The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for GIC-LAW-3

March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The legal frameworks further provide for paid maternity leave and guarantee job security during pregnancy and immediately after delivery. In addition, the Civil Servants Proclamation provides for paid paternity leave for five working days at the time of delivery" (16). "[T]he Growth and Transformation Plan — GTP II — provides for the introduction of day care" (16).
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

“In June 2000, Bulgaria ratified selected Articles of Part II of the Social Charter of the Council of Europe, which included provisions for gender equality and some special protections for women, such as the right of women and men workers to equal pay for work of equal value, the right to maternity leave and the payment of adequate benefits” (50). “However, Bulgarian legislation is also lacking in several areas. Most important to the question of women in the labour force is that it does not comply with ratified ILO conventions, namely Convention 100, establishing the right to equal remuneration of women and men for work of equal value. This provision...more
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"A higher degree of protection of the rights of pregnant employees and employees using the right to maternity or parental leave is also provided in the context of protection against termination of employment and a more precise definition of restrictions related to terminating the employment contract (Article 123). In order to protect the rights of pregnant employees, i.e., employees who are breastfeeding, in connection with the medical advice and recommendations of the competent medical doctor, and to take into account the needs of the employer to maintain the work process, the Labour Law introduced the institute of temporary reassignment from jobs which may endanger the life and health of the...more
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The state party welcomes the recommendation and will consult with relevant stakeholders to develop modalities to better regulate the informal employment sector in order to ensure that issues of conditions of employment including maternity leave in terms of the Labour Act are adhered to." (17). "In terms of section 26 of the Labour Act, Act No.11 of 2007, a female employee who has completed six months’ continuous service in the employment of an employer is, with a view to her confinement (date of childbirth), entitled to not less than 12 weeks’ maternity leave, calculated as follows: a) Before her actual date of confinement - (i) she is entitled to commence...more
Feb. 3, 2023, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Tens of thousands of grandparents could be missing out on a little-known pension perk that would boost their income in retirement. The high cost of childcare means increasing numbers of parents rely on relatives to look after their children so they can return to work. But many carers do not realise they are entitled to valuable pension credits that could be worth thousands of pounds to compensate for their time" (para 1-3). "To claim the full new state pension, currently worth £185.15 a week, you need 35 years of National Insurance contributions....If you have children under the age of 12 and claim child benefit, you will automatically receive parents' credits....more
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined seventh and eighth periodic reports... in particular the following:...(c) Adoption of amendments to the Maternity Protection Law and the Paternal Leave Law, which define a legal working time frame for part-time work of parents and extend the period for informing the employer about parental leave plans and which entered into force on 1 January 2016" (1-2). "Only a very low number of men avail themselves of parental leave in the State party and only for short periods...The Committee recommends that the State party:...(e) Strengthen measures aimed at facilitating the reconciliation of professional and private...more
Dec. 9, 2022, 2:29 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"According to new guidelines published on the state-run commission’s website, officials plan to offer incentives to encourage family growth, including expanding access to child-care services, reducing the cost of attending nursery school and working with employers to make offices more 'family friendly' " (para 2).
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"Amending provisions on maternity leave in both the private and public sectors, extending maternity leave to six months" (21).
July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Women represent 32 per cent of the total registered workers. As of October 2019, parenting benefits have been already paid to a total of 1,147 beneficiaries (about 74 per cent maternity and 26 per cent paternity) while the survivor's pension was paid to 708 beneficiaries (87.5 per cent men and 12.5 per cent women)" (31).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Meanwhile, women employment has been boosted with regulations obligating the employers to provide access to maternity leave, lactation rooms and day care centres and flexible working hours for lactating women" (2). "The guarantee for maternity leave, flexible working hours for pregnant women, and providing lactation room and day care in office buildings are among the steps that have been taken to fulfil the rights of working women. To ensure the full implementation of these rights, the MoWECP continues to lobby public and private sectors to allocate integrated special space for day care and lactation in offices, apartment buildings and public places" (30).
June 29, 2022, 11:33 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Strengthen measures to... prioritize the transition of women from part-time to full-time work, with the support of adequate and accessible childcare facilities" (12). This indicates that there are not yet childcare benefits (SFR - CODER COMMENT). "The Committee recommends that the State party:... Guarantee protections for paid maternity, menstruation and breastfeeding leave, and ensure that women will be protected from forced unpaid overtime hours, despite changes to overtime hours and wage laws in Law No. 11/2020 on job creation" (12-13). This indicates there is no guarentee for paid maternity leave (SFR - CODER COMMENT).
June 21, 2022, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The Committee welcomes measures taken to achieve universal school enrolment, which have allowed the State party to reach gender parity in primary and secondary education, and to implement the national policy for the reintegration of adolescent mothers into the formal school system. The Committee expresses concern, however, about the following: (a) The prevalence of sexual harassment of girls in schools by male teachers and pupils; (b) The lack of childcare facilities to facilitate the reintegration of adolescent mothers into the formal education system; (c) Gender and ethnic disparities in enrolment in technical and vocational education and the absence of such training centres in regions 1 and 7 to 9; (d)...more
June 21, 2022, 8:35 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The Committee welcomes the measures taken by the State party to expand the childcare entitlement for working parents in England, Scotland and Wales. However, the Committee is concerned that childcare costs remain excessive, in particular in Northern Ireland, which constitutes an obstacle for women in entering into and progressing in the workplace. In addition, while welcoming the introduction of flexible working arrangements in 2014, the Committee regrets that it can only be exercised after 26 weeks of employment. It also regrets that, notwithstanding the introduction of shared parental leave in 2014, uptake among men has been low" (12).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"A nationwide campaign to promote the use of parental leave by fathers runs in 2017–2020. It was developed in dialogue with companies, organizations and trade unions. Also, a charter with concrete actions was drafted and subsequently signed by a number of private sector actors. In 2019, a pool of DKK 1 mill. was distributed for activities to promote the use of fathers’ leave" (5). "Both mothers and fathers are entitled to state sponsored parental leave and entitlements. Mothers have 18 weeks of paid maternity leave and fathers have 2 weeks of paid paternity leave. Additionally, each parent has the right to 32 weeks of parental leave with a total of...more
June 8, 2022, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Spain

