The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LO-PRACTICE-1

June 29, 2022, 11:33 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"However, the Committee notes with concern:... (b) That Law No. 11/2020 on job creation undermines environmental protection by removing the requirement of environmental permits and environmental impact assessments, thereby threatening indigenous women’s access to land;... (d) Indigenous women’s limited access to land ownership, safe water and adequate sanitation" (14). "The Committee recommends that the State party:... (c) Eliminate customary practices that discriminate against indigenous women in relation to land ownership" (14).
May 16, 2022, 8:09 p.m.
Countries: Suriname
Variables: CL-PRACTICE-1, LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women fulfil many crucial roles as farmers, wage labourers and small scale entrepreneurs, as well as caretakers of children and the elderly and are therefore capable to lift their households and communities out of poverty. However, women still face persistent gender inequities that limit their access to land, credit, decent incomes, technologies, information, advisory services and training" (39).
April 18, 2022, 10:31 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee welcomes the State party’s efforts to facilitate access by women to land and microfinance services in rural areas...The Committee is further concerned about the limited access by rural women to land ownership, formal credit and loans and the resettlement and displacement of women in the northern part of the State party by mining companies" (12).
March 25, 2022, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The law stipulates the partners in marriage and civil unions have equal rights to own and inherit property, but men usually inherited family property and other assets" (24).
March 25, 2022, 8:54 p.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, ATFPA-LAW-1

"The government excluded women from certain social and economic benefits, including land grants for building houses, because tribal family law often designates men as the heads of families" (29).
March 21, 2022, 3:27 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: CWC-DATA-2, LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee notes with concern inequalities between the State party’s urban and rural women, with respect to the standard of living and employment, including for older women. It is further concerned about de facto discrimination against rural women in access to property due to traditional and social patterns favouring men as holders of property titles" (10).
March 19, 2022, 9:01 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"In this deeply conservative and patriarchal society, women who defy convention and seek divorce are often disowned by their families and shunned by Afghan society. Left alone, they have to fight for basic rights, such as renting an apartment, which require the involvement or guarantees of male relatives"(para 2).
March 10, 2022, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"By law women may own property, but they often ceded control of it to male relatives due to cultural norms and family pressure" (33).
March 9, 2022, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The international financial crisis has struck in recent years the entrepreneurial sector. From the data of the Bank of Italy (2008), it strongly emerges the restriction of credit and the associated problems’ of the banks to disburse it, which predominantly affects small and medium-sized enterprises and craft, where the female component is more present" (101).
March 4, 2022, 6:57 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women have full rights of inheritance and property ownership by law, but local authorities often excluded them from the decision-making process on disposition of indigenous communal land, which constituted more than 80 percent of all land. Women have the right to a share in the distribution of indigenous land lease proceeds, but authorities seldom recognized this right. Women have the same rights and status as men under family law and in the judicial system. Nonetheless, women and children had difficulty obtaining protection orders, and police enforcement of them, in domestic-violence cases" (16).
Feb. 23, 2022, 3:02 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"While women legally have equal access to land, traditional practices made it difficult for women to purchase property in rural areas. Many women had access to land only through their husbands, and the security of their rights depended on maintaining their relationships with their husbands" (15-16).
Feb. 5, 2022, 9:24 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"...Enforcement of laws that protect women’s rights to land ownership in the formal economy remained poor. Women typically could not inherit land under customary law" (16).
Jan. 24, 2022, 1:07 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Many tribal land systems, including in Bihar, deny tribal women the right to own land. Other laws or customs relating to the ownership of assets and land accord women little control over land use, retention, or sale" (47).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Businesses, credit, property are not withheld from women. If a woman were to seek or get divorced, if the property is under her name it is hers. If the business is under her name, the business is hers. However, if she does not have property under her name nor a business, her children will be second in line to the property and business. If her husband dies, then the property is hers and her children" (1).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, PW-PRACTICE-3, PW-LAW-1

"While the law provides for equal property rights, traditional practices and ignorance of the law prevented women from taking full advantage of their rights. The marriage contract must specify if the couple wishes to share estate rights. If marriage certificates of Muslim couples do not specify the type of marriage, judges presume the marriage to be polygynous" (23).
Sept. 14, 2021, 9:15 a.m.
Countries: Ghana
Variables: ERBG-PRACTICE-4, LO-PRACTICE-1

