The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for GIC-LAW-1

Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

" The Population and Family Planning Law permits married couples to have two children and allows couples to apply for permission to have a third child if they meet conditions stipulated in local and provincial regulations" (66). "State media claimed the number of coerced abortions had declined in recent years in the wake of loosened regulations, including the implementation of the two-child policy. Nevertheless, citizens were subject to hefty fines for violating the law, while couples who had only one child received a certificate entitling them to collect a monthly incentive payment and other benefits that vary by province--from approximately six to 12 yuan (one to two dollars) per month...more
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"There were reports of discrimination in employment, and the CPD adjudicated 44 cases through July. In one example, the CPD received a complaint against Philip Morris Albania, alleging the company fired a woman because she went on maternity leave. The CPD ruled the company had discriminated against the woman based on gender. The company appealed the decision to the administrative court, which upheld the CPD decision; the plaintiff can seek compensation in the trial court system" (p 19).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"Although parental leave and even more importantly, the parental benefit is also accessible to men, the p ercentage of men using the opportunity has been relatively low, being 7, 5% in 2013. At the same time, as the system of parental benefit is based on previous salary of the parent, the cause for lack of men taking parental leave should not be a negative eff ect on the family s income only around one tenth of men say that the most important reason for their not taking leave was related to financial rationale" (11). "result of raising a child. According to the Act, the state will pay 4% on the...more
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"The government effectively enforced applicable laws and regulations prohibiting employment discrimination. Authorities generally enforced the law in cases of sexual harassment, and there was no evidence of police or judicial reluctance to act. Companies may receive 'special sanctions' for infractions such as denying maternity leave. Such penalties were generally sufficient to deter violations..." (21).
Aug. 4, 2021, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"China has long promised to overhaul policies that affected families, but changes had been slow. The only real shift in the last five years, said Lu Hongping, a professor of population studies at Hebei University, had been a lengthening of statutory maternity leave to around 160 days in most areas. But even then, he said, it was too short" (Para 10). "On the same day that the government announced it would relax birth limits, Li Li, a middle-level manager at a technology company in Beijing, was approached by her boss. He anxiously asked Ms. Li, 35, who is pregnant with her second child, how long exactly she would be away...more
July 20, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"A 2019 UNICEF report found, however, that even when fathers are provided paid leave, they don't necessarily take it: 'In Japan, the only country that offers at least six months at full pay for fathers, only 1 in 20 took paid leave in 2017.'" (Para 10)
July 20, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"The UNICEF report noted that among the 31 wealthy nations it studied, the United States was the only country that has no national paid leave policy for mothers or fathers." (Para 13)
July 20, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"In Germany, the parental leave policy is designed to encourage fathers to take the time off. The basic parental allowance there grants 12 months paid leave. But if both parents apply for leave, the allowance can be extended to 14 months." (Para 12)
July 20, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"Sweden has Europe's most generous leave policy, offering 240 days per parent. Many of those days can be transferred to the other parent, but 90 of them cannot. That means that families wanting to maximize the leave would both take significant time off." (Para 6)
July 9, 2021, 7:11 p.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: PHBP-PRACTICE-1, ERBG-PRACTICE-3, ERBG-DATA-1, CRPLB-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"For example, in January 2021, the Seoul city government uploaded guidance for pregnant women to make sure to check if there is plenty of toilet paper in the house, make meals for husbands, and to pay attention to their looks by hanging smaller size clothes to motivate themselves to lose weight after giving birth. And the discrimination against pregnant women begins long before the actual pregnancy. In hiring processes, interviewers routinely ask women invasive questions about their plans to get pregnant, with some openly telling female candidates it would be difficult to hire them because the company does not want to pay for maternity leave. According to a local survey,...more
July 7, 2021, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"New mothers returning to work after maternity leave could receive greater protection against being made redundant.Theresa May said last night she wanted to see current rules that safeguard women's jobs during their baby's first year extended for six months after they go back. The change is designed to end the perceived default situation that when a business has to make staff cutbacks, the new mother is usually one of the first to be offered redundancy."(para 1-3)."At present, employers who want to make a new mother redundant have to prove the reason is unconnected with her pregnancy or maternity leave"(para 9)."Business minister Kelly Tolhurst said: 'Pregnancy and maternity discrimination is illegal....more
June 25, 2021, 9:20 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"Finland's government, led by 34-year-old Prime Minister Sanna Marin, has announced a new policy that will grant nearly seven months of paid leave to each parent, for a total of 14 months of paid leave. The pregnant parent also can receive one month of pregnancy allowance even before the parental leave starts. The new policy is designed to be gender-neutral and will come into effect as soon as fall 2021. It will eliminate gender-based allowances that currently grant about four months of paid leave to mothers and about two months to fathers. Parents will be permitted to transfer 69 days from their own quota to the other parent. A single...more
June 25, 2021, 6:09 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"When China’s government ordered women in her mostly Muslim community in the region of Xinjiang to be fitted with contraceptive devices, Qelbinur Sedik pleaded for an exemption. She was nearly 50 years old, she told officials. She had obeyed the government’s birth limits and had only one child. It was no use. The workers threatened to take her to the police if she continued resisting, she said" (para 1-2). "Across much of China, the authorities are encouraging women to have more children, as they try to stave off a demographic crisis from a declining birthrate. But in the Xinjiang region, China is forcing them to have fewer, tightening its grip...more
June 25, 2021, 12:55 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"More Australians will be able to access paid parental leave under a swag of changes aimed at improving women's financial security[...]Currently, parents need to have worked at least 330 hours in 10 of the 13 months prior to their child's birth, with a break of no more than eight weeks between two working days.But parents will now still qualify if they've had a break of up to 12 months, and will be able to move their work test period if they had to stop work early due to a workplace hazard.Extra flexibility will also be added to the scheme, with families able to split their parental leave period into blocks"(para...more
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"The protection of employment relationships of women raising children is tantamount to the prohibition of giving termination notice and terminating the employment agreement from the day of requesting child care leave by the employee to the last day of such leave. During this time, the employment agreement may be terminated only if the employer declares bankruptcy or liquidation and if there are reasons for terminating the employment agreement without notice through the fault of the employee. Furthermore, if the employee entitled to a child care leave files a written request to reduce his/her working time to a minimum of half of the working time in the period when he/she would...more
April 30, 2021, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"Expectant mothers will be allowed to take up to 20 weeks of maternity leave. The South Australian government passed the new laws on Thursday" (para 1). "Male and female MPs will be able to bring their young children to sittings, while expectant mothers have been granted 20 weeks of paid maternity leave without needing weekly authorisation from the House" (para 3).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"...the above Framework was...designed to encourage Regional Administrations, to reach the following quantified targets, by 2013: Increasing the percentage of municipalities offering child-care services, from the current 21% to 35%" (62). "In Italy, [maternity] leave lasts five months, to be shared in a flexible way before and after the child-birth...the indemnity is equal to 80% of the average wage (to be calculated on the basis of the last month wage before the beginning of the leave)" (65). "...parental leave, as introduced in Italy, in 2000, may be requested by both parents, if employees and when their child is within the age of 8 and for a term not exceeding ten...more
April 22, 2021, 6:30 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

