The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRCM-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 22, 2023, 8:51 a.m.
Countries: Angola
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Limited investigative resources, poor forensic capabilities, and an ineffective judicial system prevented prosecution of most cases" (18).
Aug. 15, 2023, 5:22 p.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"[T]he law does not protect against spousal rape unless the couple is separated, in the process of divorce, or if there is a restraining order in place" (12).
Aug. 8, 2023, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Despite the efforts made by the State in this area, difficulties in access to the law and justice remain an undeniable reality because a large part of the female population cannot afford the cost of services provided by court officials (deposits, bailiffs’ fees, lawyers’ fees)." (5). "Article 34-2 of Organic Act No. 2017-09 of 17 January 2017 on the Supreme Court states: 'The petitioner of a cassation appeal shall be required to submit a deposit to cover the payment of fixed stamp and registration duties. Failure to do so shall result in the petitioner being barred and, consequently, forfeiting the appeal. Except in cases provided for in other laws, legal...more
July 30, 2023, 5:25 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia

"Once married, a Saudi woman must obey her husband. She may not 'withhold herself' from her husband. She must breastfeed her children; this is a legal obligation owed to her husband." (Parag. 14)
July 25, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Cambodia

"[T]he law on the prevention of domestic violence [needs to be reviewed] and criminalize all forms of gender-based violence, including domestic violence and marital rape, to facilitate the process of obtaining protection orders and to ensure that victims/survivors of domestic violence have access to effective remedies and that perpetrators are held accountable" (8). This indicates that some forms of violence are criminalized and protective orders are not currently available to victims (MV- coder comment).
July 12, 2023, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia

""Once married, a Saudi woman must obey her husband. She may not “withhold herself” from her husband. She must breastfeed her children; this is a legal obligation owed to her husband." (Parag. 14)
July 10, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Maldives
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Both MOGFSS and the FPA are increasing efforts to partner with the Ministry of Islamic Affairs to mobilise gender equality champions among religious leaders on key concepts, including marital rape." (12). "Gender sensitization of officers enrolled in the Maldives Police Service was conducted over a four-month period in 2017, reaching a total of 219 police officers. In addition, MOGFSS conducted Training of Trainers on Gender Equality of senior officials for both government and government companies." (12)(NF - CODER COMMENT - Training provided to officers may help in the reporting process since officers will now have a better understanding of how to deal with victims). "The AGO and the PGO, as...more
June 20, 2023, 9:30 p.m.
Countries: Nicaragua
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Special Police Units for Women had been operating in Nicaragua since 1996 to support women, children and adolescents in situations of domestic and sexual violence. In 2006, this became a national specialism when the Directorate of the Special Police Unit for Women and Children was created (provision 023/06). In 2007, investigation, prevention, information and criminal analysis were enhanced. The work of the special units received national and international recognition in 2012. All psychologists have specialized as forensic psychologists and all social workers have received specialist training in social inquiry. The network of promoters and volunteers has been expanded, with 4,080 trained in prevention and victim support at 162 of the...more
May 19, 2023, 2:31 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"While many of the affected girls as young as age 4 got married to men old enough to be their grandfathers, others were forcefully raped by their new husbands and got pregnant before becoming teenagers" (Para.5). "For Beatrice Okumo, she was sold to her parents’ creditor after they had gotten a badly-needed loan from him to settle some hospital bills. She was later used as collateral for their debts. The creditor was even older than Beatrice’s father. She was told that she was going to take care of a baby and not that she was given as debt settlement. At the age of 11, the creditor-husband overpowered and forced himself...more
April 19, 2023, 5:18 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Kereen Odate, Acting Director at the Center for Women’s Development at Medgar Evers College in New York, says black women are reluctant to discuss sexual and domestic abuse for fear of 'vilifying the black man.'" (para 27). "Odate says there has always been something of an unexplored history of sexually dysfunctional behavior in the black community that dates back to slavery. For example, Odate cites mating practices that forced black male slaves to have intercourse with female slaves as the origin of shame that keeps black communities silence about domestic and sexual abuse to this very day. 'You were raped,' Odate says, 'but you weren’t raped because it was for...more
April 1, 2023, 9:26 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"[I]n 2017, the legislation adopted included:...the Natural and Legal Persons’ Petitions Act (new version) of 11 September 2017... "(3)(NF - CODER COMMENT - The law stipulates that women should not be rejected from voicing their concers. This also prohibits government officials from refusing to provide hotlines, conferences, or other forms of communication to citizens. Under this law, the government cannot shut down hotlines). "...and in 2019 the legislation adopted included: the Protection of Victims, Witnesses and Other Participants in Criminal Proceedings Act of 14 January 2019…"(4)(NF - CODER COMMENT - This act protects not only the victim(s), but also their family, witnesses, prosecutors/defenders, and others invovled in the case). "Uzbekistan...more
March 31, 2023, 2:31 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The lack of progress made in ensuring that gender-based violence against women in the domestic sphere and marital rape are explicitly criminalized in national legislation" (6).
March 8, 2023, 1:43 p.m.
Countries: Montenegro

"[T]here was not a single reported case of marital rape qualified as a criminal offense. Prosecutors treated such cases as 'sexual harassment' in accordance with the Law on Protection from Domestic Violence" (12).
Feb. 24, 2023, 12:54 p.m.
Countries: Nepal

