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Latest items for LBHO-LAW-2

July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Law No. 8/2012 on Elections and Law No. 2/2011 on Political Parties stipulates that all political parties must include a minimum 30% of women representation in their list of candidates" (25).
June 21, 2022, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee takes note of the constitutional guarantee of equality between the sexes and welcomes the 40 per cent representation of women in the Cabinet. It notes with concern, however, the lack of measures taken by the State party to achieve equal representation of women and men in political and public life since the Committee’s previous concluding observations. It is also concerned about the following: (a) The existing quota for electoral lists, which does not guarantee a de facto 30 per cent representation of women among elected officials; (b) The limited representation of women in ministerial positions (23.5 per cent, with the majority being junior ministers), local government (30 per...more
June 21, 2022, 8:35 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"It calls upon the State party to take measures to address the low representation of women in political and public life in Northern Ireland, including by ensuring the implementation of section 43 A of the Sex Discrimination (Northern Ireland) Order 1976 enabling the use of gender quotas" (10).
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Ministry [of Foreign Affairs] has introduced a policy for the appointment of new managers and deputy managers stipulating that Senior Management should always have a choice of at least one female and one male candidate. In the coming years, the Ministry will prioritize monitoring and handling of the mobility of managers in relation to postings abroad and any gender bias (conscious or unconscious) related to this" (16). "The Gender Equality Act stipulates that the appointment of government-elected women and men who sit in public councils, committees and commissions must take place so that no more than one member is appointed more of one sex than the other" (34). "The...more
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The amended Organic Law of the Villagers Committees of the People’s Republic of China made breakthroughs in the areas of developing the rural grass-roots democracy, safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of women and promoting women’s political participation in rural areas. The Law stipulates, inter alia, that there should be female members in the Villagers Committee, and that in the Villagers’ Representatives Assembly, more than one-third of the representatives should be women" (8). "Since 2006, in order to promote Chinese women’s effective participation in social management and decision-making, the Central Government has specifically required that the senior management teams of the CPC committees, the people’s congresses, governments and the CPPCC...more
June 3, 2022, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In 2016, I worked for the office of the President. I worked with the Goodwill Ambassadors who consisted of both men and women. They were responsible for filling the 30% quota for female participation in politics. I also worked with the Election Dispute Committee, and their focus was on the Gender Based Violence of women during political elections" (Para. 8). "...They declared that women should have a minimum of 30% quota, but there has been no enforcement" (Para. 15). "In Somalia, the 30% quota system for women involvement in politics is very faulty. In order to fill the political seats established just for women at both federal and state levels,...more
May 30, 2022, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Special measures are also under discussion with respect to women’s representation in the political decision-making process. Thus, a 30 per cent gender quota has been introduced for the membership composition of extra-parliamentary commissions" (9). "The Federal Council aims to achieve equitable representation of the sexes on (supreme) governing bodies of companies and institutions closely connected with the Confederation. In November 2013 it set a target quota of 30 per cent for the representation of both sexes. The reference values for language community representation and the target quota for both sexes’ representation came into force on 1 January 2014; they must be met by the end of 2020. When asking for...more
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The fact that the leadership in all parties is dominated by men and as a consequence of political party combinations several male party leaders have to be accommodated on the same list of candidates, vastly diminishes equal opportunities for women to be prominently nominated on the list of candidates. Only one political party (DOE), has introduced an internal quota system, laying down in its by laws that the Board will be composed of 50 per cent women and that it will strive for equal numbers of men and women in all positions" (19).
April 29, 2022, 5:43 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee recommends that... the State party: (a) Adopt and implement temporary special measures [including quotas] and establish timebound targets to accelerate the realization of substantive equality between women and men in all areas in which women continue to be disadvantaged or underrepresented, including in political and public life and employment" (5). "The Committee... recommends that the State party accelerate achievement of the full and equal participation of women... by: (a) Adopting temporary special measures, including statutory quotas and a gender parity system in the public and foreign services" (9). This indicates that quotas are not in place (SFR - CODER COMMENT).
April 18, 2022, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee appreciates the increase in the representation of women in political life, including the number of women parliamentarians and ministers. Nevertheless, it is concerned that gender parity has not been achieved in such positions, nor in the judiciary nor the foreign service. The Committee is particularly concerned that women in rural areas face barriers such as transportation costs and childcare responsibilities that prevent them from participating in the district consultative councils, the existence of quotas for their representation notwithstanding" (9).
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"In October an appointed electorate of more than 330,000, representing just under a quarter of the total citizen population, elected 20 members of the Federal National Council (FNC), a 40-member consultative body with some legislative authority. The size of the electorate increased by approximately 50 percent from the 2015 election. Each emirate receives seats in the FNC based on population. In a nontransparent process, each emirate ruler appoints that emirate’s portion of the other 20 FNC members. Approximately 35 percent of eligible voters participated, electing seven women to the council. In December 2018 the government decreed that women’s representation in the FNC would be raised to 50 percent during the...more
March 21, 2022, 3:27 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The 2011 Law on the Election of Members of Parliament and the Law on Local Elections introducing gender quotas" (2).
March 10, 2022, 9:58 a.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. In July, Congress approved a gradual increase of the gender quota in congressional lists (lists of candidates presented by political parties for district elections) from the existing 30 percent to 40 percent by 2021, 45 percent by 2026, and parity (50 percent) by 2031" (11).
