The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LBHO-PRACTICE-1

July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The current quota mechanism for the parliamentarian elections established in 2011 facilitated the elections in 2018 of 25 women (38 per cent), surpassing 35 per cent of women in Parliament for the third legislature in a row" (20). "In 2014, the collaboration between Government institutions, National Parliament, political parties and civil society with international support resulted in the development of the Government’s strategy framework on women’s participation in political life.114 Under this framework, Women Congresses were organized in all districts in collaboration with local and international CSOs. Beyond raising awareness on politics and civic education among women, one of the main objectives of the programme is to identify women with...more
June 21, 2022, 8:35 a.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"While welcoming the adoption in Scotland of the Gender Representation on Public Boards (Scotland) Act in March 2018, which is aimed at achieving the objective of 50 per cent representation of women in non-executive positions on the boards of certain public bodies by December 2022, the Committee remains concerned about the inadequacy of measures adopted by the State party to accelerate the representation of women in all areas of political and public life throughout the whole of the State party’s territory" (9-10)
June 14, 2022, 5:24 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"[In the Faroe Islands] prior to the general election in September 2015, Demokratia organized official meetings throughout the islands with the purpose of encouraging women to participate actively in the political debate and to increase the number of women running for parliament. At the general election in 2015, 11 women (of 33 total seats) were elected compared to 10 in the 2011 election. The number of women in Parliament today (2019), however, is 10, as one of the elected women later became Mayor in Tórshavn and therefore decided to leave the Parliament in order to be a full-time Mayor. Demokratia also participates in municipal election campaigning. By organizing campaigns, meetings...more
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In order to promote women’s political participation, an emphasis has been placed on training and selecting women cadres. Since 2006, there have been 10,040 female participants in training programmes at institutions above the county level alone, including the Central Party School, the National School of Administration and the China Executive Leadership Academy of Pudong, the China Jinggangshan Cadre College and the China Yan’an Cadre College. Efforts have been made to strengthen development of female cadres at the grass-roots levels, adhering to a practice of giving preference to selecting and using female cadres, all other things being equal. Since 2006, the proportion of women among the newly hired civil servants of...more
June 3, 2022, 5:06 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

Compared to the poor political climate in Somalia, Rwanda is a different case. There, women are appointed based on skill and knowledge. They have a percentage of seats just for women that changes every year. There is no quota to fill and a female political leader changes once she has completed her 2 terms. They do not practice a clan-based system, unlike Somalia.
June 3, 2022, 4:56 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In 2016, I worked for the office of the President. I worked with the Goodwill Ambassadors who consisted of both men and women. They were responsible for filling the 30% quota for female participation in politics. I also worked with the Election Dispute Committee, and their focus was on the Gender Based Violence of women during political elections" (Para. 8). "Potential female politicians who ran for office were horribly harassed in public spaces and online. I worked to put mechanisms in place by appointing female officers alongside male officers near election sites for better protection, and hotlines for women to call if they face any violence. Moreover, I put together...more
May 27, 2022, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The law states that for municipal and parliamentary elections, one in three candidates must be a member of the sex least represented on the list. This law brought greater gender balance to parliament" (21).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"An increase in the proportion of women in the judiciary body, in the legal profession in the public prosecution office, and at the local level of politics and decision making (See Article 7 and supporting tables 7.10 to 7.14)" (6). "Awareness on some values that are private, traditional or cultural and that are used to justify or perpetuate gender inequality and male dominance (sexual harassment, (domestic) violence (against women), the position of women in decision making)" (6). "However, the fact that women’s positions in parliament and government are declining has encouraged initiatives to promote affirmative action and quota representation of women in parliament and government. In 2010, the Ministry of...more
April 18, 2022, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"The Committee appreciates the increase in the representation of women in political life, including the number of women parliamentarians and ministers. Nevertheless, it is concerned that gender parity has not been achieved in such positions, nor in the judiciary nor the foreign service. The Committee is particularly concerned that women in rural areas face barriers such as transportation costs and childcare responsibilities that prevent them from participating in the district consultative councils, the existence of quotas for their representation notwithstanding" (9).
April 5, 2022, 11:51 a.m.
Countries: Belarus
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"No laws limit participation of women or minorities in the political process, but patriarchal social attitudes disfavored women’s efforts to achieve positions of power"(24).
March 25, 2022, 9:33 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The OSCE’s reports on the December 2018 parliamentary elections noted, all candidate lists met the 25 percent gender-quota requirement and that women accounted for 32 percent of the 1,444 total candidates. The OSCE stated, however, that this quota did not provide for the same proportion of representation of women in the parliament, as half of the seats are distributed according to preferential votes. Parties rarely featured women candidates in their campaigns" (25).
March 11, 2022, 9:21 p.m.
Countries: Iceland
Variables: DACH-LAW-1, ERBG-LAW-2, LBHO-PRACTICE-1, AFE-LAW-1

