The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LO-PRACTICE-1

Nov. 18, 2022, 4:17 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women in Singapore on average hold S$76,500 ($56,100) in investments, compared to S$93,200 for Singaporean men, according to a survey by Fidelity International ahead of International Women’s Day" (para 2). "The study found 58% of women in Singapore hold their finances in their own name" (para 5). "‘This disparity is a result of women not having enough financial knowledge and confidence in managing their own money,’ Gan said. She noted that only 47% were confident about their ability to make the right decisions about where to invest their money, compared to 61% for men" (para 9).
Nov. 18, 2022, 4:13 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women entrepreneurs have succeeded in a wide range of industries across Singapore’s economy" (2). "...Women-owned businesses are underrepresented in Singapore, constituting only 27% of all businesses, and 13% of sales" (2). "To achieve success, these women entrepreneurs have had to overcome barriers in addition to those that their male counterparts typically face. The recommended steps in this report can help to address these barriers, in turn enabling more women to realize their full potential and help significantly grow the economy" (12).
Nov. 18, 2022, 10:34 a.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"Women have the same legal status and rights as men, including under family, labor, religious, personal status and nationality, property, inheritance, employment, access to credit, and owning and managing businesses and property laws. Little discrimination was reported in employment, ownership and management of businesses, or access to credit, education, or housing" (15).
Nov. 17, 2022, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Women are extremely important contributors to food sovereignty in the rural areas in Sierra Leone. However, they have usually no legal title to land. Even if statutory laws might allow women to be landowners, women have to confront another patriarchic system closer to their homes. Customary laws often give men most decision-making and ownership power over land issues. On top of that, Paramount Chiefs are the custodian of the land according to customary law in Sierra Leone. Chiefs are the uncontested leaders within the boundaries of their territories" (para 5-6). "In Sierra Leone, customary law sits alongside statutory law, but in rural areas, where there is little access to statutory...more
Nov. 17, 2022, 10:42 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Namely, the system of automatic joint registration of property has not been established, and written consent of the other spouse before any legal affair including marital property is not mandatory sought. Such legal solutions are unfavourable to women, because due to traditional views property is mainly registered on the man’s name" (6). "Furthermore, in Serbia there is no adequate support to the development of women’s entrepreneurship, and the majority of women do not have enough starting capital, which is a precondition for getting a credit. Banks mostly do not have specialized products or services for women, nor any of those for rural women" (14). "If a woman wishes to register...more
Nov. 15, 2022, 11:08 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, men owned the major assets of most households, particularly those at the lower end of the economic spectrum, making bank credit inaccessible to many women and rendering it difficult to start or expand a business" (25).
Nov. 15, 2022, 11:05 p.m.
Countries: Rwanda
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Even today, women in Rwanda are prevented from accessing land ownership by numerous cultural, economic, customary and social constraints. Patriarchy as well as deeply rooted gender stereotypes are particularly prevalent in rural areas. Recent research shows that women’s ability to participate in decisions about shared marital land remains limited" (para 1).
Nov. 10, 2022, 12:01 p.m.
Countries: Dominican Republic
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"[T]he Committee is concerned about the low percentage in social spending compared with other countries in the region. It also notes with concern that women migrant workers employed in the informal economy who are in an irregular situations are unable to access the banking system, and that banks give priority to married women when authorizing loans. The Committee further notes with concern that official microcredit programmes fail to cover women with disabilities" (11).
Oct. 28, 2022, 8:02 p.m.
Countries: Congo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Women experienced discrimination in divorce settlements, specifically regarding property and financial assets. The law considers the man the head of the household, unless the father becomes incapacitated or abandons the family. The law dictates that in the absence of an agreement between spouses, men shall choose the residence of the family. Women experienced economic discrimination with respect to employment, credit, equal pay, and owning or managing businesses" (20).
Oct. 28, 2022, 12:47 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, DV-DATA-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2, PW-PRACTICE-3

