The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-1

March 18, 2023, 10:20 p.m.
Countries: Ethiopia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"[There is] affirmative action targeting the goal of having 30 per cent of election candidates and members of the national parliament to be women. The Election Board provides special campaign funds for women candidates with the aim of achieving the target" (8). "In the national election held in 2015, the Board allocated 15 per cent of the total budget for political parties that meet the threshold of 30 per cent women representation" (12). "[T]he [Electoral] Board has allocated special fund to support female candidates. In the most recent national election conducted in 2015 the Board increased the budget allocated for female candidates from 10 per cent to 15 per cent...more
March 15, 2023, 4:58 a.m.
Countries: Bulgaria

“As this working paper has shown, women entrepreneurs are an emerging force in Bulgarian social and economic life. However, women are not often found in key political decision-making positions. Most women-oriented NGOs generally focus on advocacy and lobbying, and only scattered and small-scale interventions have been made in the fields of support for women’s entrepreneurship (e.g. networking, legal advice, and business strategy advice); education and training; and the provision of advisory services and research on women’s issues. A great deal remains to be done in all of these areas in order to improve the situation of Bulgarian women in general, and women entrepreneurs in particular” (61).
March 3, 2023, 11:58 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

Meanwhile, Rwanda, much smaller and with fewer resources than Nigeria, tops the global list with almost 50 percent of its lawmakers being female. South Africa, a major regional player like Nigeria, has the 11th most equal legislature.
March 3, 2023, 11:28 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda, South Africa

