The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRCM-LAW-2

Sept. 13, 2021, 2:24 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law does not safeguard same-sex couples or victims of marital rape" (64). "The law [in Macau] criminalizes rape, including spousal rape" (140).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law. Most persons convicted received prison sentences of five to 12 years. The law also criminalizes domestic violence. It authorizes prosecution of a violent family member and provides victims with 'safety orders,' which prohibit the offender from engaging in violent actions or threats, and “barring orders” (restraining orders), which prohibit an offender from entering the family home for up to three years. Anyone found guilty of violating a barring or an interim protection order may receive a fine of up to 4,000 euros ($4,400), a prison sentence of 12 months, or both. In January the government began enforcing...more
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The EVAW presidential decree was first issued in 2009 and was reinforced by another presidential decree in 2018. Implementation and awareness of the law remain a serious challenge. The law criminalizes 22 acts of violence against women, including rape; battery or beating; forced marriage; humiliation; intimidation; and deprivation of inheritance. The penal code criminalizes rape of both women and men. The law provides for a minimum sentence of five to 16 years’ imprisonment for conviction of rape, or up to 20 years if one or more aggravating circumstances is present. If the act results in the death of the victim, the law provides for a death sentence for the perpetrator....more
Sept. 5, 2021, 3:59 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2, IIP-LAW-2

"Marital rape is still legal, and women say restraining orders are rarely enforced" (para 7).
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Penalties for rape and sexual assault depend on the age of the victim. For rape of an adult, the penalty is three to 10 years in prison. The law includes provisions on sexual assault and criminalizes spousal rape" (p 17).
Aug. 23, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law provides for life imprisonment for persons convicted of rape, including spousal rape during periods of legal separation" (p 21).
Aug. 20, 2021, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Spousal rape is not specifically mentioned in the penal code, but the underlying conduct can be prosecuted as 'rape,' 'causing injury,' or 'indecent assault'" (21).
Aug. 17, 2021, 2:50 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law specifically prohibits spousal rape" (p 17).
Aug. 10, 2021, 11:35 a.m.
Countries: Greece
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Under a law that took effect July 1, rape, including spousal rape, is a crime punishable by 10 years to life imprisonment in cases with multiple perpetrators or if the rape results in the victim’s death"(21).
Aug. 6, 2021, 4:21 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law does not explicitly recognize spousal rape, and authorities seldom prosecuted it. Victims often sought to deal with the rape within the family or were pressured to do so, and many victims did not report spousal rape due to fear of retribution, including loss of economic support" (p 15).
Aug. 6, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Spousal rape is not illegal"(43).
Aug. 6, 2021, 11:54 a.m.
Countries: Chile
Variables: LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape. Penalties for rape range from five to 15 years’ imprisonment, and the government generally enforced the law when violations were reported" (9).
Aug. 2, 2021, 4:01 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes all forms of rape of men or women, regardless of the relationship between the victim and the accused" (p 21).
July 27, 2021, 4:39 p.m.
Countries: Madagascar
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape but does not address spousal rape" (p 20).
July 23, 2021, 2:27 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal. The penalties for rape range from one to 15 years’ imprisonment, but those laws were poorly enforced" (P 26).
July 16, 2021, 11:50 a.m.
Countries: Libya
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape but does not address spousal rape" (p 21).
July 13, 2021, 1:26 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with a maximum sentence of life in prison for violations. The government enforced the law effectively" (p 15).
July 13, 2021, 1:26 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, DV-LAW-1