"As men control decision making in households, women having control over resources such as land titles is regarded as taboo. In addition, polygamous practices also present challenges to women’s decision-making roles and opportunities, as a woman’s status within her household can become a source of tension. One male respondent shared that, 'a woman with land under her name is dangerous—I will never allow my wife to be friends with her.' In fact, communities reported that domestic violence can take place in front of family members and children as a means to enforce 'discipline' over wives" (para 11).
Oct. 28, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Every day, in defiance of the law, Congolese women are driven away from land that rightfully belongs to them — sometimes by neighbors, often by their own families, and too often with impunity. 'Women’s access to land remains an enormous challenge in Congolese society, particularly in the eastern DRC,' explains Me Aline Bahati, attorney and coordinator of the Panzi Foundation’s legal clinic. 'Some antiquated customs maintain that a woman, a simple homemaker, has no right to any property, and that she is destined solely for marriage'" (para 1).
Oct. 21, 2022, 9:38 p.m.
Countries: Cuba
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"In Cuba, both men and women have equal rights in access to resources (land, property, goods, etc.). With respect to land, agrarian laws declare the equal right to land for both sexes. Regardless, in practice many more men own land than women, as well as participate in cooperatives and hold managerial positions in cooperatives. This is again due to patriarchal norms and beliefs that recognize and value men's work in agriculture, while undervaluing the role of women" (14).
Oct. 21, 2022, 6:23 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"...It can be difficult for women to use their land as collateral, and the insecurity can adversely affect labor choices" (2). "Unlike customary marriage, where women are typically absorbed into the husband’s family and are granted limited or no rights to household assets, civil (or statutory) marriage can lead to a fundamental redistribution of property rights within the household" (2).
Oct. 21, 2022, 4:21 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"In Côte d'Ivoire, nearly all rural land is currently held and transferred according to the rules and norms of customary law, which disadvantage women. The bill would protect the rights of both spouses to manage and dispose of marital property" (para 5).
Oct. 14, 2022, 6:24 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"The gender analysis provided a better understanding of the realities faced by Costa Rican women and yielded quantitative and qualitative data on gender roles, gaps, and opportunities. At the local and national level, women face gender inequalities in relation to land tenure, participation in decision making, training and access to information, access to and control of economic resources, and childcare responsibilities" (30). "Programs designed to strengthen agroforestry systems and extension services provided should take account of the differences in size between the farms of men and women to ensure that the models and practices proposed for these systems and services can be implemented across the full range of farms. This...more
Oct. 7, 2022, 6:09 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-1

"Since her divorce six years ago, Xhani has lived with constant financial insecurity, trying to find jobs that paid her enough to raise her son by herself. Things got worse when two years ago her former father-in-law registered the house under his name without her knowledge, and tried to get her evicted" (para 2).
Sept. 30, 2022, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"There is no information to suggest that there are customary, religious or traditional practices that challenge women’s legal property rights" (8). "There is no information indicating that gender discrimination is an issue in access to formal financial services" (9).
Sept. 30, 2022, 8:45 p.m.
Countries: Poland
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Up to 71 percent of Polish women consider themselves financially independent while another 40 percent have their own savings, according to new research" (para 1). "Nearly half (48 percent) of the women share a budget with their partner through which all expenses are financed. Outside the common budget, 23 percent have funds to finance their own needs" (para 3-4).
Sept. 30, 2022, 8:32 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"By law women enjoy the same legal status and rights as men, including property and inheritance rights and religious and personal status, but regime officials did not enforce the law. Communities around the country implemented customary law to address matters of marriage, property, and inheritance that differed from the provisions of statutory law and which was often discriminatory against women" (33).
Sept. 30, 2022, 8:26 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-LAW-1

"The participants discussed the gap between the law and the reality women often face. The current laws actually permit registration of land by women, even if they are not the head of household, as well as co-registration. However, gender biased practices and beliefs lead to women being excluded from land governance. Women cannot participate in land governance if land is never registered in their name or if women are not adequately included in regular village meetings. As one member of a Mon State women’s organisation put it 'as women are rarely head of households, they are relegated to a secondary role in land issues'" (para 5).
Sept. 29, 2022, 7:16 p.m.
Countries: Burkina Faso
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, LO-DATA-1

