The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-PRACTICE-1

April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"the Ministry of the Interior...set up a toll free number...to receive reports from whoever becomes aware of cases of genital mutilation on the national territory, and to provide information on charity organizations, NGOs and health-care facilities that operate within those communities of immigrants, being from countries where such practice occurs" (95). "the Minister for Equal Opportunities issued a Public Notice in August 2007 for the financing of projects to prevent and combat...female genital mutilation in three different areas: Actions/research projects; Awareness-raising campaigns; Training and refresher courses...the amount of the resources made available...is...3.546,290,00 Euros, pursuant to Act No. 7/2006. Such resources are allocated as follows: 793,890.00 Euros for Action/research projects; 1,160,382...more
April 26, 2021, 11:01 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The court observed that the survivors’ testimonies disclosed the devastating and harmful effects of FGM, and was therefore not convinced that any woman or girl would consciously and freely consent to FGM. Relying on the evidence of three medical experts, the Court also observed that there is no conceivable benefit of FGM" (para 4). "'The implication of this is that FGM/C cannot be rendered lawful because the person on whom the act was performed consented to that act. No person can license another to perform a crime. The consent or lack thereof of the person on whom the act is performed has no bearing on a charge under the act,'...more
April 20, 2021, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"A report prepared by the Senate's Health and Population Committee said 'the practice of female genital mutilation is still one of the worst crimes in Egypt and so laws should be amended to impose harsher penalties to this crime'" (para 18).
March 13, 2021, 4:47 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"While welcoming the enactment of the Female Genital Mutilation Act (2003) and the Female Genital Mutilation Prohibition (Scotland) Act (2005), the Committee is concerned that there have been no prosecutions under this legislation" (9).
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:54 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The UNFPA, which estimates 290,000 girls will be cut in Somalia in 2020, said the spike was also linked to Ramadan, which is a traditional time for girls to be cut" (para 12).
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“The girl's death in the province of Assiut prompted Egypt's public prosecutor to order the arrests of her parents and the physician who performed the procedure, also known as female circumcision. The practice [FGM] is against the law in Egypt - but remains widespread in the region, despite ongoing efforts to quell it” (para 3). “Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been battling the centuries-old practice [FGM], which is misguidedly believed to control women's sexuality. In 2008, a law banning the cutting of female genitalia was passed in parliament despite strong opposition from conservative voices” (para 4). “In 2016, legislators adopted amendments to the law, redefining female genital mutilation (FGM) from...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 7:35 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“Collins and Akaziebie v. Sweden (8 March 2007 (decision on the admissibility)): The applicants, Nigerian nationals, are mother and daughter. They alleged that they would be subjected to female genital mutilation if they were returned to Nigeria, in violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention. The Swedish Migration Board rejected their applications for asylum, refugee status or a residence permit, stating, inter alia, that female genital mutilation was prohibited by law in Nigeria and that this prohibition was observed in at least six Nigerian states. Thus, if the applicants returned to one of those states it would be unlikely that they would be forced...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:51 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“The practice [FGM] is against the law in Egypt - but remains widespread in the region, despite ongoing efforts to quell it” (para 3). “Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been battling the centuries-old practice [FGM], which is misguidedly believed to control women's sexuality. In 2008, a law banning the cutting of female genitalia was passed in parliament despite strong opposition from conservative voices” (para 4). “In 2016, legislators adopted amendments to the law, redefining female genital mutilation (FGM) from a misdemeanour, for which offenders typically receive up to two years in prison, to a felony, which draws tougher sentences and punishments. However, women's rights advocates argue the law still contains...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:34 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