Meanwhile, Rwanda, much smaller and with fewer resources than Nigeria, tops the global list with almost 50 percent of its lawmakers being female. South Africa, a major regional player like Nigeria, has the 11th most equal legislature.
March 3, 2023, 11:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"When Amina Oyagbola, a former executive in corporate Nigeria, thinks about the number of women in elected positions in her country, she says the word that comes to mind is 'shameful'" (Para. 1). "The imbalanced legislature is hardly representative of a country where women make up nearly half of the 200 million population, and from where world leaders like Ngozi Okonjo Iweala, the head of the World Trade Organization, and Amina J Mohammed, UN Deputy Secretary-General, have emerged" (Para. 7). "Things look bleaker now. Fewer women are running for positions this time than in the last general elections in 2019" (Para. 12). "Some female candidates believe that many Nigerians, unimpressed...more
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Prolonged political transition and instability are major challenges to the achievement of gender equality. The implementation of various human rights, including the rights related to women, as stipulated in the new Constitution is a priority of the GoN. Building necessary infrastructures and allocating adequate resources for the practical realization of women’s rights and gender equality in society is a challenge." (45).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The state party continues to make great strides in ensuring that there is an increase in the participation of women in public life, education and employment. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) and UN Women Namibia ranks 12th in the world in terms of the number of women in parliament. The state party acknowledges that the percentage of women in management positions remains moderately low, mechanisms and advocacy programs are being implemented to ensure that this challenge is addressed" (12). "Namibia has made notable gains in enhancing women representation in National Assembly. In 2014 National Elections, women representation increased from 25% to 46% – notable to this achievement is primarily...more
Feb. 4, 2023, 8:40 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes the efforts made by the State party to ensure the implementation of a minimum quota of 25 per cent for the representation of women in the Council of Representatives and the adoption of Cabinet decision No. 99 (2015), which encourages ministries to recruit women to senior-level positions. It also notes the appointment of a woman as Minister of Education and the recent election of a woman as mayor of Baghdad" (8).
Feb. 2, 2023, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation the comprehensive mandate of the Austrian Ombudsman Board in promoting women’s rights in accordance with article 148 of the Constitution. The Committee takes note of the information provided by the delegation on the historical reasons why the Board members are appointed by the three main political parties in the parliament. It remains concerned, however, that such an appointment process continues to raise issues regarding their independence... The Committee recommends that the State party ensure an independent appointment process for the members of the Austrian Ombudsman Board, provide it with sufficient human, technical and financial resources to implement its mandate to promote and protect women’s rights...more
Jan. 12, 2023, 8:01 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In 2021, the government additionally passed a law enshrining women’s representation at parliamentary level, which was vehemently condemned by the opposition. All electoral lists, from local councils to the National Assembly, must now comprise 50 percent women. The percentage of congresswomen now stands at 48.4. For comparison, Canada is only at 28.9 percent. Today, Nicaragua ranks fourth in the world for women in parliamentary positions and first in the world for women in ministerial positions" (para 19) (NF - CODER COMMENT - The high representation of women in the National Assembly shows that this law may have been effective in creating and keeping women in power. Though it could also...more
Dec. 29, 2022, 1:04 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"A record 181 female candidates will be vying for 125 seats – up 77 from the previous upper house election in 2019 – a trend that has given hope to women campaigning to break the male stranglehold on Japanese politics.The increase is an apparent attempt by Japan’s political parties to honour a commitment to select similar numbers of male and female candidates, although only a tiny number took part in recent elections for the more powerful lower house" (para 3-4).
Oct. 7, 2022, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"For the B.J.P., political analysts say, giving Ms. Murmu the presidency is a way to increase its appeal to women as well as send the broader message that it cares about the disadvantaged. But they say it is also part of an effort to make gains in states with large tribal populations. Voters from India’s tribes and its lower castes have tended to support the Congress party, which is now in the opposition, or regional parties with strong local leaders." (15)
July 6, 2022, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Djibouti
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"...Moreover, there has been a marked increase in the number of women that hold decision-making, leadership and management positions, particularly in the public sector" (6). "Djiboutian women are now represented at the highest levels of power and occupy positions that were once reserved for men. The data collected for this report attests to this trend" (6). "Measures taken by the Government to help rural women go beyond economic and social support, also addressing political participation and decision making. For example: Numerous awareness-raising campaigns have been held to encourage women to become actively involved in the various electoral processes and in community life. For many years now, International Women’s Day has...more
July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The current quota mechanism for the parliamentarian elections established in 2011 facilitated the elections in 2018 of 25 women (38 per cent), surpassing 35 per cent of women in Parliament for the third legislature in a row" (20). "In 2014, the collaboration between Government institutions, National Parliament, political parties and civil society with international support resulted in the development of the Government’s strategy framework on women’s participation in political life.114 Under this framework, Women Congresses were organized in all districts in collaboration with local and international CSOs. Beyond raising awareness on politics and civic education among women, one of the main objectives of the programme is to identify women with...more
June 21, 2022, 8:35 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"While welcoming the adoption in Scotland of the Gender Representation on Public Boards (Scotland) Act in March 2018, which is aimed at achieving the objective of 50 per cent representation of women in non-executive positions on the boards of certain public bodies by December 2022, the Committee remains concerned about the inadequacy of measures adopted by the State party to accelerate the representation of women in all areas of political and public life throughout the whole of the State party’s territory" (9-10)
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"[In the Faroe Islands] prior to the general election in September 2015, Demokratia organized official meetings throughout the islands with the purpose of encouraging women to participate actively in the political debate and to increase the number of women running for parliament. At the general election in 2015, 11 women (of 33 total seats) were elected compared to 10 in the 2011 election. The number of women in Parliament today (2019), however, is 10, as one of the elected women later became Mayor in Tórshavn and therefore decided to leave the Parliament in order to be a full-time Mayor. Demokratia also participates in municipal election campaigning. By organizing campaigns, meetings...more
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In order to promote women’s political participation, an emphasis has been placed on training and selecting women cadres. Since 2006, there have been 10,040 female participants in training programmes at institutions above the county level alone, including the Central Party School, the National School of Administration and the China Executive Leadership Academy of Pudong, the China Jinggangshan Cadre College and the China Yan’an Cadre College. Efforts have been made to strengthen development of female cadres at the grass-roots levels, adhering to a practice of giving preference to selecting and using female cadres, all other things being equal. Since 2006, the proportion of women among the newly hired civil servants of...more
June 3, 2022, 5:06 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

