The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-LAW-2

March 15, 2024, 2:30 p.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Quota Act, a parliamentary initiative, has been adopted to enable women to participate with a 30-per-cent share as candidates for decision-making posts at the policy and institutional levels" (2). "Act No. 9/2016 of 5 September 2016 sets the quotas for women and young people as candidates for political posts at 30 per cent and for women for senior government positions at 30 per cent" (12, 13). "The adoption of the Quota Act, [] specifies that women and young people should account for 30 per cent of candidates for decision-making posts" (30).
Feb. 20, 2024, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Constitutional Court decision of 24 January 2014 declared that quotas for ensuring equal representation of women in political and administrative fields were unconstitutional" (7).
Jan. 19, 2024, 12:06 p.m.
Countries: Central African Rep
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"[Act No. 16.004] establishes a quota system for women in functions filled by election or appointment, setting the quota at 35 per cent, and providing for this quota to be increased over a period of 10 years from the date of entry into force" (33).
Jan. 16, 2024, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Special temporary measures to accelerate political participation of women are not yet in place" (17).
Nov. 6, 2023, 11:49 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

“It is stipulated under article 25 of the Law that ‘female villagers’ representatives shall constitute no less than one third of the membership of the villagers’ assembly’. The Regulations on the Election of the Villagers’ Committee, issued by the Ministry of Civil Affairs in May 2013, further enhanced standardized procedures and gender equity in elections of villagers’ committees by ensuring that women were among the elected members of such committees" (11).
Nov. 1, 2023, 6:11 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"[T]he Electoral Law of the National People’s Congress and Local People’s Congresses of the People’s Republic of China, as revised in 2015, stipulates that ‘deputies shall comprise an appropriate number of women, who shall account for an increasingly larger percentage’. It is stipulated under article 6 of the Organic Law of the Villagers’ Committees of the People’s Republic of China that ‘The members of a villagers’ committee shall include an appropriate number of women’” (11).
Oct. 4, 2023, 6:58 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Political Parties Act No. 22/10 of 3 December 2010 provides for a minimum of 30 per cent representation of women on the lists of political parties taking part in general elections" (9).
Aug. 15, 2023, 6:17 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee notes with concern the absence of temporary special measures in the State party apart from electoral quotas" (7). "The Committee recommends that the State party adopt across all relevant sectors temporary special measures, such as quotas and other proactive measures, accompanied by sanctions for non-compliance, in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 (2004) on temporary special measures, and in order to reach de facto equality between women and men" (7). "The Committee notes that a draft law will be presented to the National Assembly on 17 July 2019 that would provide for a minimum of 30 per cent representation...more
Aug. 8, 2023, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In that context, a law on parity between men and women in entirely or partially elective bodies was adopted on 28 May 2010. Compliance with this law has been subject to a judicial review, as reflected in Supreme Court Order No. 2 of 8 January 2015, in which the Administrative Chamber ordered a rerun of the election of the Kaolack municipal council elections on the grounds that the parity principle had not been observed during the election of the second deputy as mayor of the municipality." (4).
July 10, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"On the Committee’s CO regarding temporary special measures (TSMs) in the Gender Equality Act and implementation of these, including measures to address the disadvantages and inequalities faced by women outside Male and in remote islands, migrant women, women with disabilities and women heads of household, since 2008, under the leadership of the MOGFSS, efforts have been made to establish TSMs among political parties to increase women’s leadership, but with no success." (11).
June 27, 2023, 11:15 p.m.
Countries: Algeria
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"According to a 2012 law, at least 33 percent of seats in elected assemblies are reserved for women" (24).