Her mother, Angela, says the pain and discomfort her daughter is enduring worries her less than the reports she has heard of teenage girls being sexually harassed or exploited by men. She is determined to focus her efforts on making her daughter less desirable to men. 'I just don't want her to become a target of boys around her,' says Angela. 'I'm aware that many boys here like to chase after little girls.' Although many of the families Al Jazeera spoke to mentioned the vulnerability of young girls growing up as refugees as one of the reasons for their decision to iron their daughters' breasts, the practice has been happening...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:30 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Although many of the families Al Jazeera spoke to mentioned the vulnerability of young girls growing up as refugees as one of the reasons for their decision to iron their daughters' breasts, the practice has been happening in Cameroon for generations. The origin of the practice is unclear, but about a quarter of women in Cameroon have undergone breast ironing, according to research by Gender Empowerment and Development (GeED), a non-governmental organisation based in Yaounde, Cameroon, which found that in nearly 60 percent of cases, the procedure is carried out by mothers" (para 8-9).
Jan. 30, 2021, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Christine revealed that doctors referred her to police, who were sent to arrest the tribal birth attendant, who pointed the finger at Christine's mother-in-law. She claims the mother-in-law subsequently paid off the officer, and no action has ever been taken over her mutilation" (para 17-18). "Traditionally, the cutting season happens between November and December and involves young girls aged between 12 and 16, with the idea being to keep them 'pure' for marriage" (para 37). "As with child marriage, the practice has now been outlawed in Kenya, with a maximum penalty of life in jail if a girl dies during the procedure, but so far there have been no successful...more
Jan. 29, 2021, 5:57 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“Almost everyone who practises FGM believes it is a religious obligation, and this religious scholar has told us that this is not the case” (para 7).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:57 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The ensuing samba ritual involves cutting cruciform nicks into the girl's chest and hands with a razor to not only help cleanse her of her bad luck, but to make her more attractive to older men" (para 11). "Female genital mutilation was outlawed in Tanzania in 1998, and yet a 2010 government survey found that in remote parts of the Mara region, more than 40 percent of girls and women had been cut" (para 27).
Dec. 5, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“The UN in Egypt applauds the positive and encouraging steps towards renewing the call of action for a Social Contract to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Egypt. On 20th May, the National Council for Women and the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood held the first meeting of the National Taskforce for Ending FGM. The taskforce is comprised of representatives of all concerned Ministries in addition to civil society, and development partners. The National Taskforce aims to concert all efforts to end this harmful practice which constitutes as a serious violation of the rights of women and girls. This approach is in line with the National Strategy for the...more
Nov. 23, 2020, 6:17 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, IW-PRACTICE-1, DMW-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3

"It is concerned, however, at the persistence of adverse cultural norms, practices and traditions as well as patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes regarding the roles, responsibilities and identities of women and men in the family and society. It notes that stereotypes contribute to the persistence of violence against women as well as harmful practices, including female genital mutilation, levirate and sororate, child marriage, polygamy, repudiation, and food prohibitions or taboos. The Committee is also concerned that the State party has not taken sufficient action to modify or eliminate such stereotypes and harmful practices" (Art. 18).
Nov. 12, 2020, 9:30 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-5, IW-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, PW-PRACTICE-3

"The Committee is concerned that such customs and practices perpetuate discrimination against women, and are reflected in women’s disadvantageous and unequal status in many areas, including in public life and decision-making and in marriage and family relations. The Committee notes that such stereotypes also contribute to the persistence of violence against women as well as harmful practices, including female genital mutilation (FGM), polygamy, bride price and wife inheritance; and expresses its concern that despite such negative impacts on women, the State party has not taken sustained and systematic action to modify or eliminate stereotypes and negative cultural values and harmful practices" (Article 17).
Nov. 6, 2020, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“ECWR condemns the statement of a Member of health committee of Egypt’s House of Representatives, Ahmed el-Tahawy, on female genital mutilation (FGM), as he said, as a doctor, he believes that ‘Leaving the female without excision is wrong, beside there is no harm to the female from the circumcision operation’” (para 1). “The MP’s statement is an incitement to commit a crime and violence against women. Instead of MPs performing their legislative and monitoring duties, some MPs are inciting a crime. This statement also violates the law as the practice of FGM is criminalized in Egypt” (para 2). “Hence, ECWR calls for: (1) Conducting an investigation by The Values Committee...more
Oct. 31, 2020, 12:03 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-1, AOM-PRACTICE-1, DV-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3

