The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for IRP-PRACTICE-1

April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"The prostitution is a hidden and unknown phenomenon and the recent trend to exercise it in closed places, like private apartments – so as to abandon the unsecure streets, makes more difficult its disclosure. The girls live irregularly and their dependency from traffickers is psychological and physical. This is true above all for girls from Eastern Europe and Latin America and, recently from China, while the Nigerian prostitution still occurs mainly in the streets" (43). "Among major problems [with immigrant women], it is worth recalling the prostitution, the poor knowledge of contraceptive methods, and the spread of AIDS" (84).
March 6, 2021, 9:44 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: CLCW-PRACTICE-1, IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Women’s rights in the UAE have recently come under heightened scrutiny following the emergence of new videos of Sheikha Latifa, daughter of the Dubai ruler, in which she describes the conditions of her forced confinement following her abduction and forcible return to the UAE in 2018" (para 4).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"The major form of discrimination, at the prevention of which the courts, MIA institutions, and social workers are targeted, is domestic violence. Due attention is not paid to other problems, in particular, to the problem of exploitation of prostitution by third parties" (14).
Feb. 26, 2021, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

“In Johannesburg, South Africa, one study noted that 31 per cent of rapes were perpetrated in open spaces such as rough ground” (pp. 26).
Feb. 26, 2021, 11:41 a.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

“In Tanzania, growing numbers of young girls in early adolescence (12–13 years old) migrate to the cities. They move seeking education or work, but also in many cases to escape abusive family relations and forced marriage. This is a group particularly at risk: research in Tanzania shows that for one-fifth of them, the first sexual encounter is forced, and ‘sexual abuse is so prevalent that it is hardly even noticed or is treated as “normal”’ (Mabala and Cooksey, 2008: 2). The corollary to this is the high incidence of HIV/AIDS. In Tanzania, infection rates are 12 and 9.6 per cent for females and males in urban areas, against 5.8 and...more
Feb. 15, 2021, 10:02 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"In BiH and other post-conflict countries this economic sphere includes 'the creation of a new market for prostitution in response to the arrival of the UN peacekeeping forces'. Formal employment opportunities are limited in the post-conflict transition period and there is almost always a need for women to sell sex as a means to their own and their families’ survival" (para 3). "The local population was trying to overcome the ravages of conflict and remained largely ignorant of the brutal reality of sex trafficking. They believed that the evolving situation was simply one of international prostitution providing necessary services for international workers" (para 4). "Prostitution in Bosnia and Herzegovina was...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 8:22 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

“B.S. v. Spain (no. 47159/08) (24 July 2012): This case concerned a woman of Nigerian origin who was stopped by the police while working as a prostitute on the outskirts of Palma de Mallorca. The applicant complained in particular that the national police officers had verbally and physically abused her when stopping her for questioning. She further alleged that she had been discriminated against because of her profession as a prostitute, her skin colour and her gender. The Court found that the Spanish State had not conducted an adequate and effective investigation into the applicant’s allegations of ill-treatment on two occasions when she was stopped and questioned in the street,...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:34 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"The refugee families' fears for their daughters are not unfounded. Female refugees and displaced people in Nigeria are at high risk of sexual harassment and exploitation. The UN has said it is aware of a high level of 'survival sex' - women turning to prostitution out of desperation - in camps housing Cameroonian refugees in Cross River State" (para 20).
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: SMES-DATA-2, IRP-PRACTICE-1, GIC-LAW-2

