The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for INFIB-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"FGM/C is against the law. At Dublin Circuit Criminal Court, in November a jury found a married couple guilty of one count of carrying out an act of FGM on their one-year-old daughter at an address in Dublin" (10).
Aug. 17, 2021, 2:50 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The FSU reported that of six recorded cases of FGM/C during initiation of girls under 18 years of age between January and August, four were investigated, but no charges were filed" (p 18). "A renewed call to end the practice began following international attention to the death of 19-year-old Fatmata Turay after she underwent FGM/C" (p 18).
Aug. 10, 2021, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Despite reports that migrant and refugee women residing in the country underwent FGM/C prior to their arrival in Greece, there was no concrete evidence FGM/C was practiced in the country. On February 2[2019], the European Institute for Gender Equality issued a study estimating that 25 to 42 percent of migrant and refugee girls living in the country but originating from states in which FGM/C is practiced were at risk of FGM/C"(22).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"According to international and local observers, the government did not effectively enforce the FGM/C law"(43)."In July the “Protecting Her from FGM” campaign was launched by the National Commission for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation and included a doorto-door campaign in all governorates to raise awareness among local communities about the harmful effects of FGM/C, in cooperation with the committees of child protection and rural leaders"(44).
July 29, 2021, 9:35 a.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Covid has placed millions more girls at risk of FGM as families have turned back to the practice during lockdowns. It has also resurfaced in countries, including Cameroon, where it had been largely abandoned. The procedure is performed for a number of reasons. In some communities it is a prerequisite for marriage; culture and religion are also used to justify it" (Para 5).
July 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The mothers called because they had heard the story of a 10-year-old girl who had bled to death after being cut in central Galmudug state in July 2018. It was the first confirmed death in years in a country where any complications arising from FGM are generally denied and it gained worldwide attention. The death was first revealed by a local activist who had been trained by Ahmed’s foundation in how to use the media to publicise her work" (Para 2). "Covid has placed millions more girls at risk of FGM as families have turned back to the practice during lockdowns. It has also resurfaced in countries, including Cameroon, where...more
July 26, 2021, 12:32 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"FGM/C occurred on occasion, predominantly in diaspora communities. While internal government reports asserted that FGM/C practitioners and victims often travelled to the country from which they immigrated for the illegal procedure, officials also sought to prevent the entry of FGM/C practitioners into Canada"(9).
July 21, 2021, 10:36 a.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"But highlighting the difficulty of eliminating FGM in Egypt, where there is widespread acceptance of it, no one has been successfully prosecuted under the 2016 law and women’s rights groups say the ban has not been well enforced" (Para 9). "El-Saeed said imposing strict prison terms on doctors and other perpetrators of the crime could prove difficult because there is an entrenched belief in Egyptian society that FGM is not a crime" (Para 11). "Reda El Danbouki, executive director of the Women’s Center for Guidance and Legal Awareness, said the amendments would not help eliminate the practice unless judges, policemen and other law-enforcement officials started to take the issue seriously....more
July 20, 2021, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Women's rights groups praised the new legislation, but warned it could be hard to change minds in communities that view the practice as a prerequisite for improving marriage prospects" (Para 19).
July 12, 2021, 1:56 p.m.
Countries: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Togo
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) said in June 2020 that the failure to criminalise FGM was putting the lives of girls and women in Mali, as well as from neighbouring states, at risk. It voiced concerns over the transnational nature of the practice, with reports of girls from countries such as Burkina Faso, Benin, Guinea and Togo that prohibit FGM being taken to Mali to undergo the cut in order to avoid prosecution at home" (para 10-11).
July 12, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Practiced in at least 27 African countries and parts of Asia and the Middle East, FGM is often seen as necessary for social acceptance and improving a woman's marriage prospects. But health experts say girls can bleed to death or die from infections caused by FGM, and it can cause fatal childbirth complications later in life. The UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) said in June 2020 that the failure to criminalise FGM was putting the lives of girls and women in Mali, as well as from neighbouring states, at risk. It voiced concerns over the transnational nature of the practice, with reports...more
