The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-LAW-1

Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is against the law. At Dublin Circuit Criminal Court, in November a jury found a married couple guilty of one count of carrying out an act of FGM on their one-year-old daughter at an address in Dublin" (10).
Sept. 5, 2021, 4:12 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"President Goodluck Jonathan, this afternoon, passed the Violence Against Persons Prohibition (VAPP) bill into law. The new law prohibits female circumcision or genital mutilation, forceful ejection from home and harmful widowhood practices. It prohibits abandonment of spouse, children and other dependents without sustenance, battery and harmful traditional practices" (para 1).
Aug. 23, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C from being performed on girls under the age 18, but it does not provide for protection to women ages 18 or older" (p 23).
Aug. 17, 2021, 2:50 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law does not prohibit FGM/C for women and girls" (p 18). "In July the Ministry of Social Welfare, Gender, and Children’s Affairs signed a memorandum of understanding with the Soweis and other traditional leaders who practice FGM/C, whereby the traditional leaders committed not to initiate minors under 18 years of age" (p 18).
Aug. 6, 2021, 4:21 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C, which is punishable by six months to three years in prison. If an FGM/C victim dies, the practitioner may be sentenced to 10 to 20 years in prison" (p 15).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is illegal, but it remained a serious problem"(43)."A 2016 amendment to the law designated FGM/C a felony, as opposed to a misdemeanor as it was previously, and assigned penalties for conviction of five to seven years’ imprisonment for practitioners who perform the procedure or 15 years if the practice led to death or “permanent deformity.” The law granted exceptions in cases of “medical necessity,” which rights groups and subject matter experts identified as a problematic loophole that allowed the practice to continue"(44).
July 26, 2021, 12:32 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C of women and girls and prosecutes the offense, including parents of minors, as aggravated assault with a maximum penalty of 14 years’ imprisonment"(9).
July 21, 2021, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Egypt’s cabinet has toughened a law banning female genital mutilation (FGM) - imposing jail terms of up to 20 years as part of efforts to stamp out the ancient practice" (Para 1). "Amendments to the FGM law approved by the cabinet on Wednesday include hiking the maximum sentence from the current seven years and banning doctors and other medical staff involved in FGM from practising their profession for up to five years. Under the changes, prison terms of between five and 20 years will be recommended depending on who performed the surgery and whether it caused permanent damage or death, a government statement said. The person requesting FGM will also...more
July 20, 2021, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, RISW-PRACTICE-1