"Yayoi Kimura, a Liberal Democratic member of the House of Representatives who endorsed the letter, said that when she co-sponsored a bill to provide a tax break for unmarried parents, some of her male colleagues argued that most single mothers were either mistresses of rich men or hyperambitious career women who did not need government assistance" (para 22).
Dec. 31, 2020, 3:55 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"In most states, including California, young prostitutes continue to be charged with crimes despite a growing consensus that minors who engage in sex for pay are victims of sex trafficking rather than criminals" (para 9). "Nationally, safe housing for exploited youngsters remains 'a systemic problem,' with trafficked girls often placed with foster parents who lack awareness of the issue, said Nola Brantley, who was trafficked herself and co-founded Missey, an Oakland-based nonprofit group that helps girls in crisis, provides mentoring and offers links to therapy and other services" (para 28).
Dec. 24, 2020, 1:08 p.m.
Countries: Colombia
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Paola, 23, is a Venezuelan escort in Santa Marta, on the northern Colombian coast. She arrived in Colombia two years ago. At first she worked on the street, but she almost immediately experienced a severe beating at the hands of a customer. Now, she screens her clients through a website and rents a room near the tourist district" (para 14-15).
Dec. 24, 2020, 1:07 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Due to stereotyping and desperation in destination countries, Venezuelan women often resort to, or are forced into, sex work to survive" (para 12). "Paola, 23, is a Venezuelan escort in Santa Marta, on the northern Colombian coast. She arrived in Colombia two years ago. At first she worked on the street, but she almost immediately experienced a severe beating at the hands of a customer. Now, she screens her clients through a website and rents a room near the tourist district" (para 14-15).
Dec. 24, 2020, 10:09 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Having fled the war, Syrian women and girls are vulnerable to exploitation and increasing levels of abuse. Some look to marriage for protection, others are victims of pimps or matchmakers out for profit" (para 4).
Dec. 17, 2020, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

“He made a frantic public appeal for clients to get tested, assuring them that their wives wouldn’t find out. But contact tracing proved difficult as the mayor, Ignazio Abbate, began receiving anonymous phone calls from men “asking for a friend” what the sex worker looked like” (para. 2). “Modica has so far not experienced a new outbreak, but as the sex worker recovered in a hospital in Perugia last month, news of her situation and occupation spread throughout the country, highlighting the ways in which the pandemic has affected some of the most vulnerable and marginalized communities in Italy, and the dangers of keeping sex work in the shadows” (para....more
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"On April 1, police detained around 14 people, gay men, and transgender women, claiming they engaged in illegal sex work. According to Nefes LGBT Azerbaijan Alliance, an independent group, in some cases the men were detained after being lured for dates through mobile apps. Police took at least some for unlawful, forced testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Courts fined two for “hooliganism” and handed jail sentences of up to 15 days to another three for resisting police, then fined and released them upon appeal. No confirmed information is available regarding sanctions against the other nine" (26).
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Women who are involved in prostitution are among the most vulnerable in society. There are numerous factors that make female sex workers more vulnerable and prone to human rights abuses, such as physical and psychological violence, loss of physical integrity, breach of confidentiality, interference with the private life, discrimination, etc. The above-mentioned factors are often influenced by state attitudes and policy issues, legislative and regulatory issues, a lack of human rights reporting, and little public awareness and education" (30). "While the relevant article of the RA Code of Administrative Infringements stipulates legal responsibility for being a prostitute in general, this legally neutral norm is applied exclusively to women, i.e. only...more
Aug. 13, 2020, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: CWC-DATA-3, IRP-PRACTICE-1

"In March, tropical cyclone Idai hit near the coastal city of Beira, bringing heavy rains that left entire villages in Manica, Sofala, and Zambezia provinces submerged as floodwaters rose. Tens of thousands of people were displaced and, according to the United Nations, over 1.85 million people, most of them women and children, needed urgent assistance. Victims, residents, and aid workers told Human Rights Watch that local community leaders coerced women into engaging in sex in exchange for aid" (para. 10).
Aug. 9, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Paying for sex is illegal in Iceland. It has been for decades. The difference, however, is in 2007 the government amended the law arguing that most people who turn to soliciting sex have no other option or were coerced by others" (para 21). "'It is not acceptable that women or people in general are a product to be sold,' said Kolbrun Halldorsdottir, who proposed the ban on strip clubs" (para 24).
Aug. 9, 2020, 3:18 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1, IRP-LAW-1