July 9, 2021, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, individuals practiced FGM/C widely, particularly in some rural areas. Government officials often participated in public awareness programs to prevent the practice" (p 34). "Media reported growing numbers of female students refused to participate in FGM/C ceremonies, traditionally performed during the August and December school holidays. Media reported arrests of perpetrators and parents who agreed to FGM/C, but parents in regions with a high prevalence of FGM/C frequently bribed police to allow the practice to continue. There were also reports the practice of FGM/C increasingly occurred underground to avoid prosecution" (p 34-35).
June 25, 2021, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"A Queensland mother has been sentenced to prison for taking her two daughters to Africa to have parts of their genitals removed" (para 1). "Brisbane District Court Justice Leanne Clare described the mutilation as child abuse" (para 3). "The mother is the first person to be sentenced in Queensland for removing a child from the state for female genital mutilation. Cutting or removing some of a girl or young woman's genitals is considered traditional in some cultures but illegal here" (para 6-7). "'To treat the adherence to tradition [relating to FGM] as mitigation would dilute the protection of the law for those children in most need of it,' Justice Clare...more
June 25, 2021, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Brisbane District Court Justice Leanne Clare described the mutilation as child abuse, and said the mother, 45, had taken them to Africa for the purpose of having it done. 'In this case, a woman of unknown ability used a sharp implement to excise the clitoral hood of each girl,' Justice Clare said during sentencing on Thursday. 'The girls were not sedated, there was bleeding and a period of significant pain for perhaps a number of days, there was obvious risk of infection, even death' [Justice Clare]" (para 3-5).
June 25, 2021, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Uganda
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Local NGOs reported that many girls who had undergone FGM/C were discouraged from delivering in health centers to avoid revealing they had been cut" (p 29). "On May 30, local media reported the UPF had insufficient resources to monitor adequately the remote areas of the northeast where FGM/C was prevalent, which allowed many practitioners to continue working with impunity. DENIVA and LAW reported the absence of courts in Amudat and Kween Districts and a shortage of clinics that could provide medical evidence made it difficult to prosecute perpetrators" (p 29).
June 23, 2021, 9:09 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Detective Chief Inspector Ian Baker, of the Met's child abuse and sexual offences command, said: 'We cannot lose sight this is a case about a very young girl who was subjected to horrific abuse at the hands of two defendants, her parents. 'I would like to acknowledge her bravery since her ordeal and I'm pleased to say she has made a very good recovery and been placed with another family'" (para 17-18). "Home Secretary Sajid Javid said: 'FGM is a sickening form of child abuse that leaves innocent young victims with physical and emotional scars that last a lifetime.' He added: 'Let me be clear, we will not tolerate FGM...more
June 23, 2021, 8:46 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Egypt banned FGM in 2008 and made it a felony in 2016. There are no health benefits of the surgery, which intentionally alters or injures female genital organs. Doctors who perform the procedure face a jail sentence for up to seven years and anyone requesting it be carried out faces up to three years in jail.But no one has been successfully prosecuted under the 2016 law and women's rights groups in Egypt say the ban has not been well enforced. Much of society remains permissive of FGM, which is widely practised by both Christians and Muslims" (para 6-9). "Women's rights campaigners said the mother's decision to report the crime highlighted...more
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"the Ministry of the Interior...set up a toll free number...to receive reports from whoever becomes aware of cases of genital mutilation on the national territory, and to provide information on charity organizations, NGOs and health-care facilities that operate within those communities of immigrants, being from countries where such practice occurs" (95). "the Minister for Equal Opportunities issued a Public Notice in August 2007 for the financing of projects to prevent and combat...female genital mutilation in three different areas: Actions/research projects; Awareness-raising campaigns; Training and refresher courses...the amount of the resources made available...is...3.546,290,00 Euros, pursuant to Act No. 7/2006. Such resources are allocated as follows: 793,890.00 Euros for Action/research projects; 1,160,382...more
April 26, 2021, 11:01 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The court observed that the survivors’ testimonies disclosed the devastating and harmful effects of FGM, and was therefore not convinced that any woman or girl would consciously and freely consent to FGM. Relying on the evidence of three medical experts, the Court also observed that there is no conceivable benefit of FGM" (para 4). "'The implication of this is that FGM/C cannot be rendered lawful because the person on whom the act was performed consented to that act. No person can license another to perform a crime. The consent or lack thereof of the person on whom the act is performed has no bearing on a charge under the act,'...more
April 20, 2021, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-DATA-2

