The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-1

Jan. 13, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution specifically states no gender should encumber more than two-thirds of elective and appointed offices (the Two-Thirds Gender Rule). In November 2018 and in February, parliament failed to enact the TwoThirds Gender Rule due to lack of the requisite quorum for a constitutional amendment"(29)."During the year(2019) men comprised the entirety of the leadership of the National Assembly, unlike in the previous parliament, in which both the deputy speaker and deputy majority leader were women. The cabinet also did not conform to the twothirds rule; President Kenyatta appointed six women to the cabinet, representing only 21 percent of the seats"(29).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women and minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Women voted at rates equal to or higher than men. In all national elections since the late 1960s, women made up a majority of voters, according to data by the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry. Women, however, have not been elected to any level of office at rates reflecting this. The law calls on political parties to make their best efforts to have equal numbers of male and female candidates on the ballot in national and local elections. Women held 47 of 465 seats in the Diet’s Lower House and 56 of 245 seats...more
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Quotas are not prohibited, but are actually in place through a gentleman's agreement. Quotas have been effective in encouraging women to run for legislative or elected office. However, the implementation is not there" (1).
Dec. 17, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In March the National Assembly approved a bill that would require political parties to ensure that a minimum of 30 percent of candidate lists in legislative, regional, and municipal elections be women. The bill had not been adopted by the Senate by year’s end"(16).
Nov. 11, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In January, President Moon described the gender gap as a “shameful reality” and pledged to address it. Moon has generally kept his pledge from the beginning of his term that 30 percent of his cabinet nominations would be women"(21).
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The law requires that 40 percent of the party candidate lists submitted for national elections be from 'the under-represented gender.' If a party fails to meet the quota, the law provides a graduated scheme of reducing its yearly financial endowment from the government, based on the extent of failure to meet the criteria. The country’s five major parties all met the 40 percent criterion in their candidate lists for the parliamentary elections" (7).
Oct. 25, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The law sets a target of 35 percent of final candidates for the National Assembly and provincial people’s councils to be women" (27).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Qatari government told the Guardian it wanted to build on progress made in incorporating women into the highest levels of politics and other professional fields, and said Qatari women held senior posts in many areas and achieved the highest levels of education" (para 23).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1, GP-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation in formal and informal roles. A law passed in 2015 requires that at least 30 percent of the slots on party election lists be reserved for female candidates and that 30 percent of high-level government appointees be women. The law was fully implemented in President Keita’s first cabinet of his second term, in which 11 of 32 ministers were women. In the second cabinet, formed in April, eight of the 38 ministers were women. There were only 14 women in the 147-member National Assembly. There...more
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"It is also concerned that rural women are not able to participate fully and meaningfully in decision-making on all issues affecting their lives, despite the 50 per cent quota established for the participation of women in community development councils" (15). "In line with its general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Enhance the involvement of rural women in decision-making on land distribution and agricultural reform, including by further increasing their participation in community development councils; (b) Conduct a study on the barriers preventing women from fully participating in those councils" (15).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The election law provides a general mandate for quotas for female and ethnic minority representatives, but achieving these quotas often required election authorities to violate the election law" (60).
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In May, Congress unanimously approved a constitutional reform on gender parity that establishes a requirement to observe parity in the designation of public officials at every level (federal, state, local) in all three branches of government. A majority of state legislatures approved the reform on June 4[2019], and it came into force on June 7[2019]. The reform states the principle of gender parity should be observed in the designation of cabinet members, selection of candidates for public office by every political party, and designation of members of the judiciary. In accordance with the reform, the Senate elected Monica Fernandez president of the Senate for a year during the legislative session...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Tomomi Inada, a former defense minister, says the male old guard's disparaging attitudes toward women symbolize problems with Japan's power structure, where women and minorities still have scant representation. Government plans to put women in 30% of senior management roles by 2020 across the workforce were quietly pushed back to 2030 last year, after it proved too ambitious" (para 22-23). "Last month a Kyodo News survey found more than 60% of active female lawmakers thought it would be difficult to boost the numbers of women in parliament up to 35% by 2025" (para 29).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution specifies a minimum number of seats for women and minorities in the two houses of parliament. For the Wolesi Jirga, the constitution mandates that at least two women shall be elected from each province (for a total of 68). The IEC finalized 2018 parliamentary election results in May, and 418 female candidates contested the 250 seats in the Wolesi Jirga in the 2018 parliamentary election. In Daikundi Province a woman won a seat in open competition against male candidates, making it the only province to have more female representation than mandated by the constitution. The constitution also mandates one-half of presidential appointees must be women. It also sets...more
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The law governing the election of Assembly members requires that 30 percent of candidates be women and that they occupy 30 percent of appointed and elected positions. According to the OSCE final report on the elections, however, the largest parties did not always respect the mandated 30 percent quota in their candidate lists" (p 14- 15).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"As the year 2007 was the year of parliamentary elections, a gender equality project competition was organized in 2006 with the aim to increase the participation of women in politics through improved cooperation between civic associations and by raising the awareness of the public. Financed activities included seminars, trainings, conferences and roundtables, a series of radio programmes, a compilation of articles and interviews with female ministers, preelection debates, and a film of interviews with women politicians and EU officials" (20).
