The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LO-PRACTICE-1

Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Businesses, credit, property are not withheld from women. If a woman were to seek or get divorced, if the property is under her name it is hers. If the business is under her name, the business is hers. However, if she does not have property under her name nor a business, her children will be second in line to the property and business. If her husband dies, then the property is hers and her children" (1).
Sept. 29, 2021, 9:33 a.m.
Countries: Mali

"While the law provides for equal property rights, traditional practices and ignorance of the law prevented women from taking full advantage of their rights. The marriage contract must specify if the couple wishes to share estate rights. If marriage certificates of Muslim couples do not specify the type of marriage, judges presume the marriage to be polygynous" (23).
Sept. 14, 2021, 9:15 a.m.
Countries: Ghana

"The camp is densely populated by women who’ve similarly been accused of using 'black magic,' perhaps because they were successful farmers, were good in school, had profitable businesses, or dared to interfere with matters reserved only for men. Sometimes, even inevitable occurrences like deaths or illnesses in a village are enough to land a woman in exile. Widows left with land but without a man to protect their interests are particularly common targets. So are the mentally ill, or any other females deemed difficult or undesirable by their villages. 'To get me out of their community, [my husband’s family] accused me of using witchcraft,' says Tachira. 'I am a freeloader...more
Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Rural contract law and laws protecting women’s rights stipulate women enjoy equal rights in cases of land management, but experts asserted this was rarely the case due to the complexity of the law and difficulties in its implementation" (69).
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile

"Although women possess most of the same legal rights as men, the government did not enforce the law effectively, and discrimination in employment, pay, ownership and management of businesses, and education persisted. Certain laws defining the marital relationship enable discrimination. The default and most common marital arrangement is 'conjugal society,' which provides that a husband has the right to administer joint property, including his wife’s property, without consultation or written permission from his spouse, but a wife must demonstrate that her husband has granted his permission before she is permitted to make financial arrangements. Legislation remained pending years after a 2007 agreement with the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights to...more
Aug. 3, 2021, 12:21 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"African women are often excluded from social and economic plans -- safety nets they desperately need -- after the death of a spouse or dissolution of a marriage, experts from the World Bank said in a 2018 report. Nwakwesi, now a school proprietor in an upscale neighborhood in Lagos, said she had plans to grow her business after her husband's death but she had no means to source the funds. Over the years, she's also counseled and assisted widows after they were denied small business loans because they were not married. 'People think you won't be able to repay because now you are the only one bearing the responsibilities, but...more
July 30, 2021, 2:25 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women find it rough in relation to land both while still married and when widowed. At marriage many title deeds are in the names of husbands and at death it becomes easier for the women to lose out land to greedy in laws…" (Para 3). "Many women upon finding their matrimonial homes inhabitable run away to urban areas with their children to eke out a living, this sinks them into deeper poverty because upon deprivation of land, some women get chased away with nothing. A woman who was used to the tranquillity of village life is upon widowhood and the subsequent eviction forced into the hustle and bustle of city...more
July 27, 2021, 8:22 p.m.
Countries: Brazil
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The fieldwork, as well as the review of the official data (from IBGE, the National Statistic Office), served as the basis for a series of discussions with grassroots women. These women expressed how touched they were by the home visit discussions, which reflected the fact that an immense amount of land remains concentrated in the hands of a very select group of people, white males being the majority. The group also began to reflect on the grave contradictions and this process was a great opportunity to further discuss the gender relations of power. Some such example were the prevalence of domestic violence in some communities, as well as the fact...more
July 16, 2021, 11:50 a.m.
Countries: Libya
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Although the law prohibits discrimination based on gender, there was widespread cultural, economic, and societal discrimination against women. Sharia governs family matters, including inheritance, divorce, and the right to own property" (p 25).
July 15, 2021, 4:32 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, LO-DATA-3

"Kenya's constitution states that all women have equal rights to own property, but in reality land is most often customarily passed from fathers to their sons, making it hard for women to own land. Women own less than 2% of all titled land in Kenya, according to the Kenya Land Alliance, an advocacy network."
June 23, 2021, 4:08 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan

"I am destitute because my brothers refused to give me a share in our property" (para 5). "Islamic Shari’a law grants women a share in inheritance, but many families deprive Afghan women of this right that the Afghan state law also recognizes. The issue largely goes unreported, but it adversely affects the lives of many Afghan women and affords them few options for financial stability" (para 6). "In Tarin Kot, Zarmina, another widow, says she started begging after her brothers refused to give her a share in their ancestral property after her husband was killed in a clash last year"(para 20).
June 9, 2021, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Pursuant to article 70(1) of the Act of 29 August 1997 – Banking Law (Dz. U. of 2002, No 72, item 665, as amended), the bank shall make granting credit contingent upon the borrower’s creditworthiness, irrespective of the borrower’s sex. With respect to mortgage loans taken by married persons (irrespective of their sex), the provisions of article 37(1) of the Act of 25 February 1964 – The Family and Guardianship Code (Dz. U. of 2012, item 788) apply, which stipulate that for the performance of legal action resulting in encumbering a real property or the law of property over the building or premises the spousal consent is required" (72).more
May 18, 2021, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Traditional customs prevent women from owning property. Under Albanian laws, women can purchase and own property. However, these laws often go ignored. Because women are traditionally unable to sign as a 'head of the household' in legal affairs, it is incredibly difficult for women to become property owners" (para 3).
April 26, 2021, 11:49 a.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The international financial crisis has struck in recent years the entrepreneurial sector. From the data of the Bank of Italy (2008), it strongly emerges the restriction of credit and the associated problems’ of the banks to disburse it, which predominantly affects small and medium-sized enterprises and craft, where the female component is more present" (101).
April 20, 2021, 5:05 p.m.
Countries: Egypt

"But Al-Sisi said the money needs to be increased 'as part of the money will be used to help Egyptian women live in a healthy home, have access to high-quality services, obtain soft-term loans from banks, and find jobs in small-scale productive projects'" (para 9).
April 6, 2021, 5:43 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Henry Lenayasa, chief of the administrative region where Umoja village is located, said the women's move to register their land is an example of a growing recognition of equal property rights among the Samburu" (para 14). "Kenya's constitution states that all women have equal rights to own property, but in reality land is most often customarily passed from fathers to their sons, making it hard for women to own land" (para 16). "The Samburu practice communal tenure, with all decisions on how land is used and allocated made by men" (para 18).
April 2, 2021, 8:59 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"A cook, a mother of three, and now a widow of an Afghan soldier, Nasiba faced pressure from her in-laws to move out. As a woman living in a non-planned area in Gozar 6 in Bamiyan province, she lacked proof of ownership and feared eviction" (para 2). "While Afghanistan's laws give women equal rights to own land and property, ignorance, weak law enforcement, and social norms have combined to deprive Afghan women of their property rights" (para 5).
Feb. 27, 2021, 10:55 a.m.
Countries: Ukraine
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"According to the study of gender equality in the entrepreneurship carried out by the International Finance Corporation (IFC) it is more difficult to start a business for women in Ukraine because of lack of access to the resources. It is more difficult for a woman to get a bank loan. Privatization in Ukraine is actually passed by the women 95 per cent of the capital is concentrated in the hands of men, and only 5 per cent of women. Today, only 22 per cent of businesses in Ukraine are owned by women" (41).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee is concerned at the prevalence of customs and traditional practices that prevent rural women, especially women from scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, from inheriting or acquiring land and other property. It is also concerned at the difficulties faced by rural women and women living in remote areas in gaining access to health and social services and in participating in decision- making processes at the community level, in addition to the fact that rural women are particularly affected by poverty and food insecurity, lack of access to natural resources, safe water and credit facilities" (11). " The Committee recommends that the State party: (a) Abolish traditional practices and customs...more
Dec. 20, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women can also retain their own property and assets when married" (4).
Nov. 19, 2020, 9:29 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan

"The Committee is concerned at the prevalence of customs and traditional practices that limit the degree of involvement of rural women in development programmes and prevent them from inheriting or acquiring land and other property. It is concerned that rural women farmers are not recognized as such, because in the State party a farmer (kisan) is the person who owns land. The Committee is also concerned at the difficulties faced by rural women in gaining access to health and social services and in participating in decision-making processes at the community level... It is concerned about the persistence of child and forced marriages and at the fact that the minimum age...more
Oct. 30, 2020, 10:45 p.m.
Countries: India

"The Committee is concerned at the prevalence of customs and traditional practices that prevent rural women, especially women from scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, from inheriting or acquiring land and other property" (Article 32).
Oct. 27, 2020, 10:03 p.m.
Countries: Ghana

"The Committee is also concerned about the prevalence of harmful practices such as early marriages in rural areas and about the persistence of traditional customs limiting women’s access to inheritance and land" (Article 38).
Oct. 22, 2020, 2:22 p.m.
Countries: Armenia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"60% of people working in agriculture are women, and they often face discrimination. The production resources such as the land, workforce, credits, capital and the control of these resources are not fully available for women. Although, there is no discrimination in the right of ownership in Armenian legislation, agricultural economies (according to Armenian legislation each unit of rural household that produces agricultural goods) are controlled by the head of the household.132 According to statistics in 2014 the proportion of the heads of households by their gender is 27% women and 73% men133. So in the 73% of rural economies all the production resources are controlled by men. It is practical...more
Oct. 21, 2020, 2 p.m.
Countries: Bolivia

"There is further concern about the lack of information on customary laws and practices in the area of inheritance and measures to ensure that customary law upholds women’s access to inheritance, including inheritance of land, as well as on measures taken to ensure recognition of unremunerated domestic work within the distribution of marital property" (Article 38).
Oct. 21, 2020, 12:14 p.m.
Countries: Benin

"The Committee expresses deep concern that harmful practices, such as child and forced marriages, polygamy, female genital mutilation, widowhood practices, levirate and sororate, purification rites for adulterous women and killings of so-called “witch children”, continue to be prevalent and go unpunished, the comprehensive legislative framework notwithstanding. The Committee is concerned that the customary practice of excluding women from inheriting agricultural land remains dominant in rural areas and that women continue to face practical difficulties in gaining access to both land and credit. Furthermore, the Committee is concerned about the persistence of customary laws and practices, including the prevalence of de facto polygamous marriages, although such laws are no longer valid...more
Oct. 19, 2020, 3:51 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh

"The Committee is also concerned that customary and traditional practices, prevalent in rural areas, prevent women from inheriting or acquiring ownership of land and other property" (Article 35).
Sept. 26, 2020, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia

“E.S. and Others v. Slovakia (application no. 8227/04) (15 September 2009): In 2001 the applicant left her husband and lodged a criminal complaint against him for ill-treating her and her children and sexually abusing one of their daughters. He was convicted of violence and sexual abuse two years later. Her request for her husband to be ordered to leave their home was dismissed, however, the court finding that it did not have the power to restrict her husband’s access to the property (she could only end the tenancy when divorced). The applicant and her children were therefore forced to move away from their friends and family. The Court found that...more
Sept. 26, 2020, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Hungary

“Kalucza v. Hungary (24 April 2012): The case concerns Hungary’s failure to protect the applicant from her abusive former partner with whom she unwillingly shares her flat pending numerous civil disputes concerning its ownership. The Court found a violation of Article 8 (right to respect for private life) because the Hungarian authorities had not taken sufficient measures for the applicant’s effective protection from her former partner’s violent behaviour, despite criminal complaints lodged against him for assault, repeated requests for a restraining order against him and civil proceedings to order his eviction from their flat” (3).
Aug. 30, 2020, 9:08 p.m.
Countries: Armenia

"The 2011 survey conducted by the National Statistical Service of Armenia and the UNFPA also highlights such ways of violence against women as economic disempowerment, including economic deprivation (e.g. witholding of money, confiscation of earnings and savings, forbidding a woman to work)" (para 11).