The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-PRACTICE-1

Jan. 13, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual and gender-based violence against refugees and asylum seekers remained a problem, particularly for vulnerable populations including women, children, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) refugees and asylum seekers. Reported incidents included domestic violence, rape, sexual assault, physical assault, psychological abuse, female genital mutilation mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and early and forced marriage, particularly of Sudanese, South Sudanese, and Somali girls"(24)."In December, as part of the government’s initiative to end FGM/C by 2022, the Ministry of Public Service Youth and Gender began consultative meetings with county commissioners and chiefs from the 22 counties with the highest rates of FGM/C to improve enforcement of the FGM/C law.Media reported arrests of perpetrators...more
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire, Egypt, Guinea, Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-DATA-2

In Belgium, “The law prohibits FGM/C for women and girls, and it was not a widespread practice in the country. Reported cases were primarily filed by recent immigrants or asylum seekers. Criminal sanctions apply to persons convicted of FGM/C. According to 2017 estimates, there were more than 17,000 female minor and adult victims of FGM/C in the country, while more than 8,000 were at risk. The vast majority of potential victims were asylum seekers from Guinea, Somalia, Cote d’Ivoire, and Egypt” (9).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"The law prohibits FGM/C for women and girls, and it was not a widespread practice in the country. Reported cases were primarily filed by recent immigrants or asylum seekers. Criminal sanctions apply to persons convicted of FGM/C. According to 2017 estimates, there were more than 17,000 female minor and adult victims of FGM/C in the country, while more than 8,000 were at risk. The vast majority of potential victims were asylum seekers from Guinea, Somalia, Cote d’Ivoire, and Egypt" (9).
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs in Dagestan reported FGM/C was occasionally practiced in some villages, estimating that 1,240 Dagestani girls are subjected to it every year. In November 2018 Meduza reported that a private clinic in the Best Clinics network was offering FGM/C procedures to girls between ages five and 12, which the Federal Service for Health Supervision (Roszdravnadzor) later confirmed. The Best Clinics case was referred to the Investigative Committee in February" (55).
Dec. 3, 2021, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"FGM/C is a crime punishable under the law. The State Secretariat for Citizenship and Equality reported that some immigrant communities practiced FGM/C on young girls, particularly among Bissau-Guinean immigrants. According to the Healthy Practices Project, established by the government in November 2018 to prevent and combat FGM/C, the country reported 63 cases of female genital mutilation in 2018 and 54 cases through mid-August, although none of the FGM/C procedures occurred in the country" (10).
Nov. 17, 2021, 8:27 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Type I (a) (as classified by the World Health Organization) FGM/C was practiced among a small portion of the Muslim population. Referred to locally as 'ceremonial' female circumcision, it was undertaken as a standardized procedure by designated doctors under the supervision of the Muslim Healthcare Professionals Association" (22).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2, NGOFW-DATA-1

"The law prohibits FGM/C and it is punishable by up to 12 years’ imprisonment, even if the crime is committed abroad. Cases of FGM/C occurred in some immigrant communities. Experts estimated that between 60,000 and 80,000 women were victims of genital mutilation and that most mutilations were performed outside the country. The European Institute for Gender Equality estimated that 15 to 24 percent of girls originating from countries where FGM/C is practiced were at risk of FGM/C in the Italy. Prosecutors often depended on coverage by NGOs and self-reporting from the migrant community to identify and prosecute FGM/C" (15).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"FGM/C was practiced in the country, particularly within diaspora communities" (20).
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"FGM/C of women and girls is a criminal offense punishable by one to 15 years in prison, even if performed abroad. Authorities can revoke the passports of individuals who they suspect are traveling abroad to subject a girl or woman to FGM/C; however, authorities have not taken this step since the law took effect in 2017. FGM/C affected segments of the immigrant population, in particular those from Eritrea, Iraq, Somalia, and Egypt, and their Germany-born children. A working group under the leadership of the Federal Ministry for Family Affairs, Senior Citizens, Women, and Youth worked with other federal government bodies and all 16 states to combat FGM/C. While official statistics...more
Oct. 8, 2021, 11:48 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-DATA-2

Hanaa Edwar, head of the Iraq Women Network, stated in this interview that "The FGM cases occur in some remote areas of Kirkuk, Suleymania and some parts of Erbil in the Kurdish Autonomous Region. About 70 percent of women have reportedly suffered this aggression in the mentioned areas but hardly any in the rest of the country."
