The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-LAW-1

Jan. 14, 2022, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Belize
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Observers suggested cultural and societal constraints limited the number of women participating in government. Women remained a clear minority in government: two of 31 members of the House of Representatives and three of 13 senators were women" (9).
Jan. 13, 2022, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (8).
Jan. 13, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate"(29)."The constitution provides for parliamentary representation by women, youth, persons with disabilities, ethnic minorities, and marginalized communities"(29).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women and minorities in the political process, and they did participate...The law calls on political parties to make their best efforts to have equal numbers of male and female candidates on the ballot in national and local elections..." (14).
Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. At the national level, women comprised nearly 30 percent of the legislature. Participation by these groups did not change significantly compared with previous elections" (21).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"There are no legal barriers against women holding office in any of the three branches. Article 88 of the Provosional Constitution states that 'as long as he or she meets the eligibility requirements for Presidency.' While there are no legal barriers, there are cultural barriers for women to run for Presidency or appointed as Prime Minister" (1).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (8).
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process. Representation of women in public life, however, was very low. The ODIHR report on the 2018 elections noted, 'Women are underrepresented in political life and there are no legal requirements to promote gender equality in elections.' Following the elections, women constituted 12.5 percent of members of parliament. As of September the 12-person cabinet included two women, and 16 percent of subcabinet-level government state secretaries were women. The UN Human Rights Committee’s Sixth Periodic Report also expressed concern that women were underrepresented in decision- making positions in the public sector, particularly in government ministries and parliament" (21).more
Dec. 3, 2021, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (8).
Dec. 3, 2021, 9:11 a.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, GP-DATA-1

"No law limits participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The former regime had high-level female politicians and ministers, while the opposition lacked high-level female and minority representation" (24).
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (10).
Nov. 16, 2021, 6:38 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (13).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (13).
Nov. 11, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws prevent women or members of minorities from voting, running for office, serving as electoral monitors, or otherwise participating in political life, and they did so"(15).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit the participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (12).
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The law requires that 40 percent of the party candidate lists submitted for national elections be from 'the under-represented gender.' If a party fails to meet the quota, the law provides a graduated scheme of reducing its yearly financial endowment from the government, based on the extent of failure to meet the criteria. The country’s five major parties all met the 40 percent criterion in their candidate lists for the parliamentary elections" (7).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:41 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit the participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Following the July parliamentary election, the proportion of women in the parliament increased from 12 percent to 20 percent" (40).
Oct. 12, 2021, 8:55 a.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (19).
Oct. 8, 2021, 11:29 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"After a three-week period of internal elections, Hamas on Sunday announced the new members of its political bureau, which is the organization’s highest decision-making body. The 15-member political bureau will for the first time have a female member, Jamila Alshanti, of Gaza" (para 1). "The internal electoral system of Hamas 'allows women to be elected and to hold senior and wide decision-making positions, in addition to guaranteeing her right to joint or independent work,' the statement said" (para 5). "'In May 2017, Hamas showed a positive position toward women when it issued its (principles and general policies) document that praises and appreciates the role of women in the political field,'...more
Oct. 4, 2021, 8:33 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate"(10).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate" (16).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"In 2018, President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita (IBK) won the presidential election, which was deemed to have met minimum acceptable standards by international observers despite some irregularities and limited violence. One woman was among the 24 candidates who participated in the first round of elections, which were followed by a run-off election between the top two candidates" (18). A female candidate indicates that women may be legally able to run for office (JLR-CODER COMMENT). "No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation in formal and informal roles. A law passed in 2015 requires that...more
Sept. 17, 2021, 10 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-DATA-1, VOTE-DATA-2

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. At the last general election in 2017, 46 women were elected to parliament, and this number has since grown: with a 2019 total of 49 female members of parliament, women comprise more than 40 percent of all members of parliament (MPs). Voter turnout in the general election was 79 percent, while turnout in designated Maori electorates was lower and ranged from 60 percent to 69 percent. In South Auckland electorates with a high percentage of Pacific Island voters, turnout was 69 percent" (8).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No law limits participation of women in the political process {in Hong Kong], and they did participate. Fifteen percent of the [Hong Kong] Legislative Council’s members were women" (123).
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate"(19).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate.The law reduces government funding to parties unless 30 percent of their candidates at general elections were women" (8).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minority groups in the political process. The October 2018 parliamentary election produced approximately the same level of female voter turnout as in the 2010 parliamentary election; however, there was an increase in the participation of female candidates. Absent reliable data, civil society, think tanks, and election monitoring organizations assessed that women’s participation across the country varied according to the security conditions and social norms. There was lower female voter turnout in provinces where communities purposely limited female participation in the democratic process, where lack of security was a concern, or both. Conflict, threats, financial constraints, corruption, conservative family members, and a...more
Aug. 30, 2021, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate"(9).
Aug. 11, 2021, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate"(7).
Aug. 11, 2021, 10:20 a.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate"(6).