The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IRP-LAW-2

Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"No comprehensive legislation provides for granting refugee status or asylum. The Department of Justice’s Refugee and Stateless Persons Protections Unit (RSPPU) determines which applicants qualify as refugees in accordance with an established, accessible system that appeared to provide basic due process" (19-20).
Dec. 27, 2021, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status, and authorities have not established a system for providing protection to refugees... All PRC citizens unlawfully present are required by law to be returned to the PRC, although Taiwan allows PRC asylum seekers to remain in Taiwan on a case-bycase basis" (8).
Nov. 17, 2021, 8:27 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status" (17).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"NGOs and independent observers identified difficulties in asylum procedures, including inconsistency of standards applied in reception centers and insufficient referral rates of trafficking victims and unaccompanied minors to adequate services" (11). This suggests that women are potentially granted asylum in cases of trafficking but that services available may not be adequate or widely available (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 9, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Turkey

"Istanbul, along with 14 other provinces, stopped registering asylum seekers in 2018, with the exception of those in a few categories such as newborn children and some specialized medical cases and family reunification instances" (42).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country has bilateral return agreements with Morocco and Algeria. Authorities review asylum petitions individually, and there is an established appeals process available to rejected petitioners. The law permits any foreigner in the country who is a victim of gender-based violence or of trafficking in persons to file a complaint at a police station without fear of deportation, even if that individual is in the country illegally..." (10).
Oct. 25, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status, and the government has not established a system for providing protection to refugees" (25).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2, AW-LAW-1

"OFPRA stated that priority attention [for asylum] was given to female victims of violence, persons persecuted on the basis of their sexual orientation, victims of human trafficking, unaccompanied minors, and victims of torture" (14).
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The government accepted for resettlement and facilitated the local integration (including naturalization) of refugees who had fled their countries of origin, particularly for refugees belonging to vulnerable groups. Such groups included women with children, refugees with disabilities, victims of trafficking in persons, and victims of torture or rape. Authorities granted residence permits to long-term migrants, asylum seekers, refugees, and migrants who could not return to their countries of origin" (17).
Sept. 21, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status" (17).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The law does not provide for the granting of refugee or asylum status" (58). "The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status [in Hong Kong]" (120).
June 26, 2021, 12:03 p.m.
Countries: Germany

"Under legalisation in Germany, one government-funded NGO, described on its website as a 'counselling centre for sex workers', offers training for women to become 'sexual assistant surrogate partnerships' when they decide to leave prostitution. The training focuses on how 'sex workers' can help disabled people to explore their sexuality" (para 8).
Oct. 3, 2020, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: France

“V.F. v. France (no. 7196/10) (29 November 2011 (decision on the admissibility)): This case concerned the proceedings for the applicant’s deportation to Nigeria, her country of origin. The applicant alleged in particular that if she were expelled to Nigeria she would be at risk of being forced back into the prostitution ring from which she had escaped and being subjected to reprisals by those concerned, and that the Nigerian authorities would be unable to protect her. In her view, the French authorities were under a duty not to expel potential victims of trafficking. The Court declared the application inadmissible as being manifestly ill-founded. While it was well aware of the...more
June 3, 2019, 7:47 p.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan

"The laws provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country has not granted asylum since 2005" (p. 18).
May 4, 2019, 3:36 p.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"Violators of the statutory rape law (defined as sexual intercourse with a person younger than 16 years not involving physical violence or the threat of violence) are subject to a maximum penalty of five years in prison" (p. 16).
April 20, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"A conviction of rape of a minor younger than 14 carries penalties ranging from 25 years to life in prison" (p. 15).
March 29, 2019, 4:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The government did not provide protection against the expulsion or forcible return of vulnerable refugees and asylum seekers, especially North Korean and Kachin refugees. The government continued to consider all North Koreans as ”economic migrants” rather than refugees or asylum seekers and forcibly returned many of them to North Korea. The government continued to prevent UNHCR from having access to North Korean or Burmese refugees. Reports of various exploitation schemes targeting North Korean refugees, such as forced marriages, forced labor, and prostitution, were common" (page 43).
Dec. 6, 2018, 12:25 p.m.
Countries: Trinidad/Tobago
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The Committee is particularly concerned at: . . . (c) Information that there are no shelters specifically designed for women and girls who are victims of trafficking, who instead are referred to shelters established for women who are victims of violence, including domestic violence; (d) Information on the complicity of law enforcement officers in the exploitation of women for prostitution, including the running of brothels, even though it is illegal under the Sexual Offences Act to sell and buy sexual services, and at the lack of information on exit programmes for women who wish to leave prostitution" (page 7-8).
Nov. 17, 2018, 1:06 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-4, IRP-LAW-2