"Lebanon outlawed sexual harassment and reformed its domestic violence law in December but it does not criminalise marital rape and personal laws administered by religious courts discriminate against women in matters like divorce and child custody"(para 15).
July 9, 2021, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, defilement, sexual violence within marriage, and sex tourism, but enforcement remained limited" (p 33).
July 1, 2021, 2:54 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"There are also exceptions, called 'carve-outs,' to consider. Some states may not apply these parental rights [for rapists] laws if, say, the person convicted of sexual assault is the spouse of the victim at the time of the attack or if they were cohabiting after the assault" (para 10).
June 29, 2021, 11:26 a.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape" (p 39).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The Committee is concerned, however, about the...Retention in the Penal Code of an exemption from punishment when a rape is committed by the victim’s husband if the wife is above 15 years of age" (3). "The Committee urges the State party...To amend the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, ensuring that marital rape is defined as a criminal offence, as requested by the Committee in its previous concluding observations (CEDAW/C/IND/CO/3, para. 23), expanding the scope of protection of the law to cover all prohibited grounds of discrimination and defining gang rape as constituting an aggravating factor meriting a more severe punishment" (3-4).
Jan. 26, 2021, 2:55 p.m.
Countries: Equatorial Guinea
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-LAW-2, DV-PRACTICE-2

“Rape is illegal and punishable by 12 to 20 years of imprisonment, but the law does not address spousal rape. Furthermore, in most cases, authorities fail to prosecute the guilty party. According to the U.S. Department of State, police and the judicial system in Equatorial Guinea are more likely to treat domestic violence as a private matter to be resolved in the home” (para 6).
Dec. 23, 2020, 2:28 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The Justice Verma Committee, including several eminent, retired members of the judiciary and legal experts, was set up in the aftermath of the December rape, to make recommendations on the rape laws. Rejecting the Verma Committee’s strong appeal that marital rape be made an offense under the law, the Standing Committee on Home said that (a) the Indian family system would be disturbed; (b) there were practical difficulties; and (c) marriage presumes consent" (para 12).
Sept. 26, 2020, 6:47 p.m.
Countries: Kuwait
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"Kuwait has no laws on domestic violence and does not explicitly criminalize marital rape" (para 18).
Sept. 26, 2020, 4:34 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRCM-LAW-1, LRCM-LAW-2, MURDER-PRACTICE-1, IIP-PRACTICE-1, ATDW-PRACTICE-2, ATDW-LAW-5, DSFMF-LAW-1, DV-PRACTICE-1, DV-PRACTICE-2

“N. v. Sweden (no. 23505/09) (20 July 2010): The applicant, an Afghan national having an extra-marital affair with a man in Sweden, maintained that she risked social exclusion, long imprisonment or even death if returned to Afghanistan. Her applications for asylum were unsuccessful. The Court found that the applicant’s deportation from Sweden to Afghanistan would constitute a violation of Article 3 (prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment) of the Convention. It noted that women were at particular risk of ill-treatment in Afghanistan if perceived as not conforming to the gender roles ascribed to them by society, tradition and even the legal system. The mere fact that the applicant...more
Sept. 15, 2020, 2:32 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

"The new criminal code creates a presumption of consent to sex between married couples, which could prevent victims of marital rape from pursuing successful prosecutions" (para 28).
Sept. 4, 2020, 9:43 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

""Women still face discrimination under 15 separate religion-based personal status laws and both child marriage and marital rape remain legal" (para 3). "A 2014 Law on the Protection of Women and Family from Domestic Violence established important protection measures and introduced policing and court reforms but failed to criminalize all forms of domestic violence, including marital rape" (para 20).
Sept. 2, 2020, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-LAW-4, LRCM-LAW-2

"Section 277 of Thailand’s Criminal Code, B.E 2499 (1956) provides marital immunity for sexual intercourse with girls under the age of 15 who are said to ‘consent’, and allows a man who rapes a girl between the ages of 13 to 15 to escape punishment by marrying the victim" (para 1) "Section 277 [Of the Criminmal Code]: Whoever has sexual intercourse with a girl not yet over fifteen years of age and not being his own wife, whether such girl shall consent or not, shall be punished with imprisonment of four to twenty years and fined of eight thousand to forty thousand Baht. If the commission of the offence according...more
Aug. 16, 2020, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: LRCM-LAW-2

They also called for a removal of the exemption of penalties for rape of married Muslim girls above the age of 12 (para 20).