The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IRP-LAW-2

Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The law does not provide for the granting of refugee or asylum status" (58). "The law does not provide for granting asylum or refugee status [in Hong Kong]" (120).
June 26, 2021, 12:03 p.m.
Countries: Germany

"Under legalisation in Germany, one government-funded NGO, described on its website as a 'counselling centre for sex workers', offers training for women to become 'sexual assistant surrogate partnerships' when they decide to leave prostitution. The training focuses on how 'sex workers' can help disabled people to explore their sexuality" (para 8).
Oct. 3, 2020, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: France

“V.F. v. France (no. 7196/10) (29 November 2011 (decision on the admissibility)): This case concerned the proceedings for the applicant’s deportation to Nigeria, her country of origin. The applicant alleged in particular that if she were expelled to Nigeria she would be at risk of being forced back into the prostitution ring from which she had escaped and being subjected to reprisals by those concerned, and that the Nigerian authorities would be unable to protect her. In her view, the French authorities were under a duty not to expel potential victims of trafficking. The Court declared the application inadmissible as being manifestly ill-founded. While it was well aware of the...more
June 3, 2019, 7:47 p.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan

"The laws provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country has not granted asylum since 2005" (p. 18).
May 4, 2019, 3:36 p.m.
Countries: Mongolia
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"Violators of the statutory rape law (defined as sexual intercourse with a person younger than 16 years not involving physical violence or the threat of violence) are subject to a maximum penalty of five years in prison" (p. 16).
April 20, 2019, 9:35 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"A conviction of rape of a minor younger than 14 carries penalties ranging from 25 years to life in prison" (p. 15).
March 29, 2019, 4:03 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The government did not provide protection against the expulsion or forcible return of vulnerable refugees and asylum seekers, especially North Korean and Kachin refugees. The government continued to consider all North Koreans as ”economic migrants” rather than refugees or asylum seekers and forcibly returned many of them to North Korea. The government continued to prevent UNHCR from having access to North Korean or Burmese refugees. Reports of various exploitation schemes targeting North Korean refugees, such as forced marriages, forced labor, and prostitution, were common" (page 43).
Dec. 6, 2018, 12:25 p.m.
Countries: Trinidad/Tobago
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The Committee is particularly concerned at: . . . (c) Information that there are no shelters specifically designed for women and girls who are victims of trafficking, who instead are referred to shelters established for women who are victims of violence, including domestic violence; (d) Information on the complicity of law enforcement officers in the exploitation of women for prostitution, including the running of brothels, even though it is illegal under the Sexual Offences Act to sell and buy sexual services, and at the lack of information on exit programmes for women who wish to leave prostitution" (page 7-8).
Nov. 17, 2018, 1:06 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-4, IRP-LAW-2

"The proposed law also determines that a significant budget of 105 million shekels ($28.5 million) from governmental apparatuses will be allocated to rehabilitate women engaged in prostitution as part of the system-wide action plan" (para 2).
Sept. 10, 2018, 5:07 a.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The law permits any foreigner who is a victim of gender-based violence or of trafficking in persons in the country to file a complaint at a police station without fear of deportation, even if that individual is in the country illegally" (7).
Sept. 5, 2018, 10:07 a.m.
Countries: Italy

"'In Italy, we’re very good at the process of emergency reception—the humanitarian aspect,' Salvatore Vella, a prosecutor in the Sicilian city of Agrigento, told me. 'They arrive. We give them something to eat. We put them in a reception center. But after that? There is no solution. What do we do with these people?'” (para 109). Italy tries to treat trafficking victims with respect and compassion, but has no plan in place for providing for them past the point of reception (AA-CODER COMMENT). "The authorities listened to her story, then repatriated her to Benin City" (para 114). This is an example of a trafficked sex worker being returned to her...more
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"Sexual harassment is illegal and carries penalties of imprisonment or fines" (16).
July 6, 2018, 6:49 p.m.
Countries: Uruguay
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"At the regional level, the meeting of Interior and Justice ministers of the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) has worked on the theme of human trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation, adopting various decisions, agreements, declarations and provisions (Annex 3). At MERCOSUR’s Meeting of Ministers and High-Level Authorities on Women’s Affairs (RMAAM), a MERCOSUR handbook on support for women victims of trafficking for purposes of sexual exploitation was drafted (MERCOSUR/CMC/REC Nº.09/12), the campaign 'MERCOSUR Free of Trafficking in Women' was launched, and a 'linkage mechanism to support women victims of international trafficking' was created (MERCOSUR/CMC/DEC.Nº. 32/12). The MERCOSUR handbook seeks to organize actions to assist women victims of international trafficking for purposes...more
June 28, 2018, 4:51 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-4, IRP-LAW-2