"For the past 11 years Iceland has led the World Economic Forum’s Gender Gap Index, earning the country the label of “the best place in the world to be a woman.” Iceland has some of the world’s strongest laws on workplace equality and equal pay, as well as high outcomes for women in issues of health, education, economic opportunity, and political representation" (Para. 1).
Feb. 17, 2022, 11:59 a.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The electoral code requires that at least 20 percent of each party’s candidates in internal party primaries be women. Although the parties met this requirement, they placed the majority of female candidates toward the end of the closed party lists, effectively limiting their chances of being elected. Women served in both the legislature and the Supreme Court; however, there were only 19 women in congress (eight of 45 senators and 11 of 80 national deputies). There were no female governors" (10).
Jan. 21, 2022, 9:22 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Despite the existence of the 2006 and 2012 laws promoting women’s access to elective positions (to include a quota of 20 percent of seats reserved for women on lists of candidates in legislative and local elections and a quota of 20 seats reserved for women in the National Assembly) the number of women in electoral politics remained low" (13).
Jan. 13, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution specifically states no gender should encumber more than two-thirds of elective and appointed offices (the Two-Thirds Gender Rule). In November 2018 and in February, parliament failed to enact the TwoThirds Gender Rule due to lack of the requisite quorum for a constitutional amendment"(29)."During the year(2019) men comprised the entirety of the leadership of the National Assembly, unlike in the previous parliament, in which both the deputy speaker and deputy majority leader were women. The cabinet also did not conform to the twothirds rule; President Kenyatta appointed six women to the cabinet, representing only 21 percent of the seats"(29).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women and minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Women voted at rates equal to or higher than men. In all national elections since the late 1960s, women made up a majority of voters, according to data by the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry. Women, however, have not been elected to any level of office at rates reflecting this. The law calls on political parties to make their best efforts to have equal numbers of male and female candidates on the ballot in national and local elections. Women held 47 of 465 seats in the Diet’s Lower House and 56 of 245 seats...more
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Quotas are not prohibited, but are actually in place through a gentleman's agreement. Quotas have been effective in encouraging women to run for legislative or elected office. However, the implementation is not there" (1).
Dec. 17, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In March the National Assembly approved a bill that would require political parties to ensure that a minimum of 30 percent of candidate lists in legislative, regional, and municipal elections be women. The bill had not been adopted by the Senate by year’s end"(16).
Nov. 11, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In January, President Moon described the gender gap as a “shameful reality” and pledged to address it. Moon has generally kept his pledge from the beginning of his term that 30 percent of his cabinet nominations would be women"(21).
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-LAW-1, LBHO-LAW-2