"The continuous hearing provision of the District Court Rules, 1996, has been effectively implemented since 2013 to ensure speedy justice in cases of women victims and survivors of violence. Guidelines on in-camera hearing and maintaining confidentiality of the victims of violence has been formulated and the justice sector actors have been trained on effective implementation of such Guidelines. Similarly, case flow management, calendar based court proceedings, mobilization of specific task force for the enforcement of Supreme Court judgments are some strategic interventions of the judiciary to enhance the access to justice." (9). "Significant efforts to build national capacity to respond violence against women have been bringing encouraging results so far....more
Feb. 18, 2023, 10:44 a.m.
Countries: Bahamas
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"A Supreme Court judge has ruled that though a woman who filed for divorce claimed she felt like a rape victim 'for an extensive period of time' when her spouse had sex with her, as it stands there can be no rape in marriage in The Bahamas" (Para.1). "The woman filed for divorce on the basis of cruelty in June 2021.The woman alleged her husband subjected her to emotional and mental abuse throughout the marriage by repeatedly having sex with her against her will and 'indicated she was afraid he would one day snap'. The husband denied the allegation, countering that he wanted the marriage dissolved because his wife had...more
Feb. 18, 2023, 10:34 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"It is not just the statute of limitations that needs to change, according to campaigners. The definition of rape in Nepal’s penal code only recognises a crime committed by a male against a female, and not against people of other genders. Nonconsensual sexual acts are not included within the definition of rape, and marital rape receives a lesser punishment" (Para.10).
Feb. 6, 2023, 12:07 p.m.
Countries: Kyrgyzstan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The Committee [on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women] recommends that the State party…encourage reporting of gender-based violence to law enforcement bodies" (6). This indicates that there are taboos against reporting violence against women such as marital rape and sexual assault (AMC - CODER COMMENT).
Feb. 4, 2023, 6:14 p.m.
Countries: Namibia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

Table 1 produced by the Office of the Judiciary breaksdown the quantity of magistrates and their respective courts along side the number of periodical courts throughout the country. There are approximately 34 magistrate courts with 89 magistrates controlling them with another 37 periodocial courts, but even with these numbers, the government of Namibia acknowledges that there has been no official survey into whether or not the large number of courts available actually lowers the barriers that women face when reporting crimes (11). "The state party enacted the Witness Protection Act 11 of 2017 in early 2018 to adequately protect witnesses who testify against persons accused of violence against women among...more
Jan. 6, 2023, 5:48 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Soheila Abadi, now 25, was hanged in prison after she was convicted of killing her husband over 'family disputes' according to the sentencing courts. Two other women executed on Wednesday were also convicted of murdering their husbands, Human Rights Watch said. Activists claim that most incidents of wives killing their husbands are sparked by domestic violence but the Iranian courts do not take this into account" (para 2-4). "Under Iranian law, the death penalty can be imposed for financial crimes, rape and armed robbery" (para 18).
Dec. 26, 2022, 4:41 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"While many of the affected girls as young as age 4 got married to men old enough to be their grandfathers, others were forcefully raped by their new husbands and got pregnant before becoming teenagers" (para 5).
Oct. 7, 2022, 4:17 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law makes rape, including spousal rape, illegal, with a penalty of three to 10 years’ imprisonment for violations. The government generally enforced the law when the victim chose to press charges and if the cases were not settled out of court through mediation" (11).
July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Although marital rape or incest are not covered by specific provisions, family relationship – including de facto unions – is constituting of an aggravating factor in cases sexual aggression (art. 173 and art. 182 of the Penal Code), raising the minimum and maximum sentence incurred" (16). "Despite these provisions, the sexual violence reporting rate remains low and the prosecution of rape within marriage is nearly inexistent in practice83 mainly due to the absence of reporting by victims" (16).
May 27, 2022, 11:45 a.m.
Countries: Serbia

"Rape of men and women, including spousal rape, is punishable by up to 40 years in prison. The government did not enforce the law effectively" (25).
March 28, 2022, 8:57 p.m.
Countries: Latvia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Because the Ministry of Justice does not distinguish between spousal rape and nonspousal rape cases, whether any spousal rape case has been prosecuted was hard to determine" (12).
Feb. 11, 2022, 5 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law permits authorities to prosecute spousal rape, and prosecutions occurred" (31).
Jan. 21, 2022, 9:22 p.m.
Countries: Mauritania
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal. Rapists who are single men face penalties of imprisonment, forced labor, and whipping, and married rapists are subject to the death penalty, although this penalty has not been enforced since 1987. The government regularly enforced the law; 50 persons were charged and about one-half of them were sentenced to between five to 10 years’ imprisonment" (15).
Jan. 15, 2022, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes the rape of men or women, including spousal rape and domestic violence. The law was in most cases effectively enforced" (13).
Jan. 14, 2022, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Belize
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-2

"Domestic violence was often prosecuted with charges such as harm, wounding, grievous harm, rape, and marital rape, but allegations of domestic violence were treated as civil matters. Police, prosecutors, and judges recognized both physical violence and mental injury as evidence of domestic violence. Penalties include fines or imprisonment for violations. The law empowers the Family Court to issue protection orders against accused offenders" (11).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan

"The law criminalizes various forms of rape, regardless of the gender of a victim. The law also criminalizes custodial rape of a minor younger than age 18. The law does not deny the possibility of spousal rape, but no court has ever ruled on such a case, except in situations of marital breakdown (i.e., formal or informal separation, etc.). The law mandates a minimum sentence of five years in prison for rape convictions. Prosecutors must prove that violence or intimidation was involved or that the victim was incapable of resistance..." (16).
Jan. 6, 2022, 2:46 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"While the sexual offenses law was passed in Puntland, 'the cases of rape have appear to spike.' Clearly showing no enforcement. According to Mohamed, 'the lesson from the sad story of Puntland’s Sexual Offenses Act is that while formal laws can be vital in influencing attitudes, attitudes and behavior also influence how a law is enforced.' The passage of the law was a great start. But what the past year has made clear is that we also need to start changing attitudes in Puntland and the region more broadly, or else these much celebrated legal advances for women will be rendered meaningless" (para 3, 14).