Aug. 23, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"Women won election to 9.5 percent of constituent seats in parliament and few seats in the Zanzibar House of Representatives. There were special women’s seats in both parliament and the Zanzibar House of Representatives that brought total representation to 30 percent" (p 20).
Aug. 20, 2021, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Despite repeated vows by the CPP to increase female representation, the number of female candidates elected in the July 2018 national election declined from 20 percent in 2013 to 15 percent" (18). There may be incentives/quotas to increase female participation, but if they exist, they are not effective (SFR - CODER COMMENT).
Aug. 10, 2021, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Parties must receive at least 3 percent of the votes to win a seat in the country’s parliament or in the European Parliament. In the government cabinet formed in July, less than 10 percent of those appointed--or two of the 21 ministers--were women"(19).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Social and cultural barriers, however, limited women’s political participation and leadership in most political parties and some government institutions. Voters elected a record number of 75 women, 36 Christians, and nine persons with disabilities to parliament during the 2015 parliamentary elections, a substantial increase compared with the 2012 parliament. The House of Representatives law outlines the criteria for the electoral lists, which provides that the House of Representatives must include at least 56 women, 24 Christians, and nine persons with disabilities. The April constitutional amendments introduced a 25 percent quota in the House of Representatives for women and a requirement to better represent workers, farmers, youth, Christians, Egyptians abroad, and...more
July 20, 2021, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"A projected 30 women will enter the Israeli legislature, a record for an Election Day, but it appears female representation in parliament will remain roughly the same for the 24th Knesset as in past sessions"(para 1)."The ultra-Orthodox Shas and United Torah Judaism parties, with seven and nine projected seats, respectively, do not allow women to run for Knesset. Dr. Yofi Tirosh, a gender equality expert at the Tel Aviv University Faculty of Law, argues that this is one of the reasons women’s representation in Israel is low. 'That’s 15 or 16 Knesset members, which is approximately 15%, that don’t allow women to take part,' she told The Media Line"(para 13-15).more
July 16, 2021, 11:55 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"There are many women in political positions in the KRG. The head of the Kurdistan Regional Parliament and Ministry of Social Affairs are women, as well as the entire Council of Women’s Affairs. There is a 30-percent quota for female members of parliament, and numerous women’s rights organisations and NGOs are supported by the government"(para 15).
June 25, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Hungary is one of the European countries with the least female representation in government and has come under scrutiny for how it addresses gender issues. When Prime Minister Viktor Orban first stepped into office, he cut down the country’s gender equality unit. Orban also banned gender studies from universities in 2018 and the government tried to pass a law to end the legal recognition of transgender people in April"(para 13).
June 25, 2021, 11:48 a.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Traditional and cultural practices, in addition to discrimination and institutional bias, however, limited the political participation of women and members of indigenous groups" (p 14).
May 18, 2021, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Though the numbers fall short of achieving proper representation, initiatives by the Albanian Parliament are encouraging women to run for various political offices" (para 4).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned that the State party may not have full understanding of the purpose of temporary special measures in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 on the subject. It is also concerned that no temporary special measures have been or are being applied as part of a necessary strategy to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women and men in areas in which women are disadvantaged, such as education or in the judiciary, and for promoting the participation of women from religious minorities and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in various areas under the Convention" (7). "The Committee...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"A group of 10 Liberal Democratic women in Parliament wrote a letter to the three candidates for prime minister urging them to support a minimum threshold of 30 percent female representation among national lawmakers" (para 21).
Dec. 24, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"A new decree from Afghan President Ashraf Ghani states that all of the country’s 34 provinces will appoint women as deputy governors" (para 1). "Speaking to Radio Free Afghanistan on July 9, Saqim said the appointment of female deputies in all provinces has begun. 'One of the women is set to be appointed as deputy governor today in Logar Province, and this will continue in other provinces, as well,' he said" (para 3). "He added that 'after being interviewed by the president, the female deputy governors will be selected and appointed based on merit and competence'" (para 4). "Earlier, presidential spokesman Sediq Sediqqi said the cabinet had decided that women...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Women's rights groups however, have criticised the government for failing to fulfil an election promise to have at least a third of women in policy-making positions" (para 14).
Dec. 23, 2020, 2:47 p.m.
Countries: Libya
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The first hit taken by the nascent women’s movement occurred on January 1st, 2012, when a 10 percent women’s quota in the first draft election law was abolished by the Transitional National Council (TNC) in a subsequent draft" (8). "The Libyan Women’s Platform for Peace (LWPP), along with a coalition of Libyan civil society organizations, coordinated a national campaign to lobby for a more inclusive electoral law. They proposed a mixed electoral system combining the individual system and the closed “zipper list” system to ensure inclusive representation in the Constitutional Assembly. The proposal also guaranteed diverse representation of different groups of cultural minorities, youth, and groups of citizens with disabilities"...more