"The party also espouses what Sílvia Claveria, a politics professor at Carlos III University in Madrid, described to me as “modern sexism”: It advocates longer maternity leave and encourages women to be proud mothers, but once women want to separate from or divorce their partners, it shifts positions to take the man’s side..." (Para. 9).
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Chinese law ensures that women workers are entitled to paid maternity leave. According to the provisions of the Labour Law of the People’s Republic of China, after childbirth, female workers shall be entitled to no less than ninety days of maternity leave with pay. The Special Regulations Concerning the Labour Protection of Female Staff and Workers include further provisions for maternity leave: a woman can take a prenatal leave of 15 days within the 90-day maternity leave; in cases of dystocia, maternity leave will be extended by 15 days; in cases of multiple births, maternity leave will be extended by 15 days for every additional baby. Provisional Measures for Maternity...more
May 30, 2022, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The Federal Act on Tax Relief for Families with Children entered into force on 1 January 2011. To better take into account the cost of having children, the Act calls for a parental tax scale and a deduction for third-party childcare. Active parents who use outside daycare and households in which one parent provides childcare will as far as possible receive equal tax treatment, according to their economic capacity" (8). "One canton (Vaud) uses a family quotient system: the tax rate is determined by dividing total income by a divisor that varies according to the number of dependants in the family. To take the cost of having children into account,...more
May 27, 2022, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"[A] five-day paternity leave was granted to employees whose spouse give birth" (18). "With the regulation, female employees were entitled to work half-time for two months for the first child on condition of the survival of the child; four months for the second child, and six months for the third and more children without any pay reduction. In multiple births, one extra month shall be added to the aforementioned periods. In the event of a child with disability, the employee was entitled to work half-time for 12 months on usual salary" (18). "The employee shall be paid 'Part Time Employment Payment after Maternity and Adoption', following the maternity and adoption,...more
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"With regard to Article 45 paragraph 4 of this Act, in 2003 the Government Act on Pregnancy/ Maternity Leave was revised and made more flexible. Instead of the former compulsory 6 weeks before and 6 weeks after child birth, pregnant women can, after consultation with a doctor, continue to work up to two weeks prior to childbirth and resume service 10 weeks after childbirth" (9). "Paid maternity leave has been added to the draft civil code. Some companies have also included paid maternity leave in the company’s collective agreement on terms of employment. Women employed in the private sector by companies without a collective labour agreement have no legal coverage...more
April 18, 2022, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The Committee welcomes the amendment of the Labour Act in 2019 to extend maternity leave from 60 to 90 days in the public and private sectors and to criminalize sexual harassment in the workplace. It remains concerned, however, at: It remains concerned, however, at:...The limited availability of affordable childcare facilities and breastfeeding arrangements, especially in the private sector; The fact that women in the informal sector continue to be excluded from social protection, including maternity leave and pension benefits" (10).
March 25, 2022, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"The law provides for 20 days’ paid leave per year for employees and 12 months of partially paid maternity leave" (33).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The support entails the taking in charge of the children through various means and using resources more varied: from a baby-parking service performed by professionals or volunteers (Florence, Ivrea, Trepuzzi, Venice) to its more structured forms, involving the beneficiaries themselves in looking after children, by providing them with forms of remuneration (a sort of scholarship), payable in turn to each of them (city of Sezze)" (37). " resources for 'non-State driven schools' were increased to 100 million Euros, to be allocated, on a priority basis, to kindergartens, in accordance with art. 1, para. 635, of the 2007 Budgetary Law" (63). "By dividing the Italian territory in three areas, namely North,...more
Jan. 21, 2022, 9:22 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: GIC-LAW-1, GIC-LAW-3

