The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"It is also concerned that rural women are not able to participate fully and meaningfully in decision-making on all issues affecting their lives, despite the 50 per cent quota established for the participation of women in community development councils" (15). "In line with its general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Enhance the involvement of rural women in decision-making on land distribution and agricultural reform, including by further increasing their participation in community development councils; (b) Conduct a study on the barriers preventing women from fully participating in those councils" (15).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The election law provides a general mandate for quotas for female and ethnic minority representatives, but achieving these quotas often required election authorities to violate the election law" (60).
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In May, Congress unanimously approved a constitutional reform on gender parity that establishes a requirement to observe parity in the designation of public officials at every level (federal, state, local) in all three branches of government. A majority of state legislatures approved the reform on June 4[2019], and it came into force on June 7[2019]. The reform states the principle of gender parity should be observed in the designation of cabinet members, selection of candidates for public office by every political party, and designation of members of the judiciary. In accordance with the reform, the Senate elected Monica Fernandez president of the Senate for a year during the legislative session...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Tomomi Inada, a former defense minister, says the male old guard's disparaging attitudes toward women symbolize problems with Japan's power structure, where women and minorities still have scant representation. Government plans to put women in 30% of senior management roles by 2020 across the workforce were quietly pushed back to 2030 last year, after it proved too ambitious" (para 22-23). "Last month a Kyodo News survey found more than 60% of active female lawmakers thought it would be difficult to boost the numbers of women in parliament up to 35% by 2025" (para 29).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution specifies a minimum number of seats for women and minorities in the two houses of parliament. For the Wolesi Jirga, the constitution mandates that at least two women shall be elected from each province (for a total of 68). The IEC finalized 2018 parliamentary election results in May, and 418 female candidates contested the 250 seats in the Wolesi Jirga in the 2018 parliamentary election. In Daikundi Province a woman won a seat in open competition against male candidates, making it the only province to have more female representation than mandated by the constitution. The constitution also mandates one-half of presidential appointees must be women. It also sets...more
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The law governing the election of Assembly members requires that 30 percent of candidates be women and that they occupy 30 percent of appointed and elected positions. According to the OSCE final report on the elections, however, the largest parties did not always respect the mandated 30 percent quota in their candidate lists" (p 14- 15).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"As the year 2007 was the year of parliamentary elections, a gender equality project competition was organized in 2006 with the aim to increase the participation of women in politics through improved cooperation between civic associations and by raising the awareness of the public. Financed activities included seminars, trainings, conferences and roundtables, a series of radio programmes, a compilation of articles and interviews with female ministers, preelection debates, and a film of interviews with women politicians and EU officials" (20).
Aug. 23, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"Women won election to 9.5 percent of constituent seats in parliament and few seats in the Zanzibar House of Representatives. There were special women’s seats in both parliament and the Zanzibar House of Representatives that brought total representation to 30 percent" (p 20).
Aug. 20, 2021, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Despite repeated vows by the CPP to increase female representation, the number of female candidates elected in the July 2018 national election declined from 20 percent in 2013 to 15 percent" (18). There may be incentives/quotas to increase female participation, but if they exist, they are not effective (SFR - CODER COMMENT).
Aug. 10, 2021, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Parties must receive at least 3 percent of the votes to win a seat in the country’s parliament or in the European Parliament. In the government cabinet formed in July, less than 10 percent of those appointed--or two of the 21 ministers--were women"(19).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Social and cultural barriers, however, limited women’s political participation and leadership in most political parties and some government institutions. Voters elected a record number of 75 women, 36 Christians, and nine persons with disabilities to parliament during the 2015 parliamentary elections, a substantial increase compared with the 2012 parliament. The House of Representatives law outlines the criteria for the electoral lists, which provides that the House of Representatives must include at least 56 women, 24 Christians, and nine persons with disabilities. The April constitutional amendments introduced a 25 percent quota in the House of Representatives for women and a requirement to better represent workers, farmers, youth, Christians, Egyptians abroad, and...more
July 20, 2021, 11:23 a.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"A projected 30 women will enter the Israeli legislature, a record for an Election Day, but it appears female representation in parliament will remain roughly the same for the 24th Knesset as in past sessions"(para 1)."The ultra-Orthodox Shas and United Torah Judaism parties, with seven and nine projected seats, respectively, do not allow women to run for Knesset. Dr. Yofi Tirosh, a gender equality expert at the Tel Aviv University Faculty of Law, argues that this is one of the reasons women’s representation in Israel is low. 'That’s 15 or 16 Knesset members, which is approximately 15%, that don’t allow women to take part,' she told The Media Line"(para 13-15).more
July 16, 2021, 11:55 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"There are many women in political positions in the KRG. The head of the Kurdistan Regional Parliament and Ministry of Social Affairs are women, as well as the entire Council of Women’s Affairs. There is a 30-percent quota for female members of parliament, and numerous women’s rights organisations and NGOs are supported by the government"(para 15).
June 25, 2021, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Hungary
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Hungary is one of the European countries with the least female representation in government and has come under scrutiny for how it addresses gender issues. When Prime Minister Viktor Orban first stepped into office, he cut down the country’s gender equality unit. Orban also banned gender studies from universities in 2018 and the government tried to pass a law to end the legal recognition of transgender people in April"(para 13).
June 25, 2021, 11:48 a.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Traditional and cultural practices, in addition to discrimination and institutional bias, however, limited the political participation of women and members of indigenous groups" (p 14).