June 20, 2023, 9:30 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Equal Rights Act provides for equality in the exercise of political rights, including the right to elect and be elected to public office. It also establishes the need for a proportional percentage of women and men in elected positions at the national, regional and municipal levels and in the Central American Parliament. To that end, political parties must include women candidates in their lists to ensure greater democratic participation." (14). "To give effect to women’s political rights, article 82 of Act No. 790 of 2012, amending the Electoral Act (No. 331), provides that political parties or alliances must propose candidates in accordance with the principle of gender equality." (14-15)....more
April 1, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Uzbekistan is taking consistent measures for the practical realization of equality between women and men; it has adopted the Guarantees of Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men Act, which has defined the main thrusts of State policy to ensure gender equality in all spheres of society and has established the powers of government agencies and the forms of participation of civil society institutions in this area. The Act established the Gender Equality Commission, which: participates in the development and implementation of State programmes to ensure...measures to increase women’s public and sociopolitical activity on an equal basis with men..."(10). "The Act allows for the establishment of temporary special measures...more
March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"[The constitution provides] affirmative action targeting the goal of having 30 per cent of election candidates and members of the national parliament to be women" (8).
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"During the 2020 parliamentary elections, the largest number of parties complied only with the legal minimum related to the number of women on the candidate lists" (16). "In 2017, politicians from 16 political parties, both ruling and the opposition ones, founded the Women’s Political Network (WPM) with the aim of working to promote gender equality in Montenegro. Their request to amend the Law on the Election of Councillors and Members of Parliament, submitted to the Committee for Comprehensive Reform of Electoral Legislation, was to increase the quota for the underrepresented sex to 40 per cent, with at least 1 woman in every 3 candidates on the list and to retain...more
March 3, 2023, 11:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"...Nigeria’s male-dominant parliament struck down a bill last March that sought to mandate a compulsory 35 percent female quota in parliament, and another 35 percent quota for female candidates nominated by political parties. Despite fiery protests by women who camped at Parliament and promises of a review, nothing has changed" (Para. 11).
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Constitution guarantees women’s right to participate in all structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion. The Constitution ensures mandatory representation of women in at least one third of total members elected from each political party in Federal Parliament. In the formation of National Assembly, out of 56 members, at least 21 members (at least 3 from one province) come from women. The Constitution provisions for representation of women in Village Executive at 26.66% (4 out of 15 members) and 26.31% (5 women out of 19 members) in Municipal Executive. The GoN has submitted an amendment Bill on Local Bodies’ Election (Procedure) Act, 1991 in...more
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms Discrimination against Women] notes the legislative provisions that no more than 70 per cent of candidates or members should be of the same sex, in the Zhogorku Kenesh, political parties, local councils and the courts, and the 30 per cent quota for women’s representation in local councils" (4). "The Committee notes the introduction of a minimum quota of 30 per cent for the representation of women on local councils. However, it notes with concern...[t]he low representation of women in the Zhogorku Kenesh (15 per cent) and in local councils, and the introduction of the mixed electoral system, which will lower the quota...more
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Namibia has made notable gains in enhancing women representation in National Assembly. In 2014 National Elections, women representation increased from 25% to 46% – notable to this achievement is primarily the amendment to the Constitution of the ruling party SWAPO, requiring a 'zebra list' quota system altering male and female candidates on the party list" (26). "The state party acknowledges the need for amending the Electoral Act with the view of attaining 50/50 representation of both men and women in politics and decision making positions. In order to achieve this, MGECW continues to lobby law makers through advocacy and tabling of a motion to this effect in Parliament." (28).more
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In particular, it welcomes the establishment, in 2011, of a 35 per cent quota in supervisory boards of State-owned and State-related enterprises with a 50 per cent share or more held by the federal State" (5). "The Committee welcomes the measures adopted by the State party to advance the participation of women in political and public life and the introduction by political parties of voluntary gender quotas into their nomination processes, resulting in an increase in the representation of women in the parliament. Nevertheless, it remains concerned that the State party has not adopted statutory minimum quota for the representation of women on the electoral rolls of political parties at...more
Jan. 12, 2023, 8:01 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2021, the government additionally passed a law enshrining women’s representation at parliamentary level, which was vehemently condemned by the opposition. All electoral lists, from local councils to the National Assembly, must now comprise 50 percent women. The percentage of congresswomen now stands at 48.4. For comparison, Canada is only at 28.9 percent" (para 19)
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In the most recent legislative elections, as a result of the 2018 amended law on quotas, which raises the mandated proportion of women from 10 to 25 per cent, the number of women in the National Assembly increased. In fact, the number of women parliamentarians has risen from 9 to 17 (26 per cent), including one vice-president, chairpersons of standing committees, among them the Committee on Law and Human Rights, and a former Minister for Women. These developments clearly demonstrate that the State party considers issues related to gender to be of major concern" (9). "Specific measures adopted by the Government as part of a strategy to accelerate the achievement...more
July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Strong efforts at local level also improved women’s representation in local governance. The “100% Hau Pronto” campaign - an innovative Government-NGO partnership with international support - led to the revision of the Suco (village) Law and the electoral process for Suco and Aldeia (hamlet) chief elections.117 Under the new law, each Suco Council must comprise one female delegate and one female youth representative and the participation of women candidates in Aldeia chief elections became mandatory (Law N° 9/2016 – Art. 65.2 and 65.3)" (21).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Law No. 8/2012 on Elections and Law No. 2/2011 on Political Parties stipulates that all political parties must include a minimum 30% of women representation in their list of candidates" (25).