"Last year, Sudan outlawed female genital mutilation (FGM), a move that was hailed by women’s rights campaigners. The new law states that anyone who performs FGM, whether inside a medical establishment or elsewhere, will risk a fine and three years in prison" (Para 16-17).
July 12, 2021, 1:48 p.m.
Countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote D'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Most countries in West Africa, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo, have adopted laws prohibiting FGM" (para 16).
July 12, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Mali's failure to outlaw female genital mutilation (FGM) is being challenged in West Africa's highest court by rights groups, who accused the country on Monday of failing to protect girls and women from 'a grave and systematic violation'" (para 1). "The UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) said in June 2020 that the failure to criminalise FGM was putting the lives of girls and women in Mali, as well as from neighbouring states, at risk" (para 10). "Attempts by the Malian government to criminalise FGM in 2002 and again in 2009 failed due to opposition from religious leaders, CEDAW added in its latest...more
July 9, 2021, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law criminalizes abuses that include early and forced marriage, FGM/C, forced wife “inheritance,” and sexual violence within marriage" (p 33). "The law makes it illegal to practice FGM/C, procure the services of someone who practices FGM/C, or send a person out of the country to undergo the procedure. The law also makes it illegal to make derogatory remarks about a woman who has not undergone FGM/C. Nevertheless, individuals practiced FGM/C widely, particularly in some rural areas. Government officials often participated in public awareness programs to prevent the practice" (p 34).
July 1, 2021, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Just this month, the STOP FGM Act of 2020 was signed into law, providing protection to thousands of women and girls around the country from female genital mutilation (FGM). While it is a critical step in helping those at risk, the best way to ensure the safety of women and girls is to back up the federal ban with state-level bans in all 50 states. Reestablishing the federal ban in the U.S. was one of our biggest legislative wins ever against the egregious act of FGM. The STOP FGM Act of 2020 is now one of the biggest shields protecting thousands of women and girls from undergoing FGM. Still, we...more
June 29, 2021, 11:26 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law describes FGM/C as a form of sexual violence, provides a sentence of two to five years in prison, and levies fines of up to 200,000 Congolese francs ($125); in case of death due to FGM/C, the sentence is life imprisonment" (p 40).
June 25, 2021, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The mother is the first person to be sentenced in Queensland [Australia] for removing a child from the state for female genital mutilation. Cutting or removing some of a girl or young woman's genitals is considered traditional in some cultures but illegal here" (para 6-7).
June 25, 2021, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C and establishes a maximum penalty of 10 years’ imprisonment for convicted perpetrators, or life imprisonment if the victim dies" (p 29). "On May 15, the UPF told local media that it conducted a radio campaign to raise communities’ awareness of the dangers of FGM/C. Local NGOs Development Network of Indigenous Voluntary Associations (DENIVA) and Law and Advocacy for Women in Uganda (LAW) reported that the Ministry of Gender, Labor, and Social Development worked with civil society organizations to train UPF and judiciary personnel on FGM/C practices and how to handle such cases" (p 29). "According to Deniva, the government also built an unspecified number of girlsonly...more
June 23, 2021, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The mother of a three-year-old girl has become the first person to be found guilty of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in the UK. The girl's Ugandan mother was prosecuted under FGM laws after using a 'witch' to help her carry out the surgery at her home in Walthamstow, east London" (para 1-2). According to the figure entitled "The law on FGM", "Female genital mutilation has been a specific offence in the UK since the Prohibition of Female Circumcision Act 1985. The 1985 Act was replaced by the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003. It now includes assisting and taking children abroad to be cut. There have been just three other trials...more
June 23, 2021, 8:46 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Egypt banned FGM in 2008 and made it a felony in 2016. There are no health benefits of the surgery, which intentionally alters or injures female genital organs. Doctors who perform the procedure face a jail sentence for up to seven years and anyone requesting it be carried out faces up to three years in jail.But no one has been successfully prosecuted under the 2016 law and women's rights groups in Egypt say the ban has not been well enforced. Much of society remains permissive of FGM, which is widely practised by both Christians and Muslims" (para 6-9).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Through Act of 9 January 2006, No. 7 on, 'Provisions concerning the prevention and prohibition of the practice of female genital mutilation', the Italian Legislator has introduced the necessary measures to prevent, contrast and punish the practice of female genital mutilation, as violation of the fundamental rights to integrity and to health of women and girls" (10). "in August 2006, the Department for Equal Opportunities launched a three-fold program on prevention of female genital mutilation, which included an awareness campaign for immigrants, a risks factors analysis, and cultural mediators training. By Act No. 7 of 9 January 2006 concerning the 'Prevention and the prohibition of female genital mutilation', the perpetrator...more
April 26, 2021, 11:01 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"A three-judge bench of the High Court in Nairobi has upheld and validated the constitutionality of the Prohibition of Female Genital Mutilation Act, 2011, advancing the rights of women and girls to a positive cultural context and to protection against harmful practices" (para 1). "The court observed that the survivors’ testimonies disclosed the devastating and harmful effects of FGM, and was therefore not convinced that any woman or girl would consciously and freely consent to FGM. Relying on the evidence of three medical experts, the Court also observed that there is no conceivable benefit of FGM" (para 4).