The most recent iteration of this debate happened last year when the Reproductive Healthcare Bill 2019 sponsored by Senator Susan Kihika was proposed to consolidate the 'right to the highest attainable standard of health, including the right to reproductive healthcare' enshrined in Article 43 of the Kenyan Constitution. Much more ambitious than the 2014 bill that preceded it, this piece of legislation proposed to make prenatal, delivery and postnatal services free for every woman in Kenya, outlaw forced sterilization, regulate surrogacy and provide a more solid framework for sex education (para 7).
April 20, 2021, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"Al-Kabbaj also said the number of families benefiting from the state's social safety net programme Takaful and Karama (Solidarity and Dignity) rose to 14.3 million in 2020 from 12 million, with women comprising over 75 per cent of beneficiaries" (para 16). Takaful and Karama is a conditional cash transfer program to families (RAO-CODER COMMENT).
March 13, 2021, 4:47 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"the adoption of the Work and Families Act (2006), which...provides for flexible working arrangements, and extending the statutory maternity pay and maternity allowance from 26 to 39 weeks" (11).
March 4, 2021, 8:34 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"It's illegal to pay a surrogate in the UK, except for medical expenses" (para. 23).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"It occurs due to the fact that women have more vacations, child care leaves, sick leaves, have the child care leave from 3 to 6 years and lose their professional qualification therefore have slow career progression etc. The consequence is absence of labour experience, sick leave payments, annual vacations and other types of social security. During the 2012 inspection of the State Inspection of Ukraine on Labour (of 2.5 thousand of the enterprises), more than 900 violations were detected in the sphere of employed women’s rights late payment of child care leave pays, engagement of pregnant women and mothers of the children under 3 years old in work prohibited by...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 7:44 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: LRW-DATA-1, GIC-LAW-1, ABO-PRACTICE-1, ABO-LAW-1