June 21, 2022, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee takes note of the constitutional guarantee of equality between the sexes and welcomes the 40 per cent representation of women in the Cabinet. It notes with concern, however, the lack of measures taken by the State party to achieve equal representation of women and men in political and public life since the Committee’s previous concluding observations. It is also concerned about the following: (a) The existing quota for electoral lists, which does not guarantee a de facto 30 per cent representation of women among elected officials; (b) The limited representation of women in ministerial positions (23.5 per cent, with the majority being junior ministers), local government (30 per...more
June 21, 2022, 8:35 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"It calls upon the State party to take measures to address the low representation of women in political and public life in Northern Ireland, including by ensuring the implementation of section 43 A of the Sex Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order 1976 enabling the use of gender quotas" (10).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Ministry [of Foreign Affairs] has introduced a policy for the appointment of new managers and deputy managers stipulating that Senior Management should always have a choice of at least one female and one male candidate. In the coming years, the Ministry will prioritize monitoring and handling of the mobility of managers in relation to postings abroad and any gender bias (conscious or unconscious) related to this" (16). "The Gender Equality Act stipulates that the appointment of government-elected women and men who sit in public councils, committees and commissions must take place so that no more than one member is appointed more of one sex than the other" (34). "The...more
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The amended Organic Law of the Villagers Committees of the People’s Republic of China made breakthroughs in the areas of developing the rural grass-roots democracy, safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of women and promoting women’s political participation in rural areas. The Law stipulates, inter alia, that there should be female members in the Villagers Committee, and that in the Villagers’ Representatives Assembly, more than one-third of the representatives should be women" (8). "Since 2006, in order to promote Chinese women’s effective participation in social management and decision-making, the Central Government has specifically required that the senior management teams of the CPC committees, the people’s congresses, governments and the CPPCC...more
June 3, 2022, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2016, I worked for the office of the President. I worked with the Goodwill Ambassadors who consisted of both men and women. They were responsible for filling the 30% quota for female participation in politics. I also worked with the Election Dispute Committee, and their focus was on the Gender Based Violence of women during political elections" (Para. 8). "...They declared that women should have a minimum of 30% quota, but there has been no enforcement" (Para. 15). "In Somalia, the 30% quota system for women involvement in politics is very faulty. In order to fill the political seats established just for women at both federal and state levels,...more
May 30, 2022, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Special measures are also under discussion with respect to women’s representation in the political decision-making process. Thus, a 30 per cent gender quota has been introduced for the membership composition of extra-parliamentary commissions" (9). "The Federal Council aims to achieve equitable representation of the sexes on (supreme) governing bodies of companies and institutions closely connected with the Confederation. In November 2013 it set a target quota of 30 per cent for the representation of both sexes. The reference values for language community representation and the target quota for both sexes’ representation came into force on 1 January 2014; they must be met by the end of 2020. When asking for...more