Feb. 23, 2022, 3:02 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The 2010 gender parity law requires candidate lists of political parties contain equal numbers of men and women for elected positions at all levels, from city councils to the National Assembly" (13).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The electoral code requires that at least 20 percent of each party’s candidates in internal party primaries be women. Although the parties met this requirement, they placed the majority of female candidates toward the end of the closed party lists, effectively limiting their chances of being elected. Women served in both the legislature and the Supreme Court; however, there were only 19 women in congress (eight of 45 senators and 11 of 80 national deputies). There were no female governors" (10).
Feb. 5, 2022, 9:24 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, GP-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Women and members of many ethnic groups held key political positions. Nevertheless, only seven of 23 ministers in the president’s cabinet were women. Frelimo used quotas to provide for female representation on its central committee" (13).
Jan. 24, 2022, 1:07 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The law reserves one-third of the seats in local councils for women" (37).
Jan. 24, 2022, 12:55 p.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"While women did participate, they did not account for 25 percent of political candidates and election administration officials as required by law. International observers documented that only 11 percent of election administration officials were women and only 8 percent of candidates were women" (15). "A presidential decree requires women to hold at least 20 percent of all high-level public service positions, although the government has never implemented the decree" (23).
Jan. 13, 2022, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Women and persons of African descent were represented in government, but indigenous persons were not. In national elections, political parties must guarantee gender parity across their electoral slates and confirm that gender parity must extend vertically. The electoral code requires that a minimum of 50 percent of candidates for elective office be women, with their names placed alternately with men on the ballots by party slate" (9).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit participation of women and minorities in the political process, and they did participate...The law calls on political parties to make their best efforts to have equal numbers of male and female candidates on the ballot in national and local elections..." (14). No quota system, but encouragement by law to have equal representation of genders (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"There are no incentives or quotas for women office holders and men in any of the three branches of government. The 30 percent quota is not a law, but rather a 'gentlemen's agreement'" (1).
Dec. 16, 2021, 11:23 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women and members of minorities in the political process. Representation of women in public life, however, was very low. The ODIHR report on the 2018 elections noted, 'Women are underrepresented in political life and there are no legal requirements to promote gender equality in elections.' Following the elections, women constituted 12.5 percent of members of parliament. As of September the 12-person cabinet included two women, and 16 percent of subcabinet-level government state secretaries were women. The UN Human Rights Committee’s Sixth Periodic Report also expressed concern that women were underrepresented in decision- making positions in the public sector, particularly in government ministries and parliament" (21).more
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The law requires that 40 percent of the party candidate lists submitted for national elections be from 'the under-represented gender.' If a party fails to meet the quota, the law provides a graduated scheme of reducing its yearly financial endowment from the government, based on the extent of failure to meet the criteria. The country’s five major parties all met the 40 percent criterion in their candidate lists for the parliamentary elections" (7).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"NAPWA has a target of 30% women in governmental positions until the end of 2013" (15).
Oct. 4, 2021, 9:10 a.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"The law requires parties and coalitions to have a minimum quota of 30 percent women on the list of candidates for Congress and municipalities. By law 20 percent of the political television and radio advertising must be used to encourage female participation in politics. Parties that do not comply with this requirement may be found ineligible to contest elections. In the 2018 elections, some parties fielded the minimum number of female candidates but reportedly did not provide sufficient support for them to campaign effectively. In 2018 the Superior Electoral Court ruled parties must provide a minimum of 30 percent of campaign funds to support the election of female candidates. Women...more
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1, GP-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation in formal and informal roles. A law passed in 2015 requires that at least 30 percent of the slots on party election lists be reserved for female candidates and that 30 percent of high-level government appointees be women. The law was fully implemented in President Keita’s first cabinet of his second term, in which 11 of 32 ministers were women. In the second cabinet, formed in April, eight of the 38 ministers were women. There were only 14 women in the 147-member National Assembly. There...more
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee welcomes the progress achieved since the consideration in 2013 of the State party’s combined initial and second periodic reports in undertaking legislative reforms, in particular the adoption of the following:…(c) Elections Law, under which 30 per cent of seats in the House of Representatives of the People and 25 per cent of seats in provincial and district councils are reserved for women, in 2016" (2). "The Committee welcomes the fact that a 50 per cent quota has been set for the participation of women in community development councils. It is concerned, however, about the lack of temporary special measures in areas such as credit and loans, health, education,...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The law reduces government funding to parties unless 30 percent of their candidates at general elections were women" (8).
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"Tomomi Inada, a former defense minister, says the male old guard's disparaging attitudes toward women symbolize problems with Japan's power structure, where women and minorities still have scant representation. Government plans to put women in 30% of senior management roles by 2020 across the workforce were quietly pushed back to 2030 last year, after it proved too ambitious" (para 22-23). "Inada has backed enforced electoral quotas that propose to make 30% of candidates for elections in Japan's ruling party female. She argues that increasing female participation raises responsiveness to policies concerning women and is also beneficial to men" (para 26).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-LAW-2

"The constitution specifies a minimum number of seats for women and minorities in the two houses of parliament. For the Wolesi Jirga, the constitution mandates that at least two women shall be elected from each province (for a total of 68). The IEC finalized 2018 parliamentary election results in May, and 418 female candidates contested the 250 seats in the Wolesi Jirga in the 2018 parliamentary election. In Daikundi Province a woman won a seat in open competition against male candidates, making it the only province to have more female representation than mandated by the constitution. The constitution also mandates one-half of presidential appointees must be women. It also sets...more