"Access to land for women is complex in Burkina Faso. Social and economic constraints limit their access, the legal land tenure system is arcane, and customary rights favor men. Often, sites for bio-reclamation are gifted, and women working these fields are at risk of losing the fruit of their labor once the land is fertile again. Partnering with the National Observatory for Land Tenure in Burkina Faso (ONF-BF), the USAD|REGIS-ER project, which NCBA CLUSA implements in both Burkina Faso and Niger, has sought to secure land rights for women’s groups by obtaining formal documents like APFRs. With formal tenure, women are guaranteed the benefits from the lands they have restored...more
Sept. 28, 2022, 10:07 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"To begin with, startups tend to have a 10% success rate after their first year of business, this is due to many reasons, such as legal, financial or administrative issues. There is a common culture of informal business in Peru, which compromises many of the companies and sets them for failure. Now, from those startups, around 32.5% are founded by at least one woman and are valued 40% higher than those founded by men" (para 5). "Although these figures are promising, women still face many challenges, such as finding funding, being accepted and treated the same way as men at the workforce, and more specifically, there is much ignorance and...more
Sept. 28, 2022, 4:49 p.m.
Countries: North Korea
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Houses are allocated by the state, and when both the bride and groom have houses, they can choose to live in the bigger house" (para 12). This indicates that the bride could have had her own home prior to marriage (SFR - CODER COMMENT).
Sept. 26, 2022, 7:40 p.m.
Countries: Panama
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"IFC (the private sector arm of the World Bank Group), recently pioneered a new partnership with Global Bank in Panama to launch the first ever mortgage product targeted specifically toward women . The aim is to create opportunities that will tackle the two interconnected issues of housing finance for women and supporting women-owned businesses. The initiative will address the fact that women-owned businesses in Panama currently have less access to loans because they lack the real estate collateral that financial institutions require" (para 5).
Sept. 26, 2022, 7:04 p.m.
Countries: New Zealand
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1

"The law provides for the same legal status and rights for women and men, including under family, religious, personal status, labor, property, nationality, and inheritance laws. The government effectively enforced the law" (11).
Sept. 26, 2022, 7 p.m.
Countries: Paraguay
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"There are several measures in place to protect women’s rights to property, which are especially directed towards rural women. The 1992 Constitution ensures women’s participation in reform plans on the basis of equality with men, and support for rural women, particularly those heads of households... However, gender stereotypes continue to limit women’s access to agricultural extension and land titles" (8).
Sept. 23, 2022, 5:08 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAW-LAW-1

"Until now, the country’s land policy excluded married women from owning land, only allowing them to do so indirectly through their spouses - a situation that left them exposed in the event of being widowed since local inheritance laws hadn't only excluded women, but actually treated them as part of a man’s estate. Tshegofatso Mokibelo, a widowed 38-old financial analyst, said she had been denied land for residential use because her late husband's piece of land had been seized by his family" (para 3-4).
Sept. 23, 2022, 12:56 p.m.
Countries: Botswana
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Botswana has a pluralistic legal system comprised of five primary sources namely, the Constitution, Roman Dutch law, statutory law, Case law and Customary law. Customary law in Botswana generally puts women on a subordinate position in comparison with men. Women have limited authority in their homes, tribes or clans and over immovable and movable property" (2). "...The Committee is concerned, however, about the disproportionate levels of poverty among women and the limited access for women to land and housing..." (12).
Sept. 23, 2022, 8:43 a.m.
Countries: Bolivia
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1

"Nevertheless, FAO reports the unequal access to inheritance as a result of discriminatory cultural values, usually depending on the country’sregion, which also impact access to land. The Plan Nacional de Políticas Públicas para el Pleno Ejercicio de los Derechos de la Mujer mentions as one of its objectives to increase women’s access to land property" (8).
Sept. 22, 2022, 9:17 p.m.
Countries: Bhutan
Variables: LO-PRACTICE-1, IAD-PRACTICE-1, IAD-LAW-1, ATFPA-PRACTICE-2

"Under national law, men and women share equal rights. Equal rights for inheritance to male and female children are stipulated through the 1980 Inheritance Act. However, customary practices may determine ground-level reality. This can benefit women, depending on whether they are part of matrilineal (western and central regions) or patrilineal (south and east) systems found in Bhutan. Nevertheless, in general women enjoy more freedom and equality than many other developing countries. This extends to land ownership, which is often registered in the names of women. In economic terms there are a couple of qualifications here. Firstly, the land market is small, and women are less likely than men to use...more