"[The Committee] is, however, concerned at: . . . (d) The various forms of discrimination and criminal sanctions faced by women in prostitution and the insufficient exit programmes for women wishing to leave prostitution" (page 8).
June 26, 2018, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

"The Plan of Action to Prevent People Trafficking is a whole-of-government response to people trafficking and outlines a comprehensive support structure for victims. It assists and encourages victims of trafficking to participate in any criminal proceedings involving their alleged traffickers. Suspected victims will be provided with protection as a witness and potential victim. Unless they choose to return home, certified victims of people trafficking will be granted a 12-month temporary entry class visa. Adult applicants will then be able to apply for a resident visa. The Government will provide long-term shelter and residency benefits, including financial assistance and publicly funded health and disability services, to victims to aid them in...more
June 8, 2018, 1:24 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The Committee is furthermore concerned about: (a) The fact that only four shelters for victims of trafficking are operational; (b) The insufficient measures for early identification of victims of trafficking, as well as the insufficient protection services for them; (c) Reports that victims of trafficking, including women engaging in prostitution, have been arrested, detained and deported for acts committed as a consequence of having been trafficked" (page 12).
May 4, 2018, 5:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: IRP-LAW-1, IRP-LAW-2, PRN-LAW-1, IIP-LAW-2

"The new Irish law will help efforts to end demand by holding sex buyers accountable and will also ensure that prostituted individuals and survivors can access comprehensive support services. In addition, it strengthens national laws against sexual grooming, child pornography and sexual harassment in the Republic of Ireland" (pp 2)
April 4, 2018, 11:54 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the updated national referral system established in 2014 and the third national plan to prevent and combat trafficking in human beings (2014-2017), but is concerned: . . . (d) That there is a lack of information on the protection and assistance in place for victims of trafficking, including the issuance of temporary resident permits. The Committee urges the State party: . . . (c) To strengthen the protection and rehabilitation of women who are victims of trafficking by providing them with access to alternative income opportunities and providing undocumented women with temporary resident permits, irrespective of their ability or willingness to cooperate with the prosecutorial authorities" (page...more
March 28, 2018, 10:04 a.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The Committee notes the adoption of an action plan to combat trafficking in persons for 2015-2016 and a programme of cooperation for 2011-2013 between States members of the Commonwealth of Independent States on combating trafficking in persons. It is concerned, however, at: ...(b) Discrimination against women in prostitution, the absence of shelters and crisis centres for women in prostitution adapted to their needs and the lack of exit and reintegration programmes for women who wish to leave prostitution" (5).
March 14, 2018, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Senegal

"The Committee welcomes the adoption of Law No. 2005-06 of 10 May 2005 on combating trafficking in persons and similar practices and the protection of victims and of a national plan to combat trafficking in persons, in particular women and children, in 2009. It is concerned, however, about: (a) The absence of a clear definition of trafficking in persons in the national legislative framework; (b) The lack of data on the extent of trafficking in women and girls to, from and transiting through the State party; (c) Cases of trafficking of women and girls who are domestic workers, 'Internet brides' and women and girls subjected to forced labour, sexual exploitation,...more
March 14, 2018, 12:08 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland

