The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IAW-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 22, 2023, 9:52 a.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Women generally remained marginalized. No laws prohibit women from owning land, but customary land tenure systems allowed only men to own land, with women gaining access to land only via marriage or family. Many customary practices also did not recognize a woman’s right to inherit property, and many widows became destitute when their in-laws took virtually all the deceased husband’s property. In March the Akwa Ibom High Court ruled that the Etinan council area must allow women to inherit property" (43).
Sept. 6, 2023, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women as for men. All property acquired during marriage is joint property. The government enforced these laws somewhat effectively. The NGO SOS noted, however, that women often had trouble in defending their property rights in divorce proceedings due to the widespread public belief that property belongs to the man. Sometimes women ceded their inherited property and inheritance rights to male relatives due to tradition and pressure from their families. Men consequently tended to be favored in the distribution of property ownership, sometimes limiting a woman’s options in the cases of domestic violence or divorce. Women continued to experience discrimination...more
Sept. 1, 2023, 2:03 p.m.
Countries: Mauritius
Variables: LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"Men and women enjoy the same legal status and rights under the constitution and law. The courts upheld these rights. Nonetheless, cultural and societal barriers prevented women from fully exercising their legal rights, especially in some cases involving inheritance" (14).
Aug. 30, 2023, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia

"Women have the same legal status as men under family, religious, personal status, and nationality laws, as well as laws related to labor, property, nationality, inheritance, employment, access to credit, and owning or managing businesses or property. The laws were effectively enforced" (34).
Aug. 9, 2023, 1:04 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee reiterates its concern about the prevalence of child marriage in the State party and also notes with concern...The practice of allowing polygamous marriages and the discriminatory application of religious laws on divorce and inheritance within Muslim communities, to the detriment of women" (14).
Aug. 3, 2023, 10:38 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"According to UNICEF many widows were unable to inherit their late husbands’ property because the law states that in event of a death in which there is no will, the husband’s children, including those born out of wedlock (provided they were officially recognized by the father), rather than the widow, have precedence with regard to inheritance" (47).
July 30, 2023, 5:25 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia

"As is common in other Muslim countries, no Muslim woman may marry a non-Muslim, and widows, compared with widowers, are entitled to a smaller share of the dead spouse’s estate." (Parag. 14)
July 27, 2023, 10:30 a.m.
Countries: Chad

"Although property and inheritance laws provide the same legal status and rights for women as for men, the government did not enforce the laws effectively. Inheritance, property, and housing practices frequently discriminated against women due to cultural and religious elements present in many communities. Women often could not inherit property from their father or husband. Additionally, local leaders settled most inheritance disputes in favor of men, according to traditional practice. Women seeking to rent a house often had to prove they were married, while men were able often to rent without a similar burden. Women requesting divorce from men often faced a process that took three times as long as...more
July 26, 2023, 12:13 p.m.
Countries: Burundi

"In Burundi women’s rights to inherit land face 'the triple barriers of demography, tradition and the law.' The elimination of traditional chiefs and related customary institutions that determined which family would receive land, and the extent of land to be allocated, has meant that 'land grabbing has proliferated especially from widows, single women and land left by refugees.' Customarily daughters have been excluded from inheriting land and while widows used to have a lifetime usufruct right following the death of their husbands, this is increasingly no longer recognised. Widows often return to their parental home following the death of their husband. The combination of gender inequality, climate shocks, violence and...more
July 15, 2023, 12:55 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas

"f an intestate person leaves behind a living spouse, the spouse will receive all of the estate's assets. If the intestate person has a spouse and a child or children, the spouse receives half of the estate and the children share the other half equally. The estate of an intestate person with no spouse but living children goes to the children in equal shares" (para 2). "The Inheritance Act does not permit stepchildren to inherit unless they are formally adopted. Any children born outside a marriage who seek to inherit would need to provide proof of paternity or maternity, such as a birth certificate. Sometimes, the court may allow other...more
July 15, 2023, 12:38 p.m.
Countries: Austria

"The law provides the same legal status and rights for women and men, including under family, religious, personal status, and nationality laws, as well as in laws related to labor, property, inheritance, employment, access to credit and owning or managing businesses or property. The government enforced the law effectively" (11).
July 15, 2023, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Spouses, unlike cohabiting partners, have a fixed place in Austrian inheritance law. They are both legal heirs and entitled to a compulsory portion. The law assumes that one wants to leave a part of one’s assets to one’s spouse after death" (para 1). "The spouse’s share of the inheritance always depends on who else inherits in addition to the spouse and to which group the remaining heirs belong. In addition to the descendants (children and grandchildren) of the deceased, in Austria, the spouse inherits 1/3 of the estate. If the spouse inherits alongside the parents of the deceased (his or her parents-in-law), the spouse inherits 2/3 in Austria. If one...more
July 15, 2023, 10:26 a.m.
Countries: Argentina

"How do I Know Who are the Legitimate Heirs in a Succession? In Argentinian successions, the forced heirs are the primary lineal descendants and ascendants: children, parents’ grandchildren and grandparents... These people can not in any way be deprived from their inheritance rights through a will stating different intentions. Its 'legitimate' portion, which is four fifths of the estate, must be respected in every aspect. What is Considered the 'Legitimate Portion' in an Inheritance? It is the portion of the inheritance that by law belongs to the forced heirs. The testator can only have the percentage indicated by law given to a named individual without affecting the rightful portion of...more
July 13, 2023, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: Norway

"There is no information suggesting that property dispossession / grabbing is practiced or that there are discriminatory inheritance practices against women and girls in Norway" (4).
July 12, 2023, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia

"As is common in other Muslim countries, no Muslim woman may marry a non-Muslim, and widows, compared with widowers, are entitled to a smaller share of the dead spouse’s estate." (Parag. 14)
July 12, 2023, 4:46 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands

"According to Dutch law, there is still a solid distinction between married couples (including 'registered partners) and unmarried cohabitants. Unmarried cohabitants do not have any property rights by default. This may lead to unreasonable consequences if couples separate, as to eg the division of assets with capital gains or losses such as eg dwelling, in a situation where both have paid for the periodical costs of the dwelling. Even more sturdy consequences may arise in respect of estates, if unmarried couples have not made up a Will nor a cohabitation agreement. The estate of the famous Swedish writer Stieg Larsson was an example of such a situation: Stieg Larsson lived...more
July 12, 2023, 3:57 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands

"There is no information to suggest that property dispossession/grabbing is an issue in the Netherlands. There are no reports that indicate that there are customary, traditional or religious laws that promote discriminatory inheritance practices towards women and girls in the Netherlands" (4).
June 27, 2023, 11:16 p.m.
Countries: Algeria

"Women suffered from discrimination in inheritance claims and were entitled to a smaller portion of an estate than male children or a deceased husband’s brothers. Women did not often have exclusive control over assets that they brought to a marriage or that they earned" (29).
June 27, 2023, 2:02 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Women’s access to property and land is constrained by various discriminatory practices, in particular those relating to inheritance. The FAO (n.d.) notes that women – in particular married women – often face social pressure to relinquish their share of inheritance to other male relatives of the family, such as brothers. In addition, weak legal provisions and low awareness of their legal rights inhibit women from exercising their land rights (FAO, n.d.)" (8).
June 21, 2023, 2:05 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela

"There are no customary, religious, or traditional practices or laws that discriminate against daughters and female surviving spouses’ legal rights to inherit" (3).
June 20, 2023, 1:15 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic

"There is no evidence of customary, religious, or traditional practices or laws that discriminate against daughters and female surviving spouses" (4). Regarding inheritance (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
June 20, 2023, 11:09 a.m.
Countries: Vanuatu

"Although the law does not prohibit women from owning or inheriting property or land, tradition generally bars women from land ownership or property inheritance. Women were slowly emerging from a traditional culture characterized by male dominance, but women continued to experience discrimination in access to employment, credit, and pay equity for substantially similar work. The Department of Women’s Affairs worked with regional and international organizations to increase women’s access to the formal justice system and educate women regarding their rights under the law, holding multiple open workshops throughout the year that coincided with public holidays to encourage participation at the local community level" (11).more
June 19, 2023, 12:08 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan

"Despite the initial gender equality of land distribution, traditional practices and women’s low legal literacy emerged as major contributors to the decline in women’s land rights. Land is viewed as an important family asset and is controlled by male family members. There are longstanding beliefs, which are shared by women, that men should hold and manage land because they are responsible for providing for the family. Upon marriage, women typically leave their family lands to their father or brothers and access land through her husband’s family. Further reductions in women owned land is due to inheritance practices to leave land only to sons. Women are also subject to losing land...more
June 16, 2023, 10:24 a.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"As mentioned in our previous article a spouse is not a legal heir under Uruguayan law. Children and parents are recognized as such and are entitled to particular shares of a deceased’s estate" (para 3). "The ‘conjugal portion’ is defined in Art 874 of the Civil Code as being the amount necessary to maintain the spouse in similar circumstances to those they enjoyed during the marriage/cohabitation" (para 4). "So say the ‘conjugal portion’ is 200,000 USD in total, but the matrimonial home is worth 400,000 USD, then the surviving spouse will get nothing as he or she already has a half share in the house worth 200,000 USD. Likewise any...more
June 15, 2023, 3:32 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"In all states, all men and women have the same rights to make a will and inherit. Though not forbidden across all States, disinheritance of a surviving spouse is difficult to do. In most circumstances, a surviving spouse cannot be completely cut out of a will and states with community property regimes do not allow it all" (9).
June 15, 2023, 12:15 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1

"Be aware that without a will, any estates left behind are divided according to UK inheritance law. Such rules may not always be in accordance with your wishes; for instance, unmarried partners do not automatically receive a share of any estate" (para 7).
June 13, 2023, 10:54 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine

"The law provides daughters with the same rights as sons to inherit land and non-land assets (Civil Code, art. 1261). Similarly, female surviving spouses are entitled the same rights as male surviving spouses to inherit land and non-land assets (Civil Code, art. 1261)... There is no legal discrimination regarding inheritance rights and there are no practices that may restrict those rights" (3).
June 13, 2023, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"With the effort to fight against discrimination and promote gender equality concerning land ownership, in March 2021, the Ugandan Parliament passed two Bills. The new Succession Amendment Bill and the Employment Amendment Bill were passed in order for the country to ensure equality of women regarding land ownership and to legally protect women from sexual violence and harassment in the workplace. The Succession Amendment Bill provides the right for widows to be able to inherit the land after the death of the spouse and ensures equality of the distribution of property between men and women" (para 11). "Even though Uganda does not have any laws that explicitly prohibit women to...more
June 13, 2023, 9:55 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"The current Uganda’s Succession Act – a law regulating the property of a deceased person through a will – discriminates and denies widows from inheriting land as the land is passed to the closest male relative to the deceased person. This law prevents women from exercising their rights and deepens the already existing gender inequalities, therefore making women a particularly vulnerable group" (para 7).
June 8, 2023, 11:09 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe

"Payment of lobola before marriage under customary union is now mandatory after Parliament passed the Marriages Amendment Bill on Tuesday with a clause empowering marriage officers to ascertain whether bride price was paid. The Bill will also protect a spouse in a civil partnership from the legally married partner so that he or she does not unfairly lose property acquired during the subsistence of their union in the event that the union has been terminated either due to death or other reasons." (Para.1-2).