"The camp is densely populated by women who’ve similarly been accused of using 'black magic,' perhaps because they were successful farmers, were good in school, had profitable businesses, or dared to interfere with matters reserved only for men. Sometimes, even inevitable occurrences like deaths or illnesses in a village are enough to land a woman in exile. Widows left with land but without a man to protect their interests are particularly common targets. So are the mentally ill, or any other females deemed difficult or undesirable by their villages. 'To get me out of their community, [my husband’s family] accused me of using witchcraft,' says Tachira. 'I am a freeloader...more
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Rural contract law and laws protecting women’s rights stipulate women enjoy equal rights in cases of land management, but experts asserted this was rarely the case due to the complexity of the law and difficulties in its implementation" (69).
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Although women possess most of the same legal rights as men, the government did not enforce the law effectively, and discrimination in employment, pay, ownership and management of businesses, and education persisted. Certain laws defining the marital relationship enable discrimination. The default and most common marital arrangement is 'conjugal society,' which provides that a husband has the right to administer joint property, including his wife’s property, without consultation or written permission from his spouse, but a wife must demonstrate that her husband has granted his permission before she is permitted to make financial arrangements. Legislation remained pending years after a 2007 agreement with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights to...more
Aug. 3, 2021, 12:21 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"African women are often excluded from social and economic plans -- safety nets they desperately need -- after the death of a spouse or dissolution of a marriage, experts from the World Bank said in a 2018 report. Nwakwesi, now a school proprietor in an upscale neighborhood in Lagos, said she had plans to grow her business after her husband's death but she had no means to source the funds. Over the years, she's also counseled and assisted widows after they were denied small business loans because they were not married. 'People think you won't be able to repay because now you are the only one bearing the responsibilities, but...more
July 30, 2021, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women find it rough in relation to land both while still married and when widowed. At marriage many title deeds are in the names of husbands and at death it becomes easier for the women to lose out land to greedy in laws…" (Para 3). "Many women upon finding their matrimonial homes inhabitable run away to urban areas with their children to eke out a living, this sinks them into deeper poverty because upon deprivation of land, some women get chased away with nothing. A woman who was used to the tranquillity of village life is upon widowhood and the subsequent eviction forced into the hustle and bustle of city...more
July 27, 2021, 8:22 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The fieldwork, as well as the review of the official data (from IBGE, the National Statistic Office), served as the basis for a series of discussions with grassroots women. These women expressed how touched they were by the home visit discussions, which reflected the fact that an immense amount of land remains concentrated in the hands of a very select group of people, white males being the majority. The group also began to reflect on the grave contradictions and this process was a great opportunity to further discuss the gender relations of power. Some such example were the prevalence of domestic violence in some communities, as well as the fact...more
July 16, 2021, 11:50 a.m.
Countries: Libya
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Although the law prohibits discrimination based on gender, there was widespread cultural, economic, and societal discrimination against women. Sharia governs family matters, including inheritance, divorce, and the right to own property" (p 25).
July 15, 2021, 4:32 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, LO-DATA-3

"Kenya's constitution states that all women have equal rights to own property, but in reality land is most often customarily passed from fathers to their sons, making it hard for women to own land. Women own less than 2% of all titled land in Kenya, according to the Kenya Land Alliance, an advocacy network."
June 23, 2021, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1

"I am destitute because my brothers refused to give me a share in our property" (para 5). "Islamic Shari’a law grants women a share in inheritance, but many families deprive Afghan women of this right that the Afghan state law also recognizes. The issue largely goes unreported, but it adversely affects the lives of many Afghan women and affords them few options for financial stability" (para 6). "In Tarin Kot, Zarmina, another widow, says she started begging after her brothers refused to give her a share in their ancestral property after her husband was killed in a clash last year"(para 20).
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Pursuant to article 70(1) of the Act of 29 August 1997 – Banking Law (Dz. U. of 2002, No 72, item 665, as amended), the bank shall make granting credit contingent upon the borrower’s creditworthiness, irrespective of the borrower’s sex. With respect to mortgage loans taken by married persons (irrespective of their sex), the provisions of article 37(1) of the Act of 25 February 1964 – The Family and Guardianship Code (Dz. U. of 2012, item 788) apply, which stipulate that for the performance of legal action resulting in encumbering a real property or the law of property over the building or premises the spousal consent is required" (72).more
May 18, 2021, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Traditional customs prevent women from owning property. Under Albanian laws, women can purchase and own property. However, these laws often go ignored. Because women are traditionally unable to sign as a 'head of the household' in legal affairs, it is incredibly difficult for women to become property owners" (para 3).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The international financial crisis has struck in recent years the entrepreneurial sector. From the data of the Bank of Italy (2008), it strongly emerges the restriction of credit and the associated problems’ of the banks to disburse it, which predominantly affects small and medium-sized enterprises and craft, where the female component is more present" (101).
April 20, 2021, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, SRACE-PRACTICE-2

"But Al-Sisi said the money needs to be increased 'as part of the money will be used to help Egyptian women live in a healthy home, have access to high-quality services, obtain soft-term loans from banks, and find jobs in small-scale productive projects'" (para 9).
April 6, 2021, 5:43 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Henry Lenayasa, chief of the administrative region where Umoja village is located, said the women's move to register their land is an example of a growing recognition of equal property rights among the Samburu" (para 14). "Kenya's constitution states that all women have equal rights to own property, but in reality land is most often customarily passed from fathers to their sons, making it hard for women to own land" (para 16). "The Samburu practice communal tenure, with all decisions on how land is used and allocated made by men" (para 18).
April 2, 2021, 8:59 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"A cook, a mother of three, and now a widow of an Afghan soldier, Nasiba faced pressure from her in-laws to move out. As a woman living in a non-planned area in Gozar 6 in Bamiyan province, she lacked proof of ownership and feared eviction" (para 2). "While Afghanistan's laws give women equal rights to own land and property, ignorance, weak law enforcement, and social norms have combined to deprive Afghan women of their property rights" (para 5).