"No laws limit the participation of women and members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. The law requires that 40 percent of the party candidate lists submitted for national elections be from 'the under-represented gender.' If a party fails to meet the quota, the law provides a graduated scheme of reducing its yearly financial endowment from the government, based on the extent of failure to meet the criteria. The country’s five major parties all met the 40 percent criterion in their candidate lists for the parliamentary elections" (7).
Oct. 25, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The law sets a target of 35 percent of final candidates for the National Assembly and provincial people’s councils to be women" (27).
Oct. 15, 2021, 9:09 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The Qatari government told the Guardian it wanted to build on progress made in incorporating women into the highest levels of politics and other professional fields, and said Qatari women held senior posts in many areas and achieved the highest levels of education" (para 23).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1, LBHO-PRACTICE-3, LBHO-LAW-2, LBHO-DATA-1, GP-DATA-1

"No laws limit participation of women or members of minorities in the political process, and they did participate. Cultural factors, however, limited women’s political participation in formal and informal roles. A law passed in 2015 requires that at least 30 percent of the slots on party election lists be reserved for female candidates and that 30 percent of high-level government appointees be women. The law was fully implemented in President Keita’s first cabinet of his second term, in which 11 of 32 ministers were women. In the second cabinet, formed in April, eight of the 38 ministers were women. There were only 14 women in the 147-member National Assembly. There...more
Sept. 22, 2021, 10:41 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"It is also concerned that rural women are not able to participate fully and meaningfully in decision-making on all issues affecting their lives, despite the 50 per cent quota established for the participation of women in community development councils" (15). "In line with its general recommendation No. 34 (2016) on the rights of rural women, the Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Enhance the involvement of rural women in decision-making on land distribution and agricultural reform, including by further increasing their participation in community development councils; (b) Conduct a study on the barriers preventing women from fully participating in those councils" (15).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The election law provides a general mandate for quotas for female and ethnic minority representatives, but achieving these quotas often required election authorities to violate the election law" (60).
Sept. 10, 2021, 3:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"In May, Congress unanimously approved a constitutional reform on gender parity that establishes a requirement to observe parity in the designation of public officials at every level (federal, state, local) in all three branches of government. A majority of state legislatures approved the reform on June 4[2019], and it came into force on June 7[2019]. The reform states the principle of gender parity should be observed in the designation of cabinet members, selection of candidates for public office by every political party, and designation of members of the judiciary. In accordance with the reform, the Senate elected Monica Fernandez president of the Senate for a year during the legislative session...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 5:50 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"Tomomi Inada, a former defense minister, says the male old guard's disparaging attitudes toward women symbolize problems with Japan's power structure, where women and minorities still have scant representation. Government plans to put women in 30% of senior management roles by 2020 across the workforce were quietly pushed back to 2030 last year, after it proved too ambitious" (para 22-23). "Last month a Kyodo News survey found more than 60% of active female lawmakers thought it would be difficult to boost the numbers of women in parliament up to 35% by 2025" (para 29).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The constitution specifies a minimum number of seats for women and minorities in the two houses of parliament. For the Wolesi Jirga, the constitution mandates that at least two women shall be elected from each province (for a total of 68). The IEC finalized 2018 parliamentary election results in May, and 418 female candidates contested the 250 seats in the Wolesi Jirga in the 2018 parliamentary election. In Daikundi Province a woman won a seat in open competition against male candidates, making it the only province to have more female representation than mandated by the constitution. The constitution also mandates one-half of presidential appointees must be women. It also sets...more
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"The law governing the election of Assembly members requires that 30 percent of candidates be women and that they occupy 30 percent of appointed and elected positions. According to the OSCE final report on the elections, however, the largest parties did not always respect the mandated 30 percent quota in their candidate lists" (p 14- 15).
Aug. 28, 2021, 11:07 a.m.
Countries: Estonia
Variables: LBHO-PRACTICE-1

"As the year 2007 was the year of parliamentary elections, a gender equality project competition was organized in 2006 with the aim to increase the participation of women in politics through improved cooperation between civic associations and by raising the awareness of the public. Financed activities included seminars, trainings, conferences and roundtables, a series of radio programmes, a compilation of articles and interviews with female ministers, preelection debates, and a film of interviews with women politicians and EU officials" (20).