April 20, 2021, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Meanwhile, the Senate, Egypt's consultative upper house, passed a law on Sunday toughening penalties for female genital mutilation (FGM)" (para 17). "A report prepared by the Senate's Health and Population Committee said 'the practice of female genital mutilation is still one of the worst crimes in Egypt and so laws should be amended to impose harsher penalties to this crime'" (para 18). "As a result, the report added, Article 242 of the penal code will be amended to increase the minimum and maximum prison sentences imposed on FGM crimes. 'Non-medical individuals involved in performing genital mutilation would face up to seven years in prison if the practice led to a...more
March 13, 2021, 4:47 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"While welcoming the enactment of the Female Genital Mutilation Act (2003) and the Female Genital Mutilation Prohibition (Scotland) Act (2005), the Committee is concerned that there have been no prosecutions under this legislation" (9).
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“The practice [FGM] is against the law in Egypt - but remains widespread in the region, despite ongoing efforts to quell it” (para 3). “Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been battling the centuries-old practice [FGM], which is misguidedly believed to control women's sexuality. In 2008, a law banning the cutting of female genitalia was passed in parliament despite strong opposition from conservative voices” (para 4). “In 2016, legislators adopted amendments to the law, redefining female genital mutilation (FGM) from a misdemeanour, for which offenders typically receive up to two years in prison, to a felony, which draws tougher sentences and punishments. However, women's rights advocates argue the law still contains...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 7:35 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“Collins and Akaziebie v. Sweden (8 March 2007 (decision on the admissibility)): The applicants, Nigerian nationals, are mother and daughter. They alleged that they would be subjected to female genital mutilation if they were returned to Nigeria, in violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention. The Swedish Migration Board rejected their applications for asylum, refugee status or a residence permit, stating, inter alia, that female genital mutilation was prohibited by law in Nigeria and that this prohibition was observed in at least six Nigerian states. Thus, if the applicants returned to one of those states it would be unlikely that they would be forced...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:51 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“The practice [FGM] is against the law in Egypt - but remains widespread in the region, despite ongoing efforts to quell it” (para 3). “Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been battling the centuries-old practice [FGM], which is misguidedly believed to control women's sexuality. In 2008, a law banning the cutting of female genitalia was passed in parliament despite strong opposition from conservative voices” (para 4). “In 2016, legislators adopted amendments to the law, redefining female genital mutilation (FGM) from a misdemeanour, for which offenders typically receive up to two years in prison, to a felony, which draws tougher sentences and punishments. However, women's rights advocates argue the law still contains...more
Jan. 30, 2021, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"Describing the type of wound inflicted on Christine, a six former cutters - who say the stopped the practice in 2012, shortly after it became illegal in Kenya - explained that it involves full removal of the labia and partial removal of the clitoris" (para 13). "As with child marriage, the practice has now been outlawed in Kenya, with a maximum penalty of life in jail if a girl dies during the procedure, but so far there have been no successful prosecutions" (36).
Dec. 5, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“The UN in Egypt applauds the positive and encouraging steps towards renewing the call of action for a Social Contract to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Egypt. On 20th May, the National Council for Women and the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood held the first meeting of the National Taskforce for Ending FGM. The taskforce is comprised of representatives of all concerned Ministries in addition to civil society, and development partners. The National Taskforce aims to concert all efforts to end this harmful practice which constitutes as a serious violation of the rights of women and girls. This approach is in line with the National Strategy for the...more
Nov. 6, 2020, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

“The Egyptian Penal Code stipulates that, ‘Whoever causes wound mentioned in Articles no 241 & 242 of penal code occurs by female genital mutilation shall be punished with imprisonment for not less than a period of three months and not exceed two years or a fine of not less than 5000 pounds’” (para 3-4). “It also violates the Health Minister decree 271 of 2007 which states in its first article, ‘Doctors, health providers and others are banned from performing FGM whether in governmental or non-governmental hospitals or other places. Whoever commits this operation is violating law and the profession’s regulations’” (para 5-6).
Oct. 29, 2020, 11:01 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1

"The human rights organization accused Russian authorities of doing little to crack down on the practice, saying local law enforcement officials and the FSB security services turn a blind eye to the ritual" (para 6).
Sept. 4, 2020, 4:06 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2

“Earlier this month [March 2020], the movement against female genital mutilation (FGM) claimed two victories in the U.S. Vermont and Wyoming have both banned FGM! In Wyoming, we worked closely with the bill sponsor, Representative Dan Laursen, by encouraging him to sponsor the bill, reviewing draft language, and helping to navigate through to its successful passage. Together in both states, over 1,000 girls are now protected against FGM thanks to stronger protections solidified in law” (para 2).