The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IAW-PRACTICE-1

May 10, 2024, 1:57 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

“The position of the surviving spouse in Finland has improved considerably after the inheritance act has been adjusted. In Finland, the spouses position is substantially influenced by the fact that if the deceased does not have any heirs belonging to parental, then the surviving spouse inherits the deceased entirely. The advanced legislation makes it easier for the surviving spouse to continue living after the death of a spouse, and will not be forced to abandon the jointly owned property” (36). “One of the biggest issue that weakens the surviving spouses position is that the surviving spouse can be completely displaced by will from a heirs position and there is no...more
May 9, 2024, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: Sweden

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance law. The government enforced the laws effectively" (14).
May 9, 2024, 2:15 p.m.
Countries: Spain

“When the owner of a property in Spain dies, the property will almost always be passed on to the heirs of the deceased” (para 33). “Where there is no will, property is usually inherited by the spouse, children, or parents of the deceased” (para 35). There is no distinction made between sons and daughters or husbands and wives in these statements indicating that daughters and widows are unlikely to experience discrimination in inheritance (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
May 9, 2024, 1:51 p.m.
Countries: South Africa

“Black women in rural South Africa face a ‘double whammy’ said Claassens, as both apartheid and customary laws - where land is handed down from father to son - have deprived them of property rights” (para 8). “Male-dominated tribal authorities hold great sway over rural communities, with the Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini controlling 2.8 million hectares of land, an area the size of Belgium, under an entity called the Ingonyama Trust. Ngubane, nominated as one of three finalists in the 2020 Martin Ennals Award, a prestigious human rights prize, said this month's Durban court ruling was significant. ‘This will make a difference in terms of women's land and property inheritance,’...more
April 19, 2024, 3:06 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"[C]ivil partners are excluded from inheritance" (16).
April 7, 2024, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Senegal

"In dual systems such as in Senegal, where statutory law and Sharia law co-exist, the Senegalese citizens have the liberty to choose which regime they adhere to; otherwise, it is the statutory law that is applicable. While the Sharia law gives girls half the amount the son receives and the widow a quarter of the inheritance, the statutory Senegalese law makes no distinction between boys and girls during inheritance. Despite the fact that the statutory law is affirmative of equal inheritance irrespective of gender, it is essential to point out that in countries such as Senegal, where a majority of the population is Muslim, religion has a greater impact than...more
April 4, 2024, 5:08 p.m.
Countries: Yemen

"Inheritance: The Personal Status Code defines the rules of inheritance, which follow Sharia principles. Women have a right to inheritance, but in many cases receive less than men. A daughter receives half the share that a son receives" (2).
Feb. 20, 2024, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo

"Customary patriarchal practices persist that prevent rural women and girls from inheriting" (14). "Women, including widows, do not have equal access to inheritance, owing to persistent discriminatory customary practices that exclude women and girls from the inheritance of land and other family property" (17).
Jan. 29, 2024, 6:01 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"In India’s Jharkhand state and other tribal areas, for example, tribal women often face an uphill battle in inheriting property, and, in some cases, allegations of witchcraft are wielded against them to silence their claims. They might be branded as witches on the most absurd of suspicions, socially excommunicated, or worse still, lynched by villagers, their corpses left to rot in public. In 2020, the Jharkhand government even rolled back an ambitious scheme by the previous government that encouraged women, in general, to register the property under their names by paying a meagre amount of Rs 1, citing loss to the exchequer due to apparent 'misuse' of the scheme" (para...more
Jan. 21, 2024, 10:43 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia

"As is common in other Muslim countries, no Muslim woman may marry a non-Muslim, and widows, compared with widowers, are entitled to a smaller share of the dead spouse’s estate" (para 15).
Jan. 16, 2024, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Deliberate effort and progressive exposure by Dikgosi [chiefs] to systematically address gender discrimination through the customary justice system have led to narrowing the gap between application of customary and common law. This has resulted in increased awarding of inheritance to women, which would have traditionally been given to men" (20-21). "Lack of disposable income, animal husbandry skills and the disinheritance of women all combine to reduce women’s access to livestock resources" (21). "As the Mmusi case bears testimony, one area where the rights of women are often trampled is that of the law of inheritance. Inheritance is an important issue touching on the question of the distribution of resources in...more
Jan. 4, 2024, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Under this new Fatwa, the wife is recognised as an equal partner (in terms of house ownership) regardless of financial contribution to the purchase of the house. This Fatwa will be consistent with (civil) joint-tenancy laws of disposition of estate" (43). Fatwa is the name for the muslim inheritance law (MV-coder comment).
Oct. 4, 2023, 6:58 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"[T]he adoption, in 2015, of Presidential Decree No. 36/15, approves the legal regime for the recognition of domestic partnerships by mutual consent and the dissolution of recognized domestic partnerships... [The] legislation does not discriminate against women in matters of inheritance... [I]n matters of inheritance, customary law continues to be discriminatory towards women and girls, as it divests them of their land titles" (15).
Sept. 28, 2023, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan

"Women faced legal and economic discrimination. The law prohibits discrimination based on sex, but authorities did not enforce it. Women also faced discrimination in employment, family law, property law, and the judicial system. Family law provides protection for women in cases of divorce, including requirements for maintenance, and sets clear guidelines for custody of minor children and their maintenance. Many women were unaware of these legal protections or were unable to obtain legal counsel to enforce them. Divorced women often were left with no means of support, as their families ostracized them. Women are legally free to marry without family consent, but society frequently ostracized women who did so, or...more
Sept. 28, 2023, 8:48 a.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"The basis for family law is sharia, as interpreted by Sunni and Shia religious experts. In 2017 King Hamad ratified the Shia portion of the Unified Family Law codifying the rights of Shia citizens, in particular women, according to the civil code on issues such as marriage, divorce, child custody, and inheritance. Shia and Sunni family law is enforced by separate judicial bodies composed of religious authorities charged with interpreting sharia" (32). "Women may own and inherit property and represent themselves in all public and legal matters. In the absence of a direct male heir, Shia women may inherit all of their husband’s property, while Sunni women inherit only a...more
Sept. 22, 2023, 9:52 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Women generally remained marginalized. No laws prohibit women from owning land, but customary land tenure systems allowed only men to own land, with women gaining access to land only via marriage or family. Many customary practices also did not recognize a woman’s right to inherit property, and many widows became destitute when their in-laws took virtually all the deceased husband’s property. In March the Akwa Ibom High Court ruled that the Etinan council area must allow women to inherit property" (43).
Sept. 7, 2023, 1:32 p.m.
Countries: Nepal

"The law contains discriminatory provisions. For example, the law on property rights favors men in land tenancy and the division of family property. The constitution, however, confers rights for women that had not previously received legal protection, including rights equal to those of their spouses in property and family affairs, and special opportunities in education, health, and social security" (27). "The law grants women equal shares of their parents’ inheritance and the right to keep their property after marriage, but many women were not aware of their rights, and others were afraid to challenge existing practice. The law also grants widows complete access to and authority over the estate of...more
Sept. 6, 2023, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. All property acquired during marriage is joint property. The government enforced these laws somewhat effectively. The NGO SOS noted, however, that women often had trouble in defending their property rights in divorce proceedings due to the widespread public belief that property belongs to the man. Sometimes women ceded their inherited property and inheritance rights to male relatives due to tradition and pressure from their families. Men consequently tended to be favored in the distribution of property ownership, sometimes limiting a woman’s options in the cases of domestic violence or divorce. Women continued to experience discrimination...more
Sept. 1, 2023, 2:03 p.m.
Countries: Mauritius

"Men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights under the constitution and law. The courts upheld these rights. Nonetheless, cultural and societal barriers prevented women from fully exercising their legal rights, especially in some cases involving inheritance" (14).
Aug. 30, 2023, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia

"Women have the same legal status as men under family, religious, personal status, and nationality laws, as well as laws related to labor, property, nationality, inheritance, employment, access to credit, and owning or managing businesses or property. The laws were effectively enforced" (34).
Aug. 9, 2023, 1:04 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee reiterates its concern about the prevalence of child marriage in the State party and also notes with concern...The practice of allowing polygamous marriages and the discriminatory application of religious laws on divorce and inheritance within Muslim communities, to the detriment of women" (14).
Aug. 3, 2023, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"According to UNICEF many widows were unable to inherit their late husbands’ property because the law states that in event of a death in which there is no will, the husband’s children, including those born out of wedlock (provided they were officially recognized by the father), rather than the widow, have precedence with regard to inheritance" (47).
July 30, 2023, 5:25 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia

"As is common in other Muslim countries, no Muslim woman may marry a non-Muslim, and widows, compared with widowers, are entitled to a smaller share of the dead spouse’s estate." (Parag. 14)
July 27, 2023, 10:30 a.m.
Countries: Chad

"Although property and inheritance laws provide the same legal status and rights for women as for men, the government did not enforce the laws effectively. Inheritance, property, and housing practices frequently discriminated against women due to cultural and religious elements present in many communities. Women often could not inherit property from their father or husband. Additionally, local leaders settled most inheritance disputes in favor of men, according to traditional practice. Women seeking to rent a house often had to prove they were married, while men were able often to rent without a similar burden. Women requesting divorce from men often faced a process that took three times as long as...more
July 26, 2023, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: Burundi

"In Burundi women’s rights to inherit land face 'the triple barriers of demography, tradition and the law.' The elimination of traditional chiefs and related customary institutions that determined which family would receive land, and the extent of land to be allocated, has meant that 'land grabbing has proliferated especially from widows, single women and land left by refugees.' Customarily daughters have been excluded from inheriting land and while widows used to have a lifetime usufruct right following the death of their husbands, this is increasingly no longer recognised. Widows often return to their parental home following the death of their husband. The combination of gender inequality, climate shocks, violence and...more
July 15, 2023, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Austria

"The law provides the same legal status and rights for women and men, including under family, religious, personal status, and nationality laws, as well as in laws related to labor, property, inheritance, employment, access to credit and owning or managing businesses or property. The government enforced the law effectively" (11).
July 15, 2023, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Spouses, unlike cohabiting partners, have a fixed place in Austrian inheritance law. They are both legal heirs and entitled to a compulsory portion. The law assumes that one wants to leave a part of one’s assets to one’s spouse after death" (para 1). "The spouse’s share of the inheritance always depends on who else inherits in addition to the spouse and to which group the remaining heirs belong. In addition to the descendants (children and grandchildren) of the deceased, in Austria, the spouse inherits 1/3 of the estate. If the spouse inherits alongside the parents of the deceased (his or her parents-in-law), the spouse inherits 2/3 in Austria. If one...more
July 15, 2023, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Argentina

"How do I Know Who are the Legitimate Heirs in a Succession? In Argentinian successions, the forced heirs are the primary lineal descendants and ascendants: children, parents’ grandchildren and grandparents... These people can not in any way be deprived from their inheritance rights through a will stating different intentions. Its 'legitimate' portion, which is four fifths of the estate, must be respected in every aspect. What is Considered the 'Legitimate Portion' in an Inheritance? It is the portion of the inheritance that by law belongs to the forced heirs. The testator can only have the percentage indicated by law given to a named individual without affecting the rightful portion of...more
July 13, 2023, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: Norway

"There is no information suggesting that property dispossession / grabbing is practiced or that there are discriminatory inheritance practices against women and girls in Norway" (4).
July 12, 2023, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia

"As is common in other Muslim countries, no Muslim woman may marry a non-Muslim, and widows, compared with widowers, are entitled to a smaller share of the dead spouse’s estate." (Parag. 14)