Oct. 4, 2021, 8:33 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"While FGM/C was not a practice in the country, approximately 14,700 women and girls, primarily from Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt, were affected by, or at risk of, FGM/C. The first-ever criminal sentence under the anti-FGM/C law was handed down in 2018.Federal Court rejected an appeal by a Neuchatel-based Somali woman whom the cantonal court of Neuchatel sentenced to an eight-month suspended prison sentence in July 2018 for ordering the full or partial removal of her six- and sevenyear-old daughters’ genitalia while in Somalia and Ethiopia between 2013 and 2015"(12).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"FGM/C is legal in the country and, except in certain northern areas, all religious and ethnic groups practiced it widely, particularly in rural areas. Although FGM/C is legal, authorities prohibited the practice in government-funded health centers. Parents generally had FGM/C performed on girls between the ages of six months and nine years. The most recent comprehensive FGM/C survey, conducted by UNICEF in 2015, indicated that 83 percent of girls and women between the ages of 15 and 49 were excised, and 74 percent of girls and women in the same age group had at least one daughter who was excised. Government information campaigns regarding the dangers of FGM/C reached citizens...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is against the law. At Dublin Circuit Criminal Court, in November a jury found a married couple guilty of one count of carrying out an act of FGM on their one-year-old daughter at an address in Dublin" (10).
Aug. 17, 2021, 2:50 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The FSU reported that of six recorded cases of FGM/C during initiation of girls under 18 years of age between January and August, four were investigated, but no charges were filed" (p 18). "A renewed call to end the practice began following international attention to the death of 19-year-old Fatmata Turay after she underwent FGM/C" (p 18).
Aug. 10, 2021, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Despite reports that migrant and refugee women residing in the country underwent FGM/C prior to their arrival in Greece, there was no concrete evidence FGM/C was practiced in the country. On February 2[2019], the European Institute for Gender Equality issued a study estimating that 25 to 42 percent of migrant and refugee girls living in the country but originating from states in which FGM/C is practiced were at risk of FGM/C"(22).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"According to international and local observers, the government did not effectively enforce the FGM/C law"(43)."In July the “Protecting Her from FGM” campaign was launched by the National Commission for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation and included a doorto-door campaign in all governorates to raise awareness among local communities about the harmful effects of FGM/C, in cooperation with the committees of child protection and rural leaders"(44).
July 29, 2021, 9:35 a.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Covid has placed millions more girls at risk of FGM as families have turned back to the practice during lockdowns. It has also resurfaced in countries, including Cameroon, where it had been largely abandoned. The procedure is performed for a number of reasons. In some communities it is a prerequisite for marriage; culture and religion are also used to justify it" (Para 5).
July 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The mothers called because they had heard the story of a 10-year-old girl who had bled to death after being cut in central Galmudug state in July 2018. It was the first confirmed death in years in a country where any complications arising from FGM are generally denied and it gained worldwide attention. The death was first revealed by a local activist who had been trained by Ahmed’s foundation in how to use the media to publicise her work" (Para 2). "Covid has placed millions more girls at risk of FGM as families have turned back to the practice during lockdowns. It has also resurfaced in countries, including Cameroon, where...more
July 26, 2021, 12:32 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"FGM/C occurred on occasion, predominantly in diaspora communities. While internal government reports asserted that FGM/C practitioners and victims often travelled to the country from which they immigrated for the illegal procedure, officials also sought to prevent the entry of FGM/C practitioners into Canada"(9).
July 21, 2021, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"But highlighting the difficulty of eliminating FGM in Egypt, where there is widespread acceptance of it, no one has been successfully prosecuted under the 2016 law and women’s rights groups say the ban has not been well enforced" (Para 9). "El-Saeed said imposing strict prison terms on doctors and other perpetrators of the crime could prove difficult because there is an entrenched belief in Egyptian society that FGM is not a crime" (Para 11). "Reda El Danbouki, executive director of the Women’s Center for Guidance and Legal Awareness, said the amendments would not help eliminate the practice unless judges, policemen and other law-enforcement officials started to take the issue seriously....more
July 20, 2021, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Women's rights groups praised the new legislation, but warned it could be hard to change minds in communities that view the practice as a prerequisite for improving marriage prospects" (Para 19).
July 12, 2021, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Togo
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) said in June 2020 that the failure to criminalise FGM was putting the lives of girls and women in Mali, as well as from neighbouring states, at risk. It voiced concerns over the transnational nature of the practice, with reports of girls from countries such as Burkina Faso, Benin, Guinea and Togo that prohibit FGM being taken to Mali to undergo the cut in order to avoid prosecution at home" (para 10-11).