"While welcoming the adoption of the People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act in 2009, the Committee remains concerned that the State party is a country of origin, transit and destination for trafficked women and girls, mainly for sexual exploitation and domestic labour. The Committee is also concerned at the lack of data on the extent of trafficking in persons and at the absence of specific programmes to raise awareness of the existence of a national referral mechanism on human trafficking in the State party. It is further concerned that the prohibition of prostitution under the Crimes Act does not criminalize the demand for prostitution. The Committee is also concerned...more
March 7, 2018, 9:50 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"Likewise, the National Program for Social Prevention of Violence and Delinquency (PNPSVD) was created, as well as the National Program for Equality and Non-discrimination, the National Program to Prevent, Sanction, and Eradicate Crimes Regarding Human Trafficking and for the Protection and Assistance to Victims of These Crimes, PNDH, the Program for Integral Attention to Victims, the PIPASEVM, and the Special Program for Intercultural Education. All are interlinked; these programs report annually on their progress since 2014" (page 11). "The FEVIMTRA provides mechanisms for immediate protection in urgent cases, without process or waiting period, for the custody of women victims of gender-based violence and trafficking. In addition, in 2014, the implementation...more
Feb. 7, 2018, 10:37 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"On 10 July 2008 the Government adopted an Action plan against prostitution and human trafficking for sexual purposes. The action plan focuses on the needs of the individual and consists of 5 action areas: increased support and protection for victims; stronger preventive work; enhanced quality and effectiveness in the justice system; the development of action targeted at perpetrators; greater national and international collaboration; and increased knowledge . . . The Government commissioned the Stockholm County Administrative Board to coordinate at national level the work being done by government agencies against prostitution and human trafficking for sexual purposes. The work covers stronger collaboration, operational support on methods, work on secure return...more
Jan. 17, 2018, 4:15 p.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"Women and others in prostitution are not to be criminalized or subjected to administrative punishments, and have a right to live lives without being subjected to violence through the harm of prostitution. To end prostitution and human trafficking for sexual purposes, the political, social, legal and economic conditions under which women and girls live must be ameliorated by introducing measures such as poverty reduction, sustainable development, measures that promote gender equality and counteract male violence against women and girls, as well as social programs focusing specifically on women and girls" (page 2)."Those who are exploited in prostitution should be given adequate support and assistance, those who risk being prostituted should...more
Nov. 10, 2017, 1:02 p.m.
Countries: North Korea

"The law criminalizes defection and attempted defection, including the attempt to gain entry to a foreign diplomatic facility for the purpose of seeking political asylum. Individuals who cross the border with the purpose of defecting or seeking asylum in a third country are subject to a minimum of five years of 'labor correction.' In 'serious' cases defectors or asylum seekers are subjected to indefinite terms of imprisonment and forced labor, confiscation of property, or death. Many would-be refugees who were returned involuntarily were imprisoned under harsh conditions"(10)."The law does not provide for the granting of asylum or refugee status, nor has the government established a system for providing protection for...more
Feb. 15, 2017, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"The commercial sexual exploitation of children generally occurred in tourist locations and major urban areas. The government conducted several programs to combat the sexual exploitation of minors, including posting notices in airports and targeted programs in popular tourist locations. The Ministry of Labor continued a program to combat exploitation in popular tourist destinations such as Boca Chica, Sosua, and Las Terrenas. These programs provided psychological support and medical assistance, returned children to classrooms, and reunited children with their families and communities whenever possible. The programs also provided legal assistance to child victims and their families to arrest and convict exploiters" (32).
Jan. 27, 2017, 1:34 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"sex workers will no longer be fined or jailed for public soliciting. And foreign sex workers actively trying to get out of prostitution can be given a six-month residential permit and state funding to prevent prostitution" (para 4).
Jan. 3, 2017, 8:24 p.m.
Countries: Malta
Variables: TRAFF-LAW-3, IRP-LAW-2

“The government provided asylum applicants with free legal aid at the appeal stage of the application process. Prior to the appeal stage, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), or the migrants themselves, paid for legal assistance. The country normally granted humanitarian protection to those with rejected applications and appeals” (6).
Aug. 23, 2016, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-4, IRP-LAW-2

"Prostitution has been criminalized after a joint effort by the Catholic Church and the Government. Sometimes security personnel provide protection to women. However, they also sometimes use their power to force women into prostitution and have sexual relations" (15). "The society, the State, (in particular, the government) and the Catholic Church marginalizes sex work and does not provide any social protection or legal recognition for sex workers" (52).
June 27, 2016, 9:53 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: IRP-LAW-2

"Thailand has facilitated safe return of foreign victims, such as sharing of information with source countries during the national verification process and provision of interpreters to assist the victims throughout the process. In case of complicated cases, consultations among agencies involved, including from the source and destination countries, have been conducted" (17).