% of men. While the tech industry has drawn attention when it comes to the way women in that field at treated at work, Americans tend not to see gender discrimination as more widespreadin the tech industry than in others. More than half (57%) say there is about the same amount of discrimination against women in tech as there are against women in other...more
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The market economy stimulates private initiative among women. The emergence and increase in the number of women entrepreneurs is leading to the formation of economically independent women’s groups. There is growing interest in new forms of activity, such as private enterprise, individual creativity, and the public sector. A steadily developing system of female entrepreneurship has been established. In accordance with a Government decision of 2 April 2011 on the establishment and allocation of Presidential grants to support and develop women’s entrepreneurial activities in 2011–2015, 40 grants were made every year for a total of 1 million somoni. Since 2013, by Government decision of 5 December 2013, the number of grants...more
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The Committee also notes with concern: (a) The low number of women entrepreneurs in the State party and women’s limited access to the gender-neutral start-up support scheme owing to gender-blind eligibility criteria; (b) The absence of start-up programmes for women, microcredit schemes or a strategy for the economic advancement of women in the State party" (11).
June 23, 2020, 5:49 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Between 2013 and 2016, a special public call for the award of self-employment subsidies was implemented, which enabled 217 Roma persons in total (including 87 Roma women) started their own business" (13). "Promotion of female entrepreneurship was a priority activity for the NES" (32). Table following this statement in page 32 shows the numer of women who attended entrepreneurship development training. In 2013, 995 attended this training. Iin 2014, there were 5013, in 2015 5515 and in 2016 5802. It also shows the number of women who started their own business with self-employment subsidies. In 2013 there were 221 women; in 2014, 363, in 2015; 1688; and in 2016, 1563...more
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Within the gender equality framework for modifying traditional patterns of behaviour in Guatemalan society, the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MINECO) implemented: (…) (b) training processes in development, technical assistance and corporate management in order to reinforce the productivity and competitiveness of businesswomen and female entrepreneurs in the MSE sector through various forms of skills-building and training, with a participatory approach, as a guideline for mainstreaming gender equity in each area addressed" (18).
April 23, 2020, 4:18 p.m.
Countries: Liberia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"It was the mobilisation of these women micro-entrepreneurs and their political vote that brought Sirleaf into power, indicating that small businesses run by women in developing countries like those in Africa and Asia are the backbone of these economies, providing livelihood, production and exchange. In Liberia, they may have transformed the political set-up, but will the new initiatives to strengthen the country's economy continue to see them as an engine of growth?" (para. 3).
March 28, 2020, 7:35 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, ERBG-DATA-5

"Forty percent of these entrepreneurs are under 35, and 50 percent are women. The number female entrepreneurs and their wealth are much higher than their counterparts in western countries" (para 2). "Another important finding in the survey is that of all the Asian entrepreneurs surveyed, 40 percent of them are women. On Chinese mainland, 37 percent of entrepreneurs surveyed are female and over 52 percent of them are under the age of 35. In comparison, the percentage of female entrepreneurs in the West is only 31 percent. The average asset of female entrepreneurs on the mainland is 4 million dollars, exceeding male entrepreneurs' 3.5 million dollars" (para 6).more
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-LAW-1, IAW-LAW-1

"By law women may own property, but they often ceded control of it to male relatives due to cultural reasons and family pressure" (29).
Dec. 14, 2019, 3:07 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"But she started her own business two years ago-- a café-- and is confident she can support herself (para 39).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The number of female entrepreneurs keeps growing, now accounting for one quarter of the total number of entrepreneurs in China. The government has initiated an action plan to promote entrepreneurship and innovation among women, encouraging women to seek employment in emerging industries. About 55 percent of new Internet businesses are being founded by women" (para. 14).
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Land titles of farmers who kill themselves in an Indian state will be given to their widows, according to a government order, granting inheritance equality in a nation where their property rights are often denied. A Maharashtra state government order issued this week said the widows would also receive assistance with their children's education, and access to welfare benefits such as the rural jobs scheme" (para. 1-2). "Widows often face difficulty in claiming their husband's property and in receiving government compensation and other benefits, human rights activists said. 'The land does not get automatically transferred to the widow. It is often the husband's male relatives who will take it,' said...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Land titles of farmers who kill themselves in an Indian state will be given to their widows, according to a government order, granting inheritance equality in a nation where their property rights are often denied. A Maharashtra state government order issued this week said the widows would also receive assistance with their children's education, and access to welfare benefits such as the rural jobs scheme" (para. 1-2). "Widows often face difficulty in claiming their husband's property and in receiving government compensation and other benefits, human rights activists said. 'The land does not get automatically transferred to the widow. It is often the husband's male relatives who will take it,' said...more
Nov. 14, 2019, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"It even rankled that [Ms Shahindokht Molaverdi] had managed to become the first woman in Iran to secure a license to run a notary office, the privilege of clerics since the early 20th century" (para 6).
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Despite gender segregation, the law grants women the right to obtain business licenses with the approval of their guardians, and women frequently obtained licenses in fields that might require them to supervise foreign workers, interact with male clients, or deal with government officials" (51).
July 12, 2019, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"The first Operational Strategy for Women’s Economic Empowerment (2014 2018) builds on the MDG Acceleration Framework Cambodia Action Plan 2013–2015, which prioritizes the enhancement of micro, small and medium enterprises led by women" (41).
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LBHO-PRACTICE-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, GP-DATA-3

"Legal status and rights under family, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws are the same for men and women. The law prohibits discrimination based on gender, and the National Women’s Committee promoted the legal rights of women. Women historically have held leadership positions across all sectors of society, although they were not as prevalent as men, and cultural and religious practices limited their effectiveness. The government provided little data that could be used to determine whether women experienced discrimination in access to employment or credit or were paid less for substantially similar work. The labor code prohibits women from working in many industries open to men" (Pg 29).more
July 8, 2019, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4

"Women experienced discrimination in access to employment, credit, and income, and were underrepresented in business ownership and senior or managerial positions (see section 7.d.). According to the International Labor Organization’s (ILO’s) 2015 report on “Women in Business and Management,” women held 20 percent of management positions. The World Bank 2014 Enterprise Survey indicated 15 percent of firms were headed by women" (Pg 29-30).
July 4, 2019, 9:20 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, ASR-PRACTICE-1

"Saudi women still need permission from their male guardians to get a passport, leave the country and to pursue certain kinds of jobs or medical treatments" (para 24).
June 26, 2019, 11:12 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, ERBG-LAW-1

"The law requires equal pay for equal work. Women formed a negligible part of those employed in both the formal public and private sectors because of girls’ low education level. Women were not subject to discrimination in owning or managing businesses, except in al-Shabaab-controlled areas. Al-Shabaab claimed women’s participation in economic activities was anti-Islamic" (Pg 35).
June 24, 2019, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women generally have the same legal status and rights as men under family law, property law, employment/labor law, and inheritance laws. The law requires equal pay for equal work or work of equal value. Women experienced discrimination in such areas as employment, credit, pay, owning or managing businesses, education, and housing" (Pg 19-20).