July 12, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Practiced in at least 27 African countries and parts of Asia and the Middle East, FGM is often seen as necessary for social acceptance and improving a woman's marriage prospects. But health experts say girls can bleed to death or die from infections caused by FGM, and it can cause fatal childbirth complications later in life. The UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) said in June 2020 that the failure to criminalise FGM was putting the lives of girls and women in Mali, as well as from neighbouring states, at risk. It voiced concerns over the transnational nature of the practice, with reports...more
July 9, 2021, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, individuals practiced FGM/C widely, particularly in some rural areas. Government officials often participated in public awareness programs to prevent the practice" (p 34). "Media reported growing numbers of female students refused to participate in FGM/C ceremonies, traditionally performed during the August and December school holidays. Media reported arrests of perpetrators and parents who agreed to FGM/C, but parents in regions with a high prevalence of FGM/C frequently bribed police to allow the practice to continue. There were also reports the practice of FGM/C increasingly occurred underground to avoid prosecution" (p 34-35).
June 25, 2021, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"A Queensland mother has been sentenced to prison for taking her two daughters to Africa to have parts of their genitals removed" (para 1). "Brisbane District Court Justice Leanne Clare described the mutilation as child abuse" (para 3). "The mother is the first person to be sentenced in Queensland for removing a child from the state for female genital mutilation. Cutting or removing some of a girl or young woman's genitals is considered traditional in some cultures but illegal here" (para 6-7). "'To treat the adherence to tradition [relating to FGM] as mitigation would dilute the protection of the law for those children in most need of it,' Justice Clare...more
June 25, 2021, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Brisbane District Court Justice Leanne Clare described the mutilation as child abuse, and said the mother, 45, had taken them to Africa for the purpose of having it done. 'In this case, a woman of unknown ability used a sharp implement to excise the clitoral hood of each girl,' Justice Clare said during sentencing on Thursday. 'The girls were not sedated, there was bleeding and a period of significant pain for perhaps a number of days, there was obvious risk of infection, even death' [Justice Clare]" (para 3-5).
June 25, 2021, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Local NGOs reported that many girls who had undergone FGM/C were discouraged from delivering in health centers to avoid revealing they had been cut" (p 29). "On May 30, local media reported the UPF had insufficient resources to monitor adequately the remote areas of the northeast where FGM/C was prevalent, which allowed many practitioners to continue working with impunity. DENIVA and LAW reported the absence of courts in Amudat and Kween Districts and a shortage of clinics that could provide medical evidence made it difficult to prosecute perpetrators" (p 29).
June 23, 2021, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Detective Chief Inspector Ian Baker, of the Met's child abuse and sexual offences command, said: 'We cannot lose sight this is a case about a very young girl who was subjected to horrific abuse at the hands of two defendants, her parents. 'I would like to acknowledge her bravery since her ordeal and I'm pleased to say she has made a very good recovery and been placed with another family'" (para 17-18). "Home Secretary Sajid Javid said: 'FGM is a sickening form of child abuse that leaves innocent young victims with physical and emotional scars that last a lifetime.' He added: 'Let me be clear, we will not tolerate FGM...more
June 23, 2021, 8:46 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Egypt banned FGM in 2008 and made it a felony in 2016. There are no health benefits of the surgery, which intentionally alters or injures female genital organs. Doctors who perform the procedure face a jail sentence for up to seven years and anyone requesting it be carried out faces up to three years in jail.But no one has been successfully prosecuted under the 2016 law and women's rights groups in Egypt say the ban has not been well enforced. Much of society remains permissive of FGM, which is widely practised by both Christians and Muslims" (para 6-9). "Women's rights campaigners said the mother's decision to report the crime highlighted...more
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"the Ministry of the Interior...set up a toll free number...to receive reports from whoever becomes aware of cases of genital mutilation on the national territory, and to provide information on charity organizations, NGOs and health-care facilities that operate within those communities of immigrants, being from countries where such practice occurs" (95). "the Minister for Equal Opportunities issued a Public Notice in August 2007 for the financing of projects to prevent and combat...female genital mutilation in three different areas: Actions/research projects; Awareness-raising campaigns; Training and refresher courses...the amount of the resources made available...is...3.546,290,00 Euros, pursuant to Act No. 7/2006. Such resources are allocated as follows: 793,890.00 Euros for Action/research projects; 1,160,382...more