The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-1

May 18, 2021, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Though the numbers fall short of achieving proper representation, initiatives by the Albanian Parliament are encouraging women to run for various political offices" (para 4).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned that the State party may not have full understanding of the purpose of temporary special measures in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 on the subject. It is also concerned that no temporary special measures have been or are being applied as part of a necessary strategy to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women and men in areas in which women are disadvantaged, such as education or in the judiciary, and for promoting the participation of women from religious minorities and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in various areas under the Convention" (7). "The Committee...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan

"A group of 10 Liberal Democratic women in Parliament wrote a letter to the three candidates for prime minister urging them to support a minimum threshold of 30 percent female representation among national lawmakers" (para 21).
Dec. 24, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"A new decree from Afghan President Ashraf Ghani states that all of the country’s 34 provinces will appoint women as deputy governors" (para 1). "Speaking to Radio Free Afghanistan on July 9, Saqim said the appointment of female deputies in all provinces has begun. 'One of the women is set to be appointed as deputy governor today in Logar Province, and this will continue in other provinces, as well,' he said" (para 3). "He added that 'after being interviewed by the president, the female deputy governors will be selected and appointed based on merit and competence'" (para 4). "Earlier, presidential spokesman Sediq Sediqqi said the cabinet had decided that women...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Women's rights groups however, have criticised the government for failing to fulfil an election promise to have at least a third of women in policy-making positions" (para 14).
Dec. 23, 2020, 2:47 p.m.
Countries: Libya
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The first hit taken by the nascent women’s movement occurred on January 1st, 2012, when a 10 percent women’s quota in the first draft election law was abolished by the Transitional National Council (TNC) in a subsequent draft" (8). "The Libyan Women’s Platform for Peace (LWPP), along with a coalition of Libyan civil society organizations, coordinated a national campaign to lobby for a more inclusive electoral law. They proposed a mixed electoral system combining the individual system and the closed “zipper list” system to ensure inclusive representation in the Constitutional Assembly. The proposal also guaranteed diverse representation of different groups of cultural minorities, youth, and groups of citizens with disabilities"...more
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Moreover, the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe and a number of international and local institutions suggested to increase the proportional representation of men and women to 70/30; however, the new quota system will not be instated until 2022 (...) Though the RA Electoral Code stipulates that representatives of the same sex in the voter list cannot be more than 80%, the quota factually does not ensure women`s participation in the National Assembly or Council of Elders in the event that a party wins. This is because it refers only to the voter list and not to the numeric part of elected deputies. The 2011-2015 Strategic Plan on Gender...more
Oct. 6, 2020, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland

"The under-representation of women in leadership and decision-making positions in both public and private sectors continued during 2019 despite the existence of the 2018 Election of Women Act, designed to fulfill the constitutional requirement for quotas for the representation of women and marginalized groups in parliament" (para 10).
Aug. 19, 2020, 2:19 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In August, President Vizcarra signed a law establishing gender parity in congressional elections. The law requires that 40 percent of congressional candidates be female by 2021, 45 percent by 2026, and 50 percent by 2031" (para 20).
Aug. 9, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iceland

"Article 15 of the Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men states that no public company board or government council or committee may have less than 40% gender equality" (para 13).
July 12, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"So, despite the existing institutional structure for gender equality promotion at all levels of government, it is not happening. Even gender quotas are ignored. They were first adopted in 1998 and last updated in 2013. National legislation, Article 20 (1), requires equal representation of women and men in all branches of government, including legislative power, setting the minimum representation of at least 40 percent. Yet from year to year, women have not had close to equal legislative and executive power. In the legislative term 2014 to 2018, just 24 percent of all members of parliaments were women. In the same period, out of 147 ministers in governments at all levels,...more
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In order to ensure women’s rights, a number of Government laws and decrees have been adopted, in particular, the State programme on the education, selection and placement of talented girls and women in leadership posts in the Republic of Tajikistan in 2017–2022, of 1 April 2017, the national strategy on promoting the role of women in the Republic of Tajikistan for the period 2011–2020, of 29 May 2010, and the plan of action of the national strategy on promoting the role of women in the Republic of Tajikistan for the period 2015–2020, of 29 August 2015" (7).
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned about: (a) The decrease in the number of women parliamentarians and women in the local administrative bodies; (b) The absence of targeted measures, including temporary special measures, in line with article 4 (1), of the Convention, to accelerate the achievement of the substantive equality of women and men in political and public life and to promote the representation of disadvantaged groups of women, such as rural women, women from ethnic and linguistic minorities and women with disabilities, in political office, including at the decision-making level" (7).
June 22, 2020, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"the quota for each province ended up being filled by the highest female vote-winners—even if some had beaten out enough men to win an open seat. This meant that the only women competing for open seats were those who had secured fewer votes than their counterparts in the quota, effectively turning it into a cap" (pg 9).
June 19, 2020, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and women and minorities participated. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation. There were an estimated 77 minority (nonblack) members in the 400-seat National Assembly. There were nine minority members among the 54 permanent members of the National Council of Provinces and five minority members in the 72-member cabinet." (21).
May 21, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In 2013, through Agreement No. 38-2013, TSE established the Department for the Political Advancement of Women, aimed at generating political and electoral civic education programmes on women’s citizenship. Workshops were held for women’s organizations and in educational establishments. A diploma course in gender and equity, with an emphasis on the inclusion of political organizations, was taught thanks to the support of San Carlos University’s School of Political Science, for students in and outside the University" (23).
May 15, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"There is low representation of women in the National Assembly and the Senate, given that some political parties appear to prefer to be fined rather than to nominate women candidates for elections, and in the presidencies of subnational councils, such as mayors (16 per cent) or presidents of departments (approximately 10 per cent), or of regions (17.6 per cent)" (11).
April 30, 2020, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: Tunisia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Ennahda appointed Mehrezia Labidi-Maiza vice-president of the Constituent Assembly. Under the terms of the agreement for the transitional government, half of all deputies within the Assembly must be women, to ensure strong female presence and contribution" (para 9).
April 28, 2020, 8:53 p.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate." (34).
April 4, 2020, 8:45 a.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the State party’s leading role regarding the participation of women in Parliament, having the largest female representation worldwide, as well as the relatively high representation of women in decision-maling positions, including among provincial governors and in the judiciary. It notes with concern, however, that mandatory quotas have not been reached at the local level and that the representation of women is low at the district level, especially in leadership positions" (8-9).
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"There are 60 seats in the National Assembly reserved for women. Authorities apportioned these seats on the basis of total votes secured by the candidates of each political party that contested the elections. Authorities reserved 129 of the 758 seats for women in provincial assemblies and one-third of the seats in local councils" (34). "The comprehensive Elections Act 2017, which was passed on October 2 and replaced eight older laws, stipulates special measures to enhance electoral participation of women, religious minorities, transgender persons, and persons with disabilities. Under the new law, women must constitute 5 percent of party tickets, and if less than 10 percent of women vote in any...more
March 23, 2020, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

