The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LO-PRACTICE-1

May 9, 2024, 11:20 p.m.
Countries: Romania
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Although steps have been made in recent years to narrow the gender gap, access to capital continues to be one of the most significant challenges women face when starting and/or growing their businesses. Nonetheless, supporting this segment transcends its sociological importance. It is a proven fact that women have a significant contribution in all areas of the economy, and the latest numbers in this regard cannot be ignored. There are almost 500,000 women who own or lead companies in Romania, the figure having increased by 6.8% in 2018, compared to 2017. Throughout the years, Garanti Bank Romania has been an active supporter of local businesses and entrepreneurs, including women, by...more
May 9, 2024, 3:41 p.m.
Countries: Thailand

“Furthermore, this patriarchal system often results in women being in a subordinate role, at a material disadvantage, living in poverty, facing domestic violence, and the undervaluation of women’s work” (4). “The participants generally reported that they feel men believe that they have a duty to earn for the family and the wives have to manage the family’s expenses, including debts for investments such as the purchase of fertilizer and cars. When men earn additional money from part-time jobs like being daily construction laborers or carrying rice sacks, they will spend the money on themselves, buying things like alcohol and cigarettes or gambling. As illustrated in the following quotes, stress levels...more
May 9, 2024, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: Sweden

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance law. The government enforced the laws effectively" (14).
May 9, 2024, 1:51 p.m.
Countries: South Africa

“Black women in rural South Africa face a ‘double whammy’ said Claassens, as both apartheid and customary laws - where land is handed down from father to son - have deprived them of property rights” (para 8). “Male-dominated tribal authorities hold great sway over rural communities, with the Zulu King Goodwill Zwelithini controlling 2.8 million hectares of land, an area the size of Belgium, under an entity called the Ingonyama Trust. Ngubane, nominated as one of three finalists in the 2020 Martin Ennals Award, a prestigious human rights prize, said this month's Durban court ruling was significant. ‘This will make a difference in terms of women's land and property inheritance,’...more
May 9, 2024, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania

“Women have participated in trade, influenced politics, made decisions for their families, shaped their marriages, and contributed to religious scholarship. Mauritanian women have also exercised significant power as compared to some of their counterparts elsewhere in the Muslim world, being able to initiate divorce, speak publicly, and act as heads of household. Despite such influence, their gender has also disadvantaged them, making it difficult to access many of the opportunities that are available to men” (para 1). “In their everyday lives, many women remain knowledgeable about the Qur’an and its teachings and use these to justify various behaviors. For example, female entrepreneurs often emphasize that they control their own incomes...more
April 30, 2024, 5:55 p.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Political economist Tinuade Adekunbi Ojo explained that South African women might have a bank account but still have difficulty accessing other financial products or services" (para 8).
April 19, 2024, 3:06 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"[T]he majority of property is traditionally registered to men" (16). "[A] system of joint registration of property [is not yet established]" (17).
April 7, 2024, 8:30 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Land is central to people’s livelihoods in Darfur and is governed by plural land tenure systems where modern statutory land ownership exists alongside traditional customary land rights. The customary Hakura system is the traditional way to manage land in Darfur. Importantly, the Juba Peace Agreement (JPA) recognizes the indigenous tribal land ownership and the Hakura customary rights to agricultural land and grazing that govern access to land and water for both farming and nomad communities in Darfur. Following the customary system, rights are not exclusive and land is ‘owned’ or belongs to a community. Land in Darfur is split into tribal homelands, which are named Dars. Generally, the homeland belongs...more
April 7, 2024, 7:13 p.m.
Countries: Solomon Islands
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Solomon Islands has a pluralistic legal system of State law and Customary law that both operate at the national and local level. In State law, both men and women have equal opportunity to acquire land. The majority of the land in Solomon Islands is, however, held in accordance with Customary law or kastom. The capital city of Honiara follows the Constitution in land ownership but most land outside the city boundary uses Customary law. Under Customary law, decisions regarding land matters are made through a consultative group comprised of male chiefs and elders. In some instances, customary law also dictates that women must ‘stand behind’ men when it comes to...more
March 15, 2024, 2:30 p.m.
Countries: Gabon
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"A total of 144 women with disabilities received training in project set-up, small business accounts and the requirements for associations and cooperatives. Those women have opened bank accounts" (23). "15 women have received e-money chips financed by the National Fund for Social Action and have been introduced to electronic banking in rural Mekambo (five women), Akieni (five women) and Minvoul (five women)" (23). "[In rural areas, Gabonese women] are also constrained in their efforts by the lack of access to information and technologies that would help them to expand their [entrepeneural] activities" (23).
Feb. 20, 2024, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"[T]he Parity Act guarantees the right of women to entrepreneurship and promotes access to savings, credit and new technologies, without discrimination on the basis of gender… [N]ew initiatives are being taken to improve access for women to bank loans, especially through microfinancing... [W]omen continue to have limited access to economic resources, face discrimination regarding access to financial services and are not involved in the elaboration and implementation of development [despite the parity act] " (13).
Feb. 20, 2024, 5:52 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"[A]ccess for rural women to microfinancing and microcredit at low interest rates [needs to expand], to enable them to engage in income-generating activities and start their own businesses, with a view to combating poverty and promoting the advancement of rural women and enhance their security of land tenure" (14).
Jan. 29, 2024, 6:01 p.m.
Countries: India

