The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IIP-LAW-1

April 30, 2021, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: CLCW-PRACTICE-1, CLCW-LAW-2, IIP-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-1

"In January, the Egyptian cabinet approved a personal status law that would require women to get the consent of a male guardian to…travel abroad. The draft law also…allows fathers to prevent mothers from traveling with their children" (para 2).
April 20, 2021, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: IIP-LAW-1, ADCM-LAW-1

"The president also called for changes to the personal status law in order to be balanced and to maintain the interests of both fathers and mothers on an equal footing. The president's initiative came amid much controversy over many of the draft law's articles which regulate marriage, divorce, alimony, and guardianship and custody issues" (para 10).
Dec. 21, 2020, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"There are no restrictions on women travelling alone domestically" (para 21).
Dec. 17, 2020, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: IIP-LAW-1, SRACE-LAW-1

“Since 1979 and the Iranian Revolution the country's Islamic government has banned women from attending sporting events” (para. 7).
Oct. 16, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

“The ultra-traditional rabbis have refused to allow [women to pray near the wall]...” (Para 5).
Oct. 3, 2020, 6:13 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

“A. v. Croatia (no. 55164/08) (14 October 2010): The applicant’s now ex-husband (suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, paranoia, anxiety and epilepsy) allegedly subjected her to repeated physical violence causing bodily injury and death threats over many years and also regularly abused her in front of their young daughter. After going into hiding, the applicant requested a court order preventing her ex-husband from stalking or harassing her. It was refused on the ground that she had not shown an immediate risk to her life. The Court found a violation of Article 8 (right to respect for private and family life) in that the Croatian authorities had failed to implement many of...more
Aug. 26, 2020, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

“The popular [waterpark]…has a restaurant, whirlpool, sauna and lavish play area for young children, including girls who are allowed to mix with the opposite sex until the age of about 10” (para 10).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:09 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

“Women in that country cannot go to school, cannot vote, go shopping or otherwise engage in the public sphere without the permission of a man. This year, in a move with interesting echoes of our own history, Saudi Arabia has allowed women to ride bicycles, fully covered and in the presence of a male relative, in some public space. However, female citizens, a term I use only in the loosest sense, are electronically tagged for travel outside of the country. Male guardianship, not mandated by law, is pervasively institutionalized and defines women’s isolation, dependence and constrained and stressful everyday existences.” (para 1). “Since the 1990s, a recurring flashpoint in women’s...more
Aug. 2, 2020, 5:17 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"Most of the women faced charges that were solely related to peaceful human rights work, including...calling for an end to Saudi Arabia's discriminatory male guardianship system" (para 8). "In late July, Saudi Arabia's Council of Ministers promulgated landmark amendments to the three laws that will begin to dismantle the country's discriminatory male guardianship system" (para 19). "This major advance should make it illegal for private employers to demand that potential female employees obtain approval of their male guardian to work" (para 22). "Despite the changes, Saudi women still must obtain a male guardian's approval to get married, leave prison, or obtain certain healthcare. Women also continue to face discrimination in...more
July 22, 2020, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-1

"In the country’s vast rural areas, just talking to a man who is not a close relative can be punishable by death" (para 1).
July 10, 2020, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-1

"But there are restrictions. Women must cover their hair, arms and curves in public, and they need the permission of a male relative to leave the country, ask for a divorce or work outside the home" (para 13).
June 22, 2020, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"Run by the Joint Electoral Management Body (JEMB)—a collaboration between the UN and the Afghan government—these early elections established the practice of having separate polling booths for male and female voters in recognition of prevailing gender norms discouraging mixing of the sexes" (pg 11).
April 28, 2020, 9:37 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-1

"Saudi Arabia is among those countries that offer a small amount of personal freedoms to women because of adherence to a strict fundamental version of Islam and cultural traditions. Saudi women cannot travel or work without permission from a male relative or husband, they are not allowed to drive a car and must obey a stringent dress code." (para 5).
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"The law provides for freedom of internal movement, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights for citizens but placed extensive limitations on the rights of Palestinian refugees and Syrian, Iraqi, and other refugee populations" (17).
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"Women cannot marry without permission of their male guardians" (30) Women are required to have a legal male guardian (AMG-CODER COMMENT).
Dec. 6, 2019, 1:32 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"Under the kingdom's current 'guardianship' laws, women of all ages need the consent of a male relative to travel abroad or get hold of a passport" (para 2). "The laws have already been relaxed to allow women to drive - and the reforms will now be extended to allow them to leave the country, according to reports" (para 3). "Other aspects of the guardianship laws would remain in place. Women would still need a man's permission to marry or leave prison despite the reported reforms" (para 10-11). "Kenneth Roth of Human Rights Watch said the reforms would change travel rules 'while keeping the rest of the discriminatory guardianship regime'" (para...more
Oct. 22, 2019, 6:25 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: IIP-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"In accordance with Islamic judicial interpretation, a Muslim widow inherits one-eighth of her husband’s estate; of the remaining seven- eighths, two-thirds goes to the sons and one-third to the daughters." (pg 43)
July 31, 2019, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"The government generally did not restrict the free movement of male citizens within the country, but it severely restricted the movement of female citizens. While the guardianship system does not require a woman to have the permission of her male guardian (normally a father, husband, son, brother, grandfather, uncle, or other male relative) to move freely within the country, courts sometimes ruled that women should abide by a male guardian’s request to stay at home by 'occasionally upholding a guardian’s right to obedience from his female dependents,' according to an HRW report" (30). "On April 18, King Salman issued a royal decree ordering all government agencies to review their guardianship...more
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"Additionally, the law allows certain male relatives to place travel bans on women...ISIS reportedly did not permit female passengers to traverse territory it controlled unless accompanied by a close male relative" (Pg 37). "Women over age 18 have the legal right to travel without the permission of male relatives, but a husband may file a request with the Interior Ministry to prohibit his wife from departing the country" (Pg 38). "In areas under its control, ISIS published a 'Civilization Document' with 16 points that a woman must follow or face the death penalty. They included staying at home and not leaving it without an immediate male relative (mahram); wearing a...more
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: IIP-LAW-1, NGOFW-PRACTICE-1