“P. and S. v. Poland (no. 57375/08) (30 October 2012): The applicants were a daughter and her mother. In 2008, at the age of fourteen, the first applicant became pregnant after being raped. The applicants complained in particular about the absence of a comprehensive legal framework guaranteeing the first applicant’s timely and unhindered access to abortion under the conditions set out by the applicable laws, and about the disclosure of information about the case to the public. They further complained that the first applicant’s removal from the custody of her mother and placement in a juvenile shelter and later in a hospital had been unlawful, and submitted that the circumstances...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to improve its institutional and policy framework aimed at accelerating the elimination of discrimination against women and promoting gender equality, such as the...Introduction of the Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana maternity benefit scheme in 2010" (2). This scheme provides financial assistance to pregnant women (CAT - CODER COMMENT).
Jan. 31, 2021, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"Under Australia's minimum National Employment Standards (NES), all employees with 12 months continuous service are entitled to 12 months unpaid parental leave. Where mothers do not have 12 months service, their employment is often terminated. Paid parental leave is essential to address the gendered wealth gap. The current Federal paid parental leave scheme provides employees with an entitlement to 18 weeks of leave funded by the Government at the minimum wage. Strict eligibility requirements mean that many mothers in the workforce do not meet the work test, and thus cannot access the scheme" (10). "While the NES include a right for parents to request flexible work arrangements, there is no...more
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

“With a view to preventing such practices, on 29 July 2015 the Ministry of Family and Promotion of Women launched a national campaign to prevent early pregnancy and marriage in Angola. Campaign activities have included awareness-raising talks in schools, training events and the distribution of information cards on the causes and consequences of early pregnancy at youth rallies held in collaboration with the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights and civil society. A proposed national strategy for the prevention of early pregnancy and marriage 2018–2022 is currently in the approval phase, and priority activities are being planned to discourage these practices and promote the rights of children and adolescents; these...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: ATFPA-PRACTICE-3, GIC-LAW-1

"Yayoi Kimura, a Liberal Democratic member of the House of Representatives who endorsed the letter, said that when she co-sponsored a bill to provide a tax break for unmarried parents, some of her male colleagues argued that most single mothers were either mistresses of rich men or hyperambitious career women who did not need government assistance. The measure passed, Ms. Kimura said, because women of all parties banded together to vote it through" (para 22-23).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:36 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"As India pushes on ahead with its aim of reducing family sizes, it’s going to need to consider the significant impact it’s having on gender dynamics" (para 6).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:12 p.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, FSCB-LAW-1

"Myanmar's president has signed off on a law requiring some mothers to space their children three years apart despite objections by a visiting senior U.S. diplomat and rights activists, who worry it could be used not only to repress women, but also religious and ethnic minorities. The Population Control Health Care Bill — drafted under pressure from hard-line Buddhist monks with a staunchly anti-Muslim agenda — was passed by parliamentarians last month" (para 1-2). "The population law — which carries no punitive measures — gives regional authorities the power to implement birth-spacing guidelines in areas with high rates of population growth. Though the government says the law is aimed at...more
Dec. 31, 2020, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: GIC-LAW-1

"American women enjoy opportunities and status not available to most of the world’s women, but few would dispute that more progress is needed, as the Shriver report points out. Closing the pay gap and ending domestic violence and workplace discrimination should be priorities. We could start by providing paid family and sick leave. That alone would go a long way to stop the “backsliding” that American women are experiencing now" (para 6).