The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LDS-PRACTICE-2

July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"A Migration Profile was publicized in 2019 which brings together mobility trends to develop strategies for migration management and strengthen the Government ability to respond to various migration challenges, including Human Trafficking.103 However, a comprehensive research on the prevalence of trafficking and exploitation of prostitution has yet to be carried out" (19).
July 1, 2022, 11:06 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"BK-TKI is a program to empower migrant worker families’ economic resilience, foster entrepreneurial spirit and educate on the use of remittances for the creative economy. Until 2018, there are 117 BK-TKIs communities in 104 villages throughout 13 provinces" (22). "The Government arranges training for migrant workers before placement abroad, in cooperation with MoFA, MoHA, MoSA, MoH, National Board on The Placement and Protection of Indonesian Overseas Workers/Badan Nasional Penempatan dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia (BNP2TKI) and other related stakeholders" (22). "Indonesia closely and regularly supervises the activities of 570 registered migrant workers agencies all over Indonesia and takes firm actions on those who violated the code" (34). "To better protect...more
June 7, 2022, 10:47 a.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-1, LDS-PRACTICE-2

"The Government gives full play to the positive role of social forces in raising awareness of the importance of the rule of law, and has invited professionals to join public campaign teams and has organized lectures on related topics. The Chinese Women’s Legal Aid Action, for instance, has specifically provided legal advice to women and female migrant workers from poverty-stricken areas of Central and Western China" (11).
March 25, 2022, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-1, LDS-PRACTICE-2, LDS-DATA-1

“…Local newspapers reported on court cases involving violence committed against maids and other domestic workers. In August local media reported that the Philippine Overseas Labor Office in Dubai had sheltered a total of 1,737 women between January and June, 86 percent of whom left their employers due to alleged maltreatment, including long work hours, verbal and physical abuse, and lack of food” (36).
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"...The government did not permit workers to join independent unions and did not effectively prevent physical and sexual abuse of foreign domestic servants and other migrant workers" (1). "...There were reports employers raped or sexually assaulted foreign domestic workers. These cases rarely went to court, and those that did led to few convictions. In one such conviction in December 2018, a man was sentenced to a suspended three-month jail term and deportation after sexually assaulting two domestic workers..." (27). "...Local newspapers reported on court cases involving violence committed against maids and other domestic workers. In August local media reported that the Philippine Overseas Labor Office in Dubai had sheltered a...more
March 10, 2022, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"There were reports and cases of foreign domestic workers, usually women, suffering from mistreatment, abuse, and in some cases rape or conditions akin to slavery" (31). "Some employers mistreated, abused, and raped foreign domestic workers... Domestic workers often worked long hours and, in many cases, did not receive vacations or holidays... In a typical example, one victim explained that, when she escaped from an employer who was withholding her wages, an NGO helped her file charges against her employer. Authorities reached an administrative settlement with her employer to pay back wages and finance return to her home country but did not seek criminal prosecution of her employer. Authorities typically did...more
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"women immigrants remain the most exposed to both domestic violence and harassment at the workplace, as long as they are legally or economically subjected either to their spouses or fathers or to their employers" (75). "Women who suffered or continue to suffer from various forms of violence, especially sexual offenses and mobbing...It is also growing the violence grounded on cultural reasons, especially among immigrant women. As to the latter, the latest figures indicate the reduction of complaints despite the nondecrease of cases of violence" (84).
Feb. 28, 2022, 3:29 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Women employed as domestic workers were particularly vulnerable to forced labor" (22).
Feb. 5, 2022, 9:24 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2, CWC-DATA-2