Compared to the poor political climate in Somalia, Rwanda is a different case. There, women are appointed based on skill and knowledge. They have a percentage of seats just for women that changes every year. There is no quota to fill and a female political leader changes once she has completed her 2 terms. They do not practice a clan-based system, unlike Somalia.
June 3, 2022, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In 2016, I worked for the office of the President. I worked with the Goodwill Ambassadors who consisted of both men and women. They were responsible for filling the 30% quota for female participation in politics. I also worked with the Election Dispute Committee, and their focus was on the Gender Based Violence of women during political elections" (Para. 8). "Potential female politicians who ran for office were horribly harassed in public spaces and online. I worked to put mechanisms in place by appointing female officers alongside male officers near election sites for better protection, and hotlines for women to call if they face any violence. Moreover, I put together...more
May 27, 2022, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The law states that for municipal and parliamentary elections, one in three candidates must be a member of the sex least represented on the list. This law brought greater gender balance to parliament" (21).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"An increase in the proportion of women in the judiciary body, in the legal profession in the public prosecution office, and at the local level of politics and decision making (See Article 7 and supporting tables 7.10 to 7.14)" (6). "Awareness on some values that are private, traditional or cultural and that are used to justify or perpetuate gender inequality and male dominance (sexual harassment, (domestic) violence (against women), the position of women in decision making)" (6). "However, the fact that women’s positions in parliament and government are declining has encouraged initiatives to promote affirmative action and quota representation of women in parliament and government. In 2010, the Ministry of...more
April 18, 2022, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique

"The Committee appreciates the increase in the representation of women in political life, including the number of women parliamentarians and ministers. Nevertheless, it is concerned that gender parity has not been achieved in such positions, nor in the judiciary nor the foreign service. The Committee is particularly concerned that women in rural areas face barriers such as transportation costs and childcare responsibilities that prevent them from participating in the district consultative councils, the existence of quotas for their representation notwithstanding" (9).
April 5, 2022, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women or minorities in the political process, but patriarchal social attitudes disfavored women’s efforts to achieve positions of power"(24).
March 25, 2022, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The OSCE’s reports on the December 2018 parliamentary elections noted, all candidate lists met the 25 percent gender-quota requirement and that women accounted for 32 percent of the 1,444 total candidates. The OSCE stated, however, that this quota did not provide for the same proportion of representation of women in the parliament, as half of the seats are distributed according to preferential votes. Parties rarely featured women candidates in their campaigns" (25).
March 11, 2022, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: Iceland

"For the past 11 years Iceland has led the World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap Index, earning the country the label of “the best place in the world to be a woman.” Iceland has some of the world’s strongest laws on workplace equality and equal pay, as well as high outcomes for women in issues of health, education, economic opportunity, and political representation" (Para. 1).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The electoral code requires that at least 20 percent of each party’s candidates in internal party primaries be women. Although the parties met this requirement, they placed the majority of female candidates toward the end of the closed party lists, effectively limiting their chances of being elected. Women served in both the legislature and the Supreme Court; however, there were only 19 women in congress (eight of 45 senators and 11 of 80 national deputies). There were no female governors" (10).
Jan. 21, 2022, 9:22 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Despite the existence of the 2006 and 2012 laws promoting women’s access to elective positions (to include a quota of 20 percent of seats reserved for women on lists of candidates in legislative and local elections and a quota of 20 seats reserved for women in the National Assembly) the number of women in electoral politics remained low" (13).
Jan. 13, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution specifically states no gender should encumber more than two-thirds of elective and appointed offices (the Two-Thirds Gender Rule). In November 2018 and in February, parliament failed to enact the TwoThirds Gender Rule due to lack of the requisite quorum for a constitutional amendment"(29)."During the year(2019) men comprised the entirety of the leadership of the National Assembly, unlike in the previous parliament, in which both the deputy speaker and deputy majority leader were women. The cabinet also did not conform to the twothirds rule; President Kenyatta appointed six women to the cabinet, representing only 21 percent of the seats"(29).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan

"No laws limit participation of women and minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Women voted at rates equal to or higher than men. In all national elections since the late 1960s, women made up a majority of voters, according to data by the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry. Women, however, have not been elected to any level of office at rates reflecting this. The law calls on political parties to make their best efforts to have equal numbers of male and female candidates on the ballot in national and local elections. Women held 47 of 465 seats in the Diet’s Lower House and 56 of 245 seats...more
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Quotas are not prohibited, but are actually in place through a gentleman's agreement. Quotas have been effective in encouraging women to run for legislative or elected office. However, the implementation is not there" (1).