"In the modern wage sector, women also received family benefits, including three months of paid maternity leave" (27).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"No childcare benefits are available. The mother will most likely hire a close family member or nanny to watch after her child when she goes back to work. The government will not provide any benefits" (1).
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:33 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The government subsidizes day-care and after-school programs to encourage labor participation by mothers" (34).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"The law defines the standard workweek for both public- and private-sector employees as 40 hours: eight hours per day with one hour for lunch and noon prayers. The labor law makes no mention of day workers in the informal sector, leaving them completely unprotected. There are no occupational health and safety regulations or officially adopted standards. The law, however, provides for reduced standard workweeks for children ages 15 to 17, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and miners and workers in other occupations that present health risks. The law provides workers with the right to receive wages, annual vacation time in addition to national holidays, compensation for on-the-job injuries, overtime pay, health...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"Both employees and public servants have a right to pregnancy and maternity leave for 140 calendar days. The leave becomes collectible from 70 calendar days before the estimated date of birth and is compensated by the state. According to the ECA, upon termination of pregnancy and maternity leave, in addition to her previous work position, a woman is entitled to use the improved working conditions which she would have been entitled to during her absence... In recent years the Gender Equality and Equal Treatment Commissioner has received several complaints concerning discrimination of employees returning from the child care leave. There are three types of cases. In the first type of...more
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile

"The government effectively enforced applicable laws and regulations prohibiting employment discrimination. Authorities generally enforced the law in cases of sexual harassment, and there was no evidence of police or judicial reluctance to act. Companies may receive 'special sanctions' for infractions such as denying maternity leave. Such penalties were generally sufficient to deter violations..." (21).
Aug. 4, 2021, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: GIC-LAW-3

"China has long promised to overhaul policies that affected families, but changes had been slow. The only real shift in the last five years, said Lu Hongping, a professor of population studies at Hebei University, had been a lengthening of statutory maternity leave to around 160 days in most areas. But even then, he said, it was too short" (Para 10).
July 9, 2021, 7:11 p.m.
Countries: South Korea

"For example, in January 2021, the Seoul city government uploaded guidance for pregnant women to make sure to check if there is plenty of toilet paper in the house, make meals for husbands, and to pay attention to their looks by hanging smaller size clothes to motivate themselves to lose weight after giving birth. And the discrimination against pregnant women begins long before the actual pregnancy. In hiring processes, interviewers routinely ask women invasive questions about their plans to get pregnant, with some openly telling female candidates it would be difficult to hire them because the company does not want to pay for maternity leave. According to a local survey,...more