The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-LAW-2

Jan. 13, 2022, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Women and persons of African descent were represented in government, but indigenous persons were not. In national elections, political parties must guarantee gender parity across their electoral slates and confirm that gender parity must extend vertically. The electoral code requires that a minimum of 50 percent of candidates for elective office be women, with their names placed alternately with men on the ballots by party slate" (9).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit participation of women and minorities in the political process, and they did participate...The law calls on political parties to make their best efforts to have equal numbers of male and female candidates on the ballot in national and local elections..." (14). No quota system, but encouragement by law to have equal representation of genders (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"There are no incentives or quotas for women office holders and men in any of the three branches of government. The 30 percent quota is not a law, but rather a 'gentlemen's agreement'" (1).
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process. Representation of women in public life, however, was very low. The ODIHR report on the 2018 elections noted, 'Women are underrepresented in political life and there are no legal requirements to promote gender equality in elections.' Following the elections, women constituted 12.5 percent of members of parliament. As of September the 12-person cabinet included two women, and 16 percent of subcabinet-level government state secretaries were women. The UN Human Rights Committee’s Sixth Periodic Report also expressed concern that women were underrepresented in decision- making positions in the public sector, particularly in government ministries and parliament" (21).more
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The law requires that 40 percent of the party candidate lists submitted for national elections be from 'the under-represented gender.' If a party fails to meet the quota, the law provides a graduated scheme of reducing its yearly financial endowment from the government, based on the extent of failure to meet the criteria. The country’s five major parties all met the 40 percent criterion in their candidate lists for the parliamentary elections" (7).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"NAPWA has a target of 30% women in governmental positions until the end of 2013" (15).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"The law requires parties and coalitions to have a minimum quota of 30 percent women on the list of candidates for Congress and municipalities. By law 20 percent of the political television and radio advertising must be used to encourage female participation in politics. Parties that do not comply with this requirement may be found ineligible to contest elections. In the 2018 elections, some parties fielded the minimum number of female candidates but reportedly did not provide sufficient support for them to campaign effectively. In 2018 the Superior Electoral Court ruled parties must provide a minimum of 30 percent of campaign funds to support the election of female candidates. Women...more
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1, GP-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation in formal and informal roles. A law passed in 2015 requires that at least 30 percent of the slots on party election lists be reserved for female candidates and that 30 percent of high-level government appointees be women. The law was fully implemented in President Keita’s first cabinet of his second term, in which 11 of 32 ministers were women. In the second cabinet, formed in April, eight of the 38 ministers were women. There were only 14 women in the 147-member National Assembly. There...more
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined initial and second periodic reports in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following:…(c) Elections Law, under which 30 per cent of seats in the House of Representatives of the People and 25 per cent of seats in provincial and district councils are reserved for women, in 2016" (2). "The Committee welcomes the fact that a 50 per cent quota has been set for the participation of women in community development councils. It is concerned, however, about the lack of temporary special measures in areas such as credit and loans, health, education,...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The law reduces government funding to parties unless 30 percent of their candidates at general elections were women" (8).
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Tomomi Inada, a former defense minister, says the male old guard's disparaging attitudes toward women symbolize problems with Japan's power structure, where women and minorities still have scant representation. Government plans to put women in 30% of senior management roles by 2020 across the workforce were quietly pushed back to 2030 last year, after it proved too ambitious" (para 22-23). "Inada has backed enforced electoral quotas that propose to make 30% of candidates for elections in Japan's ruling party female. She argues that increasing female participation raises responsiveness to policies concerning women and is also beneficial to men" (para 26).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution specifies a minimum number of seats for women and minorities in the two houses of parliament. For the Wolesi Jirga, the constitution mandates that at least two women shall be elected from each province (for a total of 68). The IEC finalized 2018 parliamentary election results in May, and 418 female candidates contested the 250 seats in the Wolesi Jirga in the 2018 parliamentary election. In Daikundi Province a woman won a seat in open competition against male candidates, making it the only province to have more female representation than mandated by the constitution. The constitution also mandates one-half of presidential appointees must be women. It also sets...more
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Currently no legal measures are planned to set quantitative targets to increase the proportion of women in either politics or in decision making positions in private organisations. According to population surveys, such as the Eurobarometer (2011) and the Gender Equality Monitoring (2013), support to such binging legal measures and targets is low" (10).
Aug. 6, 2021, 4:21 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law mandates that women fill at least 30 percent of senior government positions and at least 15 percent of elected seats" (p 13).
July 23, 2021, 2:27 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law requires gender diversity in each political party’s candidate list for parliamentary and municipal elections. No more than two-thirds of a party’s candidates may be the same gender" (p 22).
July 22, 2021, 5:07 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Kenya has been a pioneer in overcoming historic gender inequality, and its 2010 Constitution accelerated this progress with Article 27, which stipulates that no elective body can be populated with more than two thirds of one gender, and Article 10, which outlines Kenya’s commitment to equality, inclusiveness, and anti-discrimination" (Para 4).
July 9, 2021, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution specifically states no gender should encumber more than two-thirds of elective and appointed offices (the Two-Third Gender Rule)" (p 28).
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2009, a citizens’ bill on gender quotas on electoral lists was put forward to the Sejm of the Republic of Poland as a consequence of the activity of the Congress of Women10 social movement. Following work on the bill after the reporting period, the Act of 5 January 2011 on amending the Act – Electoral Regulations to Gmina Councils, Poviat Councils and Regional Councils, Act – Electoral Regulations to the Sejm of the Republic of Poland and the Senate of the Republic of Poland and the Act – Electoral Regulations to the European Parliament (Dz. U. No 34, item 172) (the so-called Quota Act) entered into force on 3...more
May 15, 2021, 8:42 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"To achieve the government's goal of raising the ratio of female candidates running in national elections to 35 percent by 2025, Kato said it will work with opposition parties in efforts to improve women's empowerment" (para 8).
May 14, 2021, 7:46 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Ninety-two groups across Japan submitted a written request to the Supreme Court and other bodies to ensure that women account for at least one-third of all justices on the top court. The Supreme Court comprises 15 justices, including the chief justice. The most female justices to sit at one time was three. Now, there are only two" (para 1-3).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"draft laws on implementation of gender quotas have been introduced for several times in recent years during the sessions of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, in particular, with regard to the members of parliament of any level" (33).
Jan. 31, 2021, 1:58 p.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