"In March 2019, Ramaphosa said his government was looking into decriminalizing sex work, which has been illegal in South Africa since at least the early 1900s. South African laws also prohibit other aspects of sex work, including running or owning a brothel, living off the earnings of 'prostitution,' and enticing a woman into 'prostitution.' Criminalization has undermined sex workers’ access to justice for crimes committed against them and exposed them to unchecked abuse and exploitation by law enforcement officials, including police officers. And although the Department of Health’s National Strategic Plan on HIV for Sex Workers is grounded in respect for the human rights of sex workers, criminalization hinders sex...more
July 14, 2020, 6:34 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"As highlighted in the 2014 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women’s (CEDAW) NGO Shadow Report ‘Australian sex workers continue to experience pervasive barriers to claiming their human rights, including restricted access to health services, stigma and discrimination and a range of legal and regulatory issues including criminalisation, licensing, registration and mandatory HIV testing in some jurisdictions" (1). "Despite this, there are currently no federal anti-discrimination protections for sex workers. Likewise, sex workers in the Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA), New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA), do not have access to state based anti-discrimination protections. In Queensland (Qld), Victoria (Vic), and Tasmania (Tas),...more
June 5, 2020, 1:19 p.m.
Countries: Papua New Guinea
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Four percent of men age 15-49 reported that they had ever paid for sex (Table 13.7). Almost half of men (48%) who had paid for sex in the last 12 months reported using a condom during the last paid sexual intercourse" (229).
May 31, 2020, 4:27 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Sexual exploitation of women is in no way a social problem in the DPRK. Some immoral persons who arranged for or forced women to commit prostitution, or committed rape were duly punished in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Criminal Law. In such cases the convicted persons were put on public trials, where, in the presence of a large number of people, they were sentenced to heavy penalties, alerting others not to commit such crimes" (13). "With a view to preventing practices of prostitution, rape and other acts of affront to women’s dignity, explanatory notes on the Law on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Women and...more
May 7, 2020, 6:51 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"The city of Zurich will open Switzerland’s first-ever drive in “sex boxes” tomorrow as part of a controversial attempt to reduce open street prostitution, protect sex workers and prevent organised crime." (para 1). "Michael Herzig, a Zurich social services director who supervises the city’s sex workers, defended the move: 'Prostitution is a business. We cannot prohibit it, so we want to control it in favour of the sex workers and the population,' he said." (para 3). "'If we do not control it, organised crime and the pimps will take over,' he added. Just over 52 per cent of Zurich’s voters approved of plans to introduce sex-boxes in a referendum held...more
March 28, 2020, 7:56 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"'They said, <>. I was distraught, I thought there must be a mistake'" (para 10).
March 24, 2020, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Thailand’s infamous sex industry is under fire, with the tourism minister pushing to rid the country of its ubiquitous brothels and a spate of police raids in recent weeks on some of the largest establishments providing sex services in Bangkok" (para 1). "Thailand is predominantly Buddhist and deeply conservative, but is home to an extensive sex industry, largely catering to Thai men. Hordes of tourists also flock to the bright lights of go-go bars and massage parlours in Bangkok and main tourist towns" (para 4). "Prostitution is illegal in Thailand but the law is almost invariably ignored. Experts say it will be hard to rid Thailand of an industry that...more
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Child prostitution affects boys and girls, both Italians and foreigners — though mainly impacting on Romanians, Nigerians, Albanians and Moldavians; this is also connected to THB for sexual exploitation purposes; as for child prostitution by Italians, this mainly occurs in very economically disadvantaged families; and it is a phenomenon also reported within the Roma communities. However, boys and girls also prostitute themselves — though occasionally — for purchasing goods of value." (para 77).
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Many efforts are being made by the security services and specialized associations (ATTAC 3) to address the root causes of prostitution and sexual exploitation and trafficking and to rehabilitate and reintegrate victims. But these efforts do not always succeed, owing to a combination of factors limiting both the outreach to persons affected by such phenomena and their involvement in the struggle, and the mobilization of the resources needed to pay the costs relating thereto" (15).
Dec. 21, 2019, 7:52 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1

"Her history in many ways reflects the cycle of violence affecting Indigenous communities. Her paternal grandfather was sent to a residential school, and became an alcoholic. Her mother, who became a ward of the state as a child, eventually joined the sex trade" (para 24).
Sept. 12, 2019, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1, IRP-LAW-1

"Iranian and some foreign women and girls, as well as some men, are highly vulnerable to sex trafficking in Iran. Although prostitution is illegal in Iran, a local NGO estimated in 2017 that prostitution is endemic throughout the country, and reports estimate sex traffickers exploit children as young as 10 years old" (253)
Aug. 29, 2019, 11:29 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: IRP-PRACTICE-1, IRP-LAW-4

"Prostitution is legal and regulated in Germany. The government did not make efforts to reduce the demand for commercial sex" (216).