May 18, 2021, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Though the numbers fall short of achieving proper representation, initiatives by the Albanian Parliament are encouraging women to run for various political offices" (para 4).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned that the State party may not have full understanding of the purpose of temporary special measures in accordance with article 4 (1) of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation No. 25 on the subject. It is also concerned that no temporary special measures have been or are being applied as part of a necessary strategy to accelerate the achievement of substantive equality of women and men in areas in which women are disadvantaged, such as education or in the judiciary, and for promoting the participation of women from religious minorities and scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in various areas under the Convention" (7). "The Committee...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"A group of 10 Liberal Democratic women in Parliament wrote a letter to the three candidates for prime minister urging them to support a minimum threshold of 30 percent female representation among national lawmakers" (para 21).
Dec. 24, 2020, 12:34 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"A new decree from Afghan President Ashraf Ghani states that all of the country’s 34 provinces will appoint women as deputy governors" (para 1). "Speaking to Radio Free Afghanistan on July 9, Saqim said the appointment of female deputies in all provinces has begun. 'One of the women is set to be appointed as deputy governor today in Logar Province, and this will continue in other provinces, as well,' he said" (para 3). "He added that 'after being interviewed by the president, the female deputy governors will be selected and appointed based on merit and competence'" (para 4). "Earlier, presidential spokesman Sediq Sediqqi said the cabinet had decided that women...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 10:28 a.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Women's rights groups however, have criticised the government for failing to fulfil an election promise to have at least a third of women in policy-making positions" (para 14).
Dec. 23, 2020, 2:47 p.m.
Countries: Libya
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The first hit taken by the nascent women’s movement occurred on January 1st, 2012, when a 10 percent women’s quota in the first draft election law was abolished by the Transitional National Council (TNC) in a subsequent draft" (8). "The Libyan Women’s Platform for Peace (LWPP), along with a coalition of Libyan civil society organizations, coordinated a national campaign to lobby for a more inclusive electoral law. They proposed a mixed electoral system combining the individual system and the closed “zipper list” system to ensure inclusive representation in the Constitutional Assembly. The proposal also guaranteed diverse representation of different groups of cultural minorities, youth, and groups of citizens with disabilities"...more
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Moreover, the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe and a number of international and local institutions suggested to increase the proportional representation of men and women to 70/30; however, the new quota system will not be instated until 2022 (...) Though the RA Electoral Code stipulates that representatives of the same sex in the voter list cannot be more than 80%, the quota factually does not ensure women`s participation in the National Assembly or Council of Elders in the event that a party wins. This is because it refers only to the voter list and not to the numeric part of elected deputies. The 2011-2015 Strategic Plan on Gender...more
Oct. 6, 2020, 5:42 p.m.
Countries: Swaziland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The under-representation of women in leadership and decision-making positions in both public and private sectors continued during 2019 despite the existence of the 2018 Election of Women Act, designed to fulfill the constitutional requirement for quotas for the representation of women and marginalized groups in parliament" (para 10).
Aug. 19, 2020, 2:19 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In August, President Vizcarra signed a law establishing gender parity in congressional elections. The law requires that 40 percent of congressional candidates be female by 2021, 45 percent by 2026, and 50 percent by 2031" (para 20).
Aug. 9, 2020, 8:25 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"Article 15 of the Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men states that no public company board or government council or committee may have less than 40% gender equality" (para 13).
July 12, 2020, 1:11 p.m.
Countries: Bosnia-Herzegovina
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"So, despite the existing institutional structure for gender equality promotion at all levels of government, it is not happening. Even gender quotas are ignored. They were first adopted in 1998 and last updated in 2013. National legislation, Article 20 (1), requires equal representation of women and men in all branches of government, including legislative power, setting the minimum representation of at least 40 percent. Yet from year to year, women have not had close to equal legislative and executive power. In the legislative term 2014 to 2018, just 24 percent of all members of parliaments were women. In the same period, out of 147 ministers in governments at all levels,...more
June 23, 2020, 6 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In order to ensure women’s rights, a number of Government laws and decrees have been adopted, in particular, the State programme on the education, selection and placement of talented girls and women in leadership posts in the Republic of Tajikistan in 2017–2022, of 1 April 2017, the national strategy on promoting the role of women in the Republic of Tajikistan for the period 2011–2020, of 29 May 2010, and the plan of action of the national strategy on promoting the role of women in the Republic of Tajikistan for the period 2015–2020, of 29 August 2015" (7).
June 23, 2020, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned about: (a) The decrease in the number of women parliamentarians and women in the local administrative bodies; (b) The absence of targeted measures, including temporary special measures, in line with article 4 (1), of the Convention, to accelerate the achievement of the substantive equality of women and men in political and public life and to promote the representation of disadvantaged groups of women, such as rural women, women from ethnic and linguistic minorities and women with disabilities, in political office, including at the decision-making level" (7).
June 22, 2020, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"the quota for each province ended up being filled by the highest female vote-winners—even if some had beaten out enough men to win an open seat. This meant that the only women competing for open seats were those who had secured fewer votes than their counterparts in the quota, effectively turning it into a cap" (pg 9).
June 19, 2020, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit the participation of women and/or members of minorities in the political process, and women and minorities participated. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation. There were an estimated 77 minority (nonblack) members in the 400-seat National Assembly. There were nine minority members among the 54 permanent members of the National Council of Provinces and five minority members in the 72-member cabinet." (21).