"A report prepared by the Senate's Health and Population Committee said 'the practice of female genital mutilation is still one of the worst crimes in Egypt and so laws should be amended to impose harsher penalties to this crime'" (para 18).
March 13, 2021, 4:47 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1, INFIB-LAW-1

"While welcoming the enactment of the Female Genital Mutilation Act (2003) and the Female Genital Mutilation Prohibition (Scotland) Act (2005), the Committee is concerned that there have been no prosecutions under this legislation" (9).
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:54 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The UNFPA, which estimates 290,000 girls will be cut in Somalia in 2020, said the spike was also linked to Ramadan, which is a traditional time for girls to be cut" (para 12).
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“The girl's death in the province of Assiut prompted Egypt's public prosecutor to order the arrests of her parents and the physician who performed the procedure, also known as female circumcision. The practice [FGM] is against the law in Egypt - but remains widespread in the region, despite ongoing efforts to quell it” (para 3). “Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been battling the centuries-old practice [FGM], which is misguidedly believed to control women's sexuality. In 2008, a law banning the cutting of female genitalia was passed in parliament despite strong opposition from conservative voices” (para 4). “In 2016, legislators adopted amendments to the law, redefining female genital mutilation (FGM) from...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 7:35 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“Collins and Akaziebie v. Sweden (8 March 2007 (decision on the admissibility)): The applicants, Nigerian nationals, are mother and daughter. They alleged that they would be subjected to female genital mutilation if they were returned to Nigeria, in violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment) of the Convention. The Swedish Migration Board rejected their applications for asylum, refugee status or a residence permit, stating, inter alia, that female genital mutilation was prohibited by law in Nigeria and that this prohibition was observed in at least six Nigerian states. Thus, if the applicants returned to one of those states it would be unlikely that they would be forced...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:51 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“The practice [FGM] is against the law in Egypt - but remains widespread in the region, despite ongoing efforts to quell it” (para 3). “Since the mid-1990s, Egypt has been battling the centuries-old practice [FGM], which is misguidedly believed to control women's sexuality. In 2008, a law banning the cutting of female genitalia was passed in parliament despite strong opposition from conservative voices” (para 4). “In 2016, legislators adopted amendments to the law, redefining female genital mutilation (FGM) from a misdemeanour, for which offenders typically receive up to two years in prison, to a felony, which draws tougher sentences and punishments. However, women's rights advocates argue the law still contains...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:34 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

Her mother, Angela, says the pain and discomfort her daughter is enduring worries her less than the reports she has heard of teenage girls being sexually harassed or exploited by men. She is determined to focus her efforts on making her daughter less desirable to men. 'I just don't want her to become a target of boys around her,' says Angela. 'I'm aware that many boys here like to chase after little girls.' Although many of the families Al Jazeera spoke to mentioned the vulnerability of young girls growing up as refugees as one of the reasons for their decision to iron their daughters' breasts, the practice has been happening...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:30 p.m.
Countries: Cameroon
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Although many of the families Al Jazeera spoke to mentioned the vulnerability of young girls growing up as refugees as one of the reasons for their decision to iron their daughters' breasts, the practice has been happening in Cameroon for generations. The origin of the practice is unclear, but about a quarter of women in Cameroon have undergone breast ironing, according to research by Gender Empowerment and Development (GeED), a non-governmental organisation based in Yaounde, Cameroon, which found that in nearly 60 percent of cases, the procedure is carried out by mothers" (para 8-9).
Jan. 30, 2021, 8:17 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"Christine revealed that doctors referred her to police, who were sent to arrest the tribal birth attendant, who pointed the finger at Christine's mother-in-law. She claims the mother-in-law subsequently paid off the officer, and no action has ever been taken over her mutilation" (para 17-18). "Traditionally, the cutting season happens between November and December and involves young girls aged between 12 and 16, with the idea being to keep them 'pure' for marriage" (para 37). "As with child marriage, the practice has now been outlawed in Kenya, with a maximum penalty of life in jail if a girl dies during the procedure, but so far there have been no successful...more
Jan. 29, 2021, 5:57 p.m.
Countries: Gambia
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

“Almost everyone who practises FGM believes it is a religious obligation, and this religious scholar has told us that this is not the case” (para 7).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:57 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: INFIB-PRACTICE-1

"The ensuing samba ritual involves cutting cruciform nicks into the girl's chest and hands with a razor to not only help cleanse her of her bad luck, but to make her more attractive to older men" (para 11). "Female genital mutilation was outlawed in Tanzania in 1998, and yet a 2010 government survey found that in remote parts of the Mara region, more than 40 percent of girls and women had been cut" (para 27).