"It notes that stereotypes contribute to the persistence of violence against women and practices harmful to women and girls, such as female circumcision, early marriage, arranged marriage and polygamy. The Committee expresses its deep concern that the State party has not taken sufficient sustained and systematic action to modify or eliminate stereotypes and harmful practices" (Article 23).
Oct. 29, 2020, 11:01 a.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Grand Mufti of Russia's North Caucasus republic Karachay-Cherkessia, Ismail Berdyev, has endorsed the practice of genital mutilation of young girls in nearby Dagestan, saying female circumcision 'does not contradict the tenets of Islam and is necessary to quell unnecessary energy and guarantees the purity of future brides,' according to news portal kavkaz-uzel" (para 1). "In an August 15 radio interview with Russia's Govorit Moskva, Berdyev said that the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is 'a ritual particular to Dagestan', but one that does violate the region's social or religious mores" (para 2). "According to Pravovaya Initsiativa's findings, female circumcision operations take place in makeshift, unsanitary conditions and are...more
Oct. 21, 2020, 12:14 p.m.
Countries: Benin
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, LO-PRACTICE-1, MARR-PRACTICE-1, WR-PRACTICE-2, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, DV-PRACTICE-1, PW-PRACTICE-3, DTCP-LAW-1

"The Committee expresses deep concern that harmful practices, such as child and forced marriages, polygamy, female genital mutilation, widowhood practices, levirate and sororate, purification rites for adulterous women and killings of so-called “witch children”, continue to be prevalent and go unpunished, the comprehensive legislative framework notwithstanding. The Committee is concerned that the customary practice of excluding women from inheriting agricultural land remains dominant in rural areas and that women continue to face practical difficulties in gaining access to both land and credit. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about the persistence of customary laws and practices, including the prevalence of de facto polygamous marriages, although such laws are no longer valid...more
Oct. 3, 2020, 6:20 p.m.
Countries: Guinea
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“Sow v. Belgium (19 January 2016): The applicant complained that she risked being subjected to a further excision procedure in the event of her removal to Guinea, her country of origin, and that no effective remedy had been available to her in respect of her complaint. The Court held that there would be no violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention in the event of the applicant’s removal to her country of origin, finding that she had failed to substantiate a real risk of being subjected to a further excision procedure in the event of her removal to Guinea. The Court also held that...more
Sept. 23, 2020, 9:40 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The Jokowi government failed to…institute measures to curb female genital mutilation, which continues to be used in rites of passage in some areas" (para 13).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Britain's largest Muslim organization has spoken out against female genital mutilation (FGM), for the first time explicitly condemning the practice as un-Islamic and against the teachings of the religion, the Guardian newspaper reported Monday" (para 1). "'Some people who practice FGM believe it to be an Islamic practice. This is NOT true. FGM is NOT a Muslim requirement,' the Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) wrote on a leaflet that will be distributed to 500 mosques and community centers associated with the group" (para 2). "MCB argued that one of the basic principles of Islam is 'do not harm yourself or others,' and that the practice risks bringing the religion into...more
Aug. 12, 2020, 3:51 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, IRP-DATA-2

"…FGM remains widely practiced throughout the country, with an estimated four out of five genital mutilations performed by doctors in professional medical environments" (para 29).
Aug. 12, 2020, 3:12 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"The country's general code on children's protection criminalizes female genital mutilation (FGM); however, according to the United Nations, it is still prevalent, particularly in rural communities" (para 22).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“Studies have shown that in countries like Senegal, legislation on FGM can complement other strategies including alternative or mock rites passage and empowerment of women and girls” (para 15).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“The number of court cases on FGM varies across countries. . . Burkina Faso is increasingly recognized as one of the few countries where FGM legislation is effectively and systematically enforced. In 2016, the government of Burkina Faso reported to the CEDAW Committee that, according to the data of all regional courts of Burkina Faso in 2009, 241 persons were convicted for violating the law prohibiting FGM” (para 13).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:28 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“In a majority of places where FGM is practiced, traditional and religious leaders wield more power than the government. For example, upon the end of twenty-two years of authoritarian rule in The Gambia by former President Yahya Jammeh, during whose time FGM was banned, debates about the constitutionality and efficacy of the 2015 anti-FGM law arose” (para 17).
July 15, 2020, 6:51 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"But the ban in Sudan took years of activism to bring about. 'Nobody really expected that FGM, after all these years, it would come, you know, and it would come so strongly,' said Tamador Ahmed Khalid, who is with UNICEF in Sudan, and has been fighting FGM there for 40 years. Khalid said the country’s new law would sentence those found guilty of performing FGM to three years in prison. But she said now, activists have to make sure the ban is enforced. 'So, there is a lot of work to be done. The first step is to develop a manual for law enforcement,' Khalid said. 'Because so many people,...more
July 15, 2020, 6:46 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"In Russia, a gynecologist who performed an FGM operation is being tried in court in one of the first cases of its kind there" (para 3).