"In India’s Jharkhand state and other tribal areas, for example, tribal women often face an uphill battle in inheriting property, and, in some cases, allegations of witchcraft are wielded against them to silence their claims. They might be branded as witches on the most absurd of suspicions, socially excommunicated, or worse still, lynched by villagers, their corpses left to rot in public. In 2020, the Jharkhand government even rolled back an ambitious scheme by the previous government that encouraged women, in general, to register the property under their names by paying a meagre amount of Rs 1, citing loss to the exchequer due to apparent 'misuse' of the scheme" (para...more
Jan. 21, 2024, 10:39 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In another incident, a member of parliament warned of new methods, such as freezing bank accounts of women identified as 'bad hijab' or violators of dress codes" (para 14).
Jan. 16, 2024, 6:33 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Ownership of livestock and small stock remain predominantly in the hands of men. Government’s agricultural schemes such as Livestock Management and Infrastructure Development have a deliberate window that promotes increased women’s access to productive resources including small stock and boreholes (7). “With respect to ownership of land as indicated in the last report, women and men have equal right to own land. The Ministry of Lands and Housing has aligned their administration arrangements and practice with the law to afford married women equal chance with men to own land. There is need to continue public education to promote knowledge on the right to land ownership and strengthen capacity to challenge...more
Nov. 6, 2023, 11:49 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"As of June 2018, women nationwide had received 359.714 billion yuan in small secured loans for entrepreneurship, which helped more than 6 million women to realize their dream of starting a business and creating wealth" (5). "Registered poverty-stricken households that meet relevant eligibility criteria can apply for a pro-poor microcredit of up to 50,000 yuan. A 'Women Campaign for Poverty Alleviation' was launched, with priority given to registered poor women to benefit from pro-poor projects in such areas as e-commerce and tourism, and from a series of projects aimed at engaging 10,000 private businesses" (26).
Oct. 4, 2023, 6:58 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Many women, in particular rural women, face barriers to obtaining identity documents, which restricts their access to, inter alia, education, health care, employment opportunities, bank loans and property" (10). "[A]ccess to food subsidies, maternity allowances and credits is conditional on engagement in the formal employment sector [is concerning]" (11)."[W]omen in the informal sector [don't have] access to food subsidies, maternity allowances, credits and loans" (12). "[I]n matters of inheritance, customary law continues to be discriminatory towards women and girls, as it divests them of their land titles" (15).
Sept. 28, 2023, 9:21 a.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"In paragraphs 70 and 82 of its report, the State party informs the Committee about the measures taken to grant divorced or abandoned women, childless widows and single orphaned women temporary accommodation. Please indicate measures taken to allow all women to own permanent housing, including with the State ’s assistance, without having to obtain the permission of their husband or ex-husband. Please provide information on measures taken to repeal legal provisions requiring the husband’s consent to prevent pregnancy, as well as for a woman to leave the marital home, and report on measures taken to allow the freedom of movement of all women without a legal guardian, including for their...more
Sept. 22, 2023, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Regulation 273/13 restricted refugees from obtaining the business license required to own and operate a business" (14). Women who are refugees are unable to own and operate businesses (MV- coder comment).
Aug. 30, 2023, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia

"Women have the same legal status as men under family, religious, personal status, and nationality laws, as well as laws related to labor, property, nationality, inheritance, employment, access to credit, and owning or managing businesses or property. The laws were effectively enforced" (34).
Aug. 24, 2023, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Jordan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"NGOs reported a disproportionate number of individuals charged with nonrepayment of debt were women unable to repay loans they had taken out on behalf of their male family members" (44).
Aug. 24, 2023, 1:08 a.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"[I]n cases in which joint marital property is registered only in the name of one spouse or partner, it is usually the man’s name that is registered in the property title, despite the fact that, in 2015, 49.7 per cent of those working in agriculture were women" (12). [R]rural women [do not] have access to legal assistance when claiming their property rights" (13). "[T]he jointly owned property of women and men in de facto unions is [not] registered in the name of both partners from the outset" (14). It is usually registered in the naem of the male partner (MV-coder comment).
Aug. 15, 2023, 5:22 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"[W]omen reported it was more difficult for them to qualify for credit and to own a business" (12).
Aug. 15, 2023, 6:17 a.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with appreciation the various initiatives aimed at promoting the economic empowerment of women. It is concerned, however, about: (b) The lack of information on legislative and other measures to increase access of women to new technologies, land and credits" (13).
Aug. 9, 2023, 1:06 p.m.
Countries: Eritrea
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee recommends that the State party: Invest in the independence and autonomy of women through programmes facilitating access to bank loans, credit guarantees, microcredit, markets, business scale-up, common production facilities and other production systems" (12). "In line with its general recommendation No. 29 (2013) on the economic consequences of marriage, family relations and their dissolution and with joint general recommendation No. 31/general comment No. 18, the Committee recommends that the State party:... Ensure that the jointly owned property of women and men is registered in the name of both partners from the outset; Ensure that women and men enjoy equal rights to inheritance and as testators, heirs or beneficiaries,...more
Aug. 8, 2023, 8:30 p.m.
Countries: Bulgaria
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The lack of information on loan schemes and other forms of financial credit for women and the lack of specific training on entrepreneurial skills [is a concern]" (11). "[T]argeted measures, including skills training and technical education, and facilitate women’s access to loans and other forms of financial credit, in order to support and stimulate women’s entrepreneurship and promote their economic empowerment, in particular in rural areas [are not adopted]" (12). These aims are not developed (MV- coder comment).
Aug. 8, 2023, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"A National Land Reform Commission responsible for analysing existing legislation and regulations and identifying institutional constraints on optimal land management was established by Decree No. 2012-1419 of 6 December 2012. The State is committed to improving land management in order to respond to the needs of development and social cohesion. Land reform is based on the principles of participation, decentralization, encouraging family and commercial agriculture, and respect for human rights and the rights of women and minorities." (4).
July 27, 2023, 10:30 a.m.
Countries: Chad

"Although property and inheritance laws provide the same legal status and rights for women as for men, the government did not enforce the laws effectively. Inheritance, property, and housing practices frequently discriminated against women due to cultural and religious elements present in many communities. Women often could not inherit property from their father or husband. Additionally, local leaders settled most inheritance disputes in favor of men, according to traditional practice. Women seeking to rent a house often had to prove they were married, while men were able often to rent without a similar burden. Women requesting divorce from men often faced a process that took three times as long as...more
July 25, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

" [The state should] reallocate and distribute land so that women have equal ownership of land" (6). This indicates that women do not have equal ownership of land (MV- coder comment). "[M]icrofinancing institutions charge high interest rates, require land titles as collateral and target poor clients, the majority of whom are women, and that, in the event of default, the land seized is frequently of much higher value than the debt, without the difference being compensated, which leaves many rural women destitute and homeless" (13). This indicates that women have access to land titles also (MV- coder comment).
July 21, 2023, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Azerbaijan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"No limitation is applied for women in their entrepreneurial activities by the national legislation, and at the same time, special privileges and exemptions are defined in relation to women. Entrepreneurs enjoy equal opportunities in implementing their rights without setting any sexual discrimination and preference in issues ranging from the State registration of entrepreneurial activities to issuance of licenses and permits, from tax obligations and audits to the restoration of violated rights etc" (28). "During 2015–2018, 494 women have obtained leasing based agricultural machines on the basis of contracts signed" (31).