“The following temporary special measures are in place: Act No. 22/10 of 3 December, the Political Parties Act, whose article 20 (m), on statutes and programming, provides that the statutes of political parties must mandatorily include rules that encourage the promotion of equality between men and women and ensure that women make up at least 30 per cent of their governing bodies at all levels. The Act also provides that electoral processes must ensure the reservation of parliamentary seats for women in order to ensure parity or representative percentages in terms of women’s right to participate in public and political life in Angola” (pp. 24). “With regard to the participation...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"A group of 10 Liberal Democratic women in Parliament wrote a letter to the three candidates for prime minister urging them to support a minimum threshold of 30 percent female representation among national lawmakers" (para 21).
Dec. 23, 2020, 3 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The much debated Women’s Reservation Bill proposes to reserve a third of all legislature seats for women, at national and State levels in India. If passed, this Bill would uplift the general mood of the nation which has been engulfed by a heightened sense of gender inequality over the last year" (para 3). "India has experimented with women’s reservation at the level of the panchayat or village councils since the mid-1990s" (para 15).
Dec. 21, 2020, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"As per a directive by HH Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, President of the UAE, Emirati women must occupy 50 % of the Federal National Council’s (Parliament) seats, 20 seats for men and 20 for women April 2019" (para 4). "Men and women have the right to hold cabinet post (29.5 % female ministers)" (para 5`).
Dec. 3, 2020, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Vanuatu
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

“[T]he Municipalities Act in 2013…introduced a 30 per cent quota for women’s representation in all municipal councils” (4).
Oct. 6, 2020, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The under-representation of women in leadership and decision-making positions in both public and private sectors continued during 2019 despite the existence of the 2018 Election of Women Act, designed to fulfill the constitutional requirement for quotas for the representation of women and marginalized groups in parliament" (para 10).
Aug. 9, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"Article 15 of the Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men states that no public company board or government council or committee may have less than 40% gender equality" (para 13).
July 12, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"So, despite the existing institutional structure for gender equality promotion at all levels of government, it is not happening. Even gender quotas are ignored. They were first adopted in 1998 and last updated in 2013. National legislation, Article 20 (1), requires equal representation of women and men in all branches of government, including legislative power, setting the minimum representation of at least 40 percent" (para. 17).
June 22, 2020, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Following the November release of the draft constitution, an additional group convened under MOWA and made up of members of national and international women’s groups, UNIFEM, the Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission, the Afghan Supreme Court and Attorney General’s Office and legal experts successfully lobbied to have the proposed size of the women’s quota for parliament doubled" (pg 8). "Ratified on 26 January 2004, the constitution guaranteed women the right to vote, and decreed that 'at least two females from each province' would occupy the Wolesi Jirga (“House of the People”; the country’s lower house of parliament)" (pg 8-9). "This [the constitutional stipulations] clarified that the 68 seats in parliament...more