"...Girls and women from rural areas, as well as migrant workers from bordering countries, were lured to cities with false promises of employment or education and exploited in domestic servitude and sex trafficking" (22). "Child labor remained a problem. NGOs reported some girls who migrated from rural areas to urban centers to work as domestic help for extended family or acquaintances to settle debts were vulnerable to commercial sexual exploitation (see section 6, Children). Mothers who did not complete secondary school were more likely to have children involved in child labor. Due to economic necessity, especially in rural areas, children worked in agriculture, as domestic employees, or in prostitution" (23).more
Feb. 2, 2022, 12:28 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Employers often abused and raped young rural girls working as housekeepers in the capital. If they left their work, employers typically did not pay them, so many remained rather than return empty-handed to their families and villages. UNICEF’s 2018 study on violence against children indicated all reported cases of sexual violence in the workplace took place in the domestic labor sector" (23).
Jan. 24, 2022, 1:07 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"[Sumangali schemes are] a form of bonded labor in which young women or girls work to earn money for a dowry to be able to marry. The promised lump-sum compensation is normally withheld until the end of a contractual agreement to work three to five years of employment and sometimes goes partially or entirely unpaid. While in bonded labor, employers reportedly subjected women to serious workplace abuses, including severe restrictions on freedom of movement and communication, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation, and sex trafficking" (45).
Jan. 21, 2022, 9:22 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Nevertheless, such practices ['slavery, forced labor, and de facto slavery'] also occurred in urban centers where young children, often girls, were retained as unpaid domestic servants" (25). "The report also stressed that exploitation of girls was more frequent in domestic work... Several reports suggested girls as young as age seven, mainly from remote regions, were forced to work as unpaid domestic servants in wealthy urban homes" (26).
Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2, CWC-DATA-2

"...Unscrupulous employers subjected women from rural communities and impoverished urban centers to domestic servitude, forced begging, and forced labor in small factories…" (37).
Jan. 6, 2022, 1:51 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Migrant Female Sex Workers in Nairobi, Kenya. 'Over half (52.2%) of migrant FSW were between the ages of 20 and 29, with the average age of the respondents being 31.8 years.' Somalis was 11% of the migrants" (12).
Jan. 4, 2022, 11:45 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"In one case, in April a court convicted a couple of bringing a Fijian woman to the country, withholding her passport, and forcing her to work as a maid in their Brisbane home between 2008 and 2016" (18-19). "There were reports some domestic workers employed by foreign diplomats faced conditions indicative of forced labor" (19).
Dec. 27, 2021, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Abuse was common in domestic service; there were several reports of employers raping foreign domestic helpers. In some instances, the victims were unable to leave until they paid off debts to employment brokers" (23-24).
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-1, LDS-PRACTICE-2