"In November the HRA reported that women in the southeast were disproportionately affected by the state of emergency and cited restrictions on freedom of movement, the shuttering of women’s NGOs by emergency decree, and the impact of the arrest and removal of female DBP/HDP elected representatives" (page 25).
July 13, 2019, 12:03 a.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"Public order laws and personal laws imposed since 1991 have prevented women from… walking on streets as they want, while stipulating restrictive rules like ‘male guardianship’ and ‘wife obedience’" (1).
July 4, 2019, 9:20 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"A series of recent decisions by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, the country’s young, de facto ruler, could revolutionize the lives of Saudi women. ...They [women] will soon be allowed to attend soccer matches at public stadiums...In June, they will be allowed to drive cars, even motorcycles, the government says" (para 2). "In recent decades, the government has built many women’s universities, and enrollment has soared" (para 14). Men and women are separated in higher education (HGM - CODER COMMENT). "Last year, [Prince Mohammed] removed from the kingdom’s religious police the power to arrest and pursue subjects. They once had tremendous power to police public behavior, focusing on imposing modest...more
July 1, 2019, 8:44 p.m.
Countries: Moldova
Variables: ERBG-LAW-2, IIP-LAW-1

"The law provides criminal penalties for sexual harassment ranging from a fine to a maximum of three years’ imprisonment. The law prohibits sexual advances that affect a person’s dignity or create an unpleasant, hostile, degrading, or humiliating environment in a workplace or educational institution" (p. 28).
June 25, 2019, 8:40 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"The law requires segregation by gender of classes at all universities and secondary schools, although it was not always enforced" (p. 22).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"The CPVPV monitored and regulated public interaction between members of the opposite sex. In November, CPVPV officials raided a meeting of the Taif literary club on suspicion that the meeting was not gender segregated" (Pg 16). "The government prohibited women from driving motor vehicles by refusing to issue them licenses. On September 13, authorities reportedly detained a woman for driving and released her after seizing her car" (Pg 26). "Widespread societal exclusion enforced by, but not limited to, state institutions restricted women from using many public facilities. The law requires women usually to sit in separate, specially designated family sections. They frequently cannot consume food in restaurants that do not...more
June 20, 2019, 11:09 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-3, LRW-LAW-4, LRCM-LAW-1, IIP-LAW-1

"A particularly glaring example is the Shia Personal Status Law, signed by President Karzai in 2009, which includes provisions that strip Shia Afghan women of the women's rights enshrined in Afghanistan's constitution. The law gives a husband the right to withdraw basic maintenance from his wife, including food, if she refuses to obey his sexual demands. It grants guardianship of children exclusively to their fathers and grandfathers. It requires women to get permission from their husbands to work. It also effectively allows a rapist to avoid prosecution by paying 'blood money' to a girl who was injured because of the rape" (6).
June 19, 2019, 1:33 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: IIP-PRACTICE-1, IIP-LAW-1

"Although prohibited by law, the practice of buying and selling brides also continued in rural areas. Many tribes, communities, or families practiced sequestering women from all contact with men other than their relatives. Despite prohibitions on handing over women as compensation for crimes or as a resolution of a dispute (also known as 'vani; or 'swara'), the practice continued in Punjab and KP. In rural Sindh landowning families continued the practice of 'marriage to the Koran,' forcing a female family member to stay unmarried to avoid division of property. Property of women married to the Koran remained under the legal control of their fathers or eldest brothers, and such women...more
June 17, 2019, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: IIP-LAW-1, DTCP-LAW-1

"Women may be charged with moral crimes, like khilwa (which means mixing with unrelated members of the opposite sex) or with fleeing from their homes" (25).
June 14, 2019, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"In the 12 states that adopted sharia, sharia and social norms affected women to varying degrees. In Zamfara State local governments enforced laws requiring the separation of Muslim men and women in transportation and health care. In 2013 the Kano State government issued a statement declaring that men and women must remain separate while using public transportation" (Pg 36).
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: IIP-LAW-1

"The law requires women to have the permission of a male guardian, such as a husband, before applying for a passport or leaving the country. A husband or male relative may bar a woman from leaving the country by placing a woman’s name on a 'no-fly list' maintained at airports, and prior to the conflict, authorities strictly enforced this requirement when women traveled with children" (26). "Women cannot marry without permission of their male guardians; do not have equal rights in inheritance, divorce, or child custody; and have little legal protection" (38).