The Rwandan constitution mandates that women be granted at least 30% of posts in decision-making bodies including the police force. A 2005 UNICEF report states that women in the Rwandan parliament led the charge in passing laws focused on women's and children's rights (para 7).
March 4, 2020, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS) contains a “Gender Equality Cross Cutting Strategy” (AGE-CCS). AGE-CCS incorporates gender into the 23 sectors addressed in the ANDS and into the ANDS-related strategies adopted by Afghan government ministries. MoWA has also adopted a three-pillar strategy to ensure the government vision is achieved: (i) elimination of all forms of violence against women; (ii) human resource development; and (iii) facilitating women’s participation in social and political affairs." (7).
Feb. 15, 2020, 9:16 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Act 215/2012 promoting the (re-)balancing of the gender representation in the regional and local Councils and Governments." (para 14). "Following amendments to Art. 51 of the Constitution by Constitutional Law 1/2003, increasing awareness refers to the need to raise female participation in elective assemblies and political offices. In the current reporting period, Italy adopted: Act 65/2014 on the European Parliament election and guarantees for women’s representation, including transitional provisions for the 2014 European Parliament elections (when voting for up to three candidates, the choice must refer to candidates of both sexes otherwise the third preference will be annulled; lists must equally represent men and women; and representatives of both sexes...more
Feb. 14, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon

"Female leadership of political parties is limited, although three parties introduced voluntary quotas for their membership and one party (Lebanese Forces) appointed a woman as its secretary general in 2016, the first woman ever to hold the post in a major Lebanese political party" (25). "On September 19, parliament approved a law that allows women to run in municipal elections in their native towns instead of the municipality of their spouses" (25).
Feb. 11, 2020, 3:52 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Many women who made it into the Council of Representatives have been there to meet constitutional requirements, i.e. the stipulated quota of 25%, which translated into 82 women out of 325 at the last elections. Most of the women parliamentarians are often the wives, sisters or daughters of male politicians eager to fill the required seats with women without having to engage with wider issues of gender equality and women’s rights. Indeed, many Iraqi women’s rights activists I spoke to over the last years bemoan the phenomenon of female parliamentarians often being more interested in expressing partisan views – frequently of an Islamist and sectarian hue – instead of furthering...more
Feb. 5, 2020, 8:01 a.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Despite the existence of a legal framework that guarantees the access of women to all areas of public life, in particular to the Government, departmental and communal councils, the judiciary and the diplomatic service, including at high levels of decision-making, their level of participation is still low everywhere" (16).
Jan. 13, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and/or member of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s participation. While roadmap signatories agreed that women should hold at least 30 percent of the seats in the federal parliament prior to the country’s transition to a permanent government, women were elected to only 14 percent of 275 seats in parliament in 2012. The 30 percent quota met significant resistance in 2016-17 from clan elders, political leaders, and religious leaders, but women’s representation in parliament increased to 24 percent. The 26-member cabinet had three women." (28). ""Somaliland had two women in its 86-member House of Representatives....more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"China values the role of women in people’s congresses by improving their representation in the ranks of deputies to people’s congresses at various levels. The ratio of women deputies to the first session of the 12th National People’s Congress in 2013 was 23.4 percent, 2.4 percentage points higher than 20 years ago; ethnic minority women deputies made up 41.3 percent of the total number of ethnic minority deputies. China sets store on improving women’s participation in socialist consultative democracy and the role of representatives of women’s federations and women delegates to the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC). The proportion of women members at the first session of the 12th...more
Dec. 7, 2019, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Here, too, it is the council of elders who determines which candidates will be allowed to speak for the group, and again the councils rarely allow women to take up the mantle. In fact, on Oct. 2, a council of religious elders denounced the 30 percent parliamentary quota as a 'foreign-led initiative.' (5).