"...In Sint Maarten the lack of standard procedures for front- line responders to identify forced labor victims hindered the government’s ability to assist such persons. Following an investigation into the possible exploitation of three Filipina women hired as domestic servants, the public prosecutor’s office determined in September that the case did not amount to forced labor, despite claims from the Filipino community alleging unfair labor practices and exploitation. Isolated incidents of forced or compulsory labor occurred in the kingdom. Victims of coerced labor included both domestic and foreign women and men, as well as boys and girls (see section 7.c.) forced to work in, among other sectors, agriculture, horticulture, catering,...more
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Women working as domestic workers were vulnerable to forced labor conditions in both the West Bank and Gaza, since the PA and de facto Hamas authorities do not regulate domestic labor within households or in the large informal sector" (103).
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:33 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"The absence of BWAs for foreign caregivers and additional migrant workers not covered by BWAs led to continuing widespread abuses and exploitative working conditions, including excessive recruitment fees, false employment contracts, and lack of legal protections related to housing, nonpayment of wages, physical and sexual violence, and harassment" (52).
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Some locally licensed employment agencies [in Hong Kong] were suspected of colluding with agencies overseas to profit from debt schemes, and some local agencies illegally confiscated the passports and employment contracts of domestic workers and withheld them until they repaid the debt" (129).
Aug. 6, 2021, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Pamela Mbogo* is one of them. The 29-year-old has found a job in Saudi Arabia starting next month. It’s not her first time as a domestic worker. On the previous occasion she lived and worked for a family in Bahrain, where she was abused and locked inside the house for days at a time. Yet, this time, Mbogo believes it will be different. 'The first time I went, I went in an illegal, chaotic situation through brokers who did not prepare us for what lay ahead,' says Mbogo. 'I am more confident this time. I believe all will be well'" (para 2-3). "She says that she sees the cycle repeating...more
Aug. 6, 2021, 12:59 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Despite the Kenyan government’s claim that the Saudi government had agreed a minimum wage, workers still report to Adhoch that they are earning as little as 18 000 Kenyan shillings — if they get paid at all" (para 21). "Only a broken leg allowed Shani Hassan* to escape to Kenya when she took a job in Saudi Arabia just before the ban was put in place. She was allowed to sleep for only two hours a night, and given little more than noodles to eat. After more than a year of abuse, her employer’s son threw Hassan down the stairs, breaking her leg, leaving her unable to work. Finally, she...more
Aug. 6, 2021, 12:58 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Pamela Mbogo* is one of them. The 29-year-old has found a job in Saudi Arabia starting next month. It’s not her first time as a domestic worker. On the previous occasion she lived and worked for a family in Bahrain, where she was abused and locked inside the house for days at a time. Yet, this time, Mbogo believes it will be different. 'The first time I went, I went in an illegal, chaotic situation through brokers who did not prepare us for what lay ahead,' says Mbogo. 'I am more confident this time. I believe all will be well'" (para 2-3). "Reports of east African workers being raped and...more
July 13, 2021, 1:26 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"The law prohibits sexual harassment in the workplace and provides a penalty of up to six months in prison and/or a 12,000 euro ($14,440) fine. The ombudsman and NGOs reported that authorities did not investigate sexual harassment complaints submitted by foreign domestic workers" (p 15-16). "The Department of Labor reported that it received five sexual harassment complaints from foreign domestic workers. Three of them withdrew their complaint after the employer agreed to release them from their contract and were free to change employer. The department was investigating the remaining two complaints" (p 24).
June 29, 2021, 3:43 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Migrant workers are governed by the “kafala” system, which requires workers to have a sponsor. This sponsor then holds their passport, which makes it impossible for them to flee" (para 5). "Lots of women who are employed as domestic workers are mistreated. Often, they can’t stand the treatment and the terrible working conditions and so they run away. They end up without papers" (para 14). "There are also cases when employers beat their domestic workers, kill them and bury them somewhere, but we have no way of verifying" (para 17). "However, people rarely go to the police to report human trafficking and investigations are rarely completed, says Rima Kalush, the...more
June 29, 2021, 3:30 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Migrant domestic workers in Lebanon are facing physical and mental abuse at the hands of their employers because of the country's use of the 'kafala' sponsorship system, a new report has revealed... [Amnesty International] has exposed a pattern of abuse faced by maids working and living inside Lebanon. Testimony collected by Amnesty from 32 female domestic workers, recruitment agencies and diplomats for the 'Their House is My Prison' report showed workers faced having their passports confiscated, salaries withheld and restrictions on their movement and food" (para 1-3). "The vast majority of workers who travel to Lebanon for employment using the kafala system come from deprived backgrounds and are often unaware...more
May 22, 2021, 7:58 p.m.
Countries: Oman
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"'My agent told me he could take my passport because he had bought me,' she says. 'I was confused. How can you buy a human being?' At 5am, a few hours after she arrived, she was woken by her new employer who ordered her to clean the house and then get his children ready for school. 'This is not the work I came to Oman for,' she says. 'My agent in Sierra Leone lied to me.' The kafala system of employment still ties migrant workers to the employer who brings them to the Gulf, allowing widespread exploitation to persist, despite years of campaigning by human rights groups" (para 2-4). "Now...more
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"women immigrants remain the most exposed to both domestic violence and harassment at the workplace, as long as they are legally or economically subjected either to their spouses or fathers or to their employers" (75). "Women who suffered or continue to suffer from various forms of violence, especially sexual offenses and mobbing...It is also growing the violence grounded on cultural reasons, especially among immigrant women. As to the latter, the latest figures indicate the reduction of complaints despite the nondecrease of cases of violence" (84).
March 6, 2021, 9:44 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: LDS-PRACTICE-2

"Many low-paid migrant domestic workers are at acute risk of labor abuses, forced labor, and human trafficking because of the kafala (visa sponsorship) system in the UAE, which ties migrant workers’ visas to their employers" (para 16).
Feb. 13, 2021, 10:58 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: TRAFF-PRACTICE-2, TRAFF-DATA-1, LDS-PRACTICE-2

“J. and Others v. Austria (no. 58216/12) (17 January 2017): This case concerned the Austrian authorities’ investigation into an allegation of human trafficking. The applicants, two Filipino nationals, who had gone to work as maids or au pairs [in] the United Arab Emirates, alleged that their employers had taken their passports away from them and exploited them. They claimed that this treatment had continued during a short stay in Vienna where their employers had taken them and where they had eventually managed to escape. Following a criminal complaint filed by the applicants against their employers in Austria, the authorities found that they did not have jurisdiction over the alleged offences...more