"The proposed law also determines that a significant budget of 105 million shekels ($28.5 million) from governmental apparatuses will be allocated to rehabilitate women engaged in prostitution as part of the system-wide action plan" (para 2).
Sept. 10, 2018, 5:07 a.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The law permits any foreigner who is a victim of gender-based violence or of trafficking in persons in the country to file a complaint at a police station without fear of deportation, even if that individual is in the country illegally" (7).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:07 a.m.
Countries: Italy

"'In Italy, we’re very good at the process of emergency reception—the humanitarian aspect,' Salvatore Vella, a prosecutor in the Sicilian city of Agrigento, told me. 'They arrive. We give them something to eat. We put them in a reception center. But after that? There is no solution. What do we do with these people?'” (para 109). Italy tries to treat trafficking victims with respect and compassion, but has no plan in place for providing for them past the point of reception (AA-CODER COMMENT). "The authorities listened to her story, then repatriated her to Benin City" (para 114). This is an example of a trafficked sex worker being returned to her...more
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment is illegal and carries penalties of imprisonment or fines" (16).
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"At the regional level, the meeting of Interior and Justice ministers of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) has worked on the theme of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, adopting various decisions, agreements, declarations and provisions (Annex 3). At MERCOSUR’s Meeting of Ministers and High-Level Authorities on Women’s Affairs (RMAAM), a MERCOSUR handbook on support for women victims of trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation was drafted (MERCOSUR/CMC/REC Nº.09/12), the campaign 'MERCOSUR Free of Trafficking in Women' was launched, and a 'linkage mechanism to support women victims of international trafficking' was created (MERCOSUR/CMC/DEC.Nº. 32/12). The MERCOSUR handbook seeks to organize actions to assist women victims of international trafficking for purposes...more
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-4, IRP-LAW-2

"[The Committee] is, however, concerned at: . . . (d) The various forms of discrimination and criminal sanctions faced by women in prostitution and the insufficient exit programmes for women wishing to leave prostitution" (page 8).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The Plan of Action to Prevent People Trafficking is a whole-of-government response to people trafficking and outlines a comprehensive support structure for victims. It assists and encourages victims of trafficking to participate in any criminal proceedings involving their alleged traffickers. Suspected victims will be provided with protection as a witness and potential victim. Unless they choose to return home, certified victims of people trafficking will be granted a 12-month temporary entry class visa. Adult applicants will then be able to apply for a resident visa. The Government will provide long-term shelter and residency benefits, including financial assistance and publicly funded health and disability services, to victims to aid them in...more
June 8, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The Committee is furthermore concerned about: (a) The fact that only four shelters for victims of trafficking are operational; (b) The insufficient measures for early identification of victims of trafficking, as well as the insufficient protection services for them; (c) Reports that victims of trafficking, including women engaging in prostitution, have been arrested, detained and deported for acts committed as a consequence of having been trafficked" (page 12).
May 4, 2018, 5:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: IRP-LAW-1, IRP-LAW-2, PRN-LAW-1, IIP-LAW-2

"The new Irish law will help efforts to end demand by holding sex buyers accountable and will also ensure that prostituted individuals and survivors can access comprehensive support services. In addition, it strengthens national laws against sexual grooming, child pornography and sexual harassment in the Republic of Ireland" (pp 2)
April 4, 2018, 11:54 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the updated national referral system established in 2014 and the third national plan to prevent and combat trafficking in human beings (2014-2017), but is concerned: . . . (d) That there is a lack of information on the protection and assistance in place for victims of trafficking, including the issuance of temporary resident permits. The Committee urges the State party: . . . (c) To strengthen the protection and rehabilitation of women who are victims of trafficking by providing them with access to alternative income opportunities and providing undocumented women with temporary resident permits, irrespective of their ability or willingness to cooperate with the prosecutorial authorities" (page...more
March 28, 2018, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The Committee notes the adoption of an action plan to combat trafficking in persons for 2015-2016 and a programme of cooperation for 2011-2013 between States members of the Commonwealth of Independent States on combating trafficking in persons. It is concerned, however, at: ...(b) Discrimination against women in prostitution, the absence of shelters and crisis centres for women in prostitution adapted to their needs and the lack of exit and reintegration programmes for women who wish to leave prostitution" (5).
March 14, 2018, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Senegal

"The Committee welcomes the adoption of Law No. 2005-06 of 10 May 2005 on combating trafficking in persons and similar practices and the protection of victims and of a national plan to combat trafficking in persons, in particular women and children, in 2009. It is concerned, however, about: (a) The absence of a clear definition of trafficking in persons in the national legislative framework; (b) The lack of data on the extent of trafficking in women and girls to, from and transiting through the State party; (c) Cases of trafficking of women and girls who are domestic workers, 'Internet brides' and women and girls subjected to forced labour, sexual exploitation,...more