The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRCM-PRACTICE-1

Jan. 15, 2022, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes the rape of men or women, including spousal rape and domestic violence. The law was in most cases effectively enforced" (13).
Jan. 14, 2022, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Belize
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-2

"Domestic violence was often prosecuted with charges such as harm, wounding, grievous harm, rape, and marital rape, but allegations of domestic violence were treated as civil matters. Police, prosecutors, and judges recognized both physical violence and mental injury as evidence of domestic violence. Penalties include fines or imprisonment for violations. The law empowers the Family Court to issue protection orders against accused offenders" (11).
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes various forms of rape, regardless of the gender of a victim. The law also criminalizes custodial rape of a minor younger than age 18. The law does not deny the possibility of spousal rape, but no court has ever ruled on such a case, except in situations of marital breakdown (i.e., formal or informal separation, etc.). The law mandates a minimum sentence of five years in prison for rape convictions. Prosecutors must prove that violence or intimidation was involved or that the victim was incapable of resistance..." (16).
Jan. 6, 2022, 2:46 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"While the sexual offenses law was passed in Puntland, 'the cases of rape have appear to spike.' Clearly showing no enforcement. According to Mohamed, 'the lesson from the sad story of Puntland’s Sexual Offenses Act is that while formal laws can be vital in influencing attitudes, attitudes and behavior also influence how a law is enforced.' The passage of the law was a great start. But what the past year has made clear is that we also need to start changing attitudes in Puntland and the region more broadly, or else these much celebrated legal advances for women will be rendered meaningless" (para 3, 14).
Jan. 4, 2022, 11:45 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law effectively" (11).
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"According to NGOs, many law enforcement personnel and prosecutors did not consider spousal or acquaintance rape a priority and did not encourage reporting or prosecuting such cases" (53).
Nov. 10, 2021, 10:14 p.m.
Countries: Cuba
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law specifically criminalizes rape of women, including spousal rape... The government often enforced both laws" (27).
Nov. 9, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The government did not effectively or fully enforce these laws or protect victims. For example, in May human rights lawyer Muzeyyen Boylu Issi was shot and killed by her husband in front of their children, after having survived two previous attempts on her life and filing for divorce and a protection order. As of November the husband, Mesut Issi, was in prison pending trial" (52).
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law prohibits rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law effectively. Penalties for violations range from five to 10 years’ imprisonment. The law prohibits domestic violence, and the government effectively enforced the law. The law is gender neutral and provides for the removal of abusers from their residences for a 14-day period that can be extended once for an additional three months upon request of the victim. Penalties may include fines and imprisonment. Police are required to investigate if an NGO reports having been approached by an individual for assistance in cases involving domestic abuse" (8-9).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape, and the government generally enforced the law effectively" (18).
Sept. 8, 2021, 6:39 p.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law. Most persons convicted received prison sentences of five to 12 years. The law also criminalizes domestic violence. It authorizes prosecution of a violent family member and provides victims with 'safety orders,' which prohibit the offender from engaging in violent actions or threats, and “barring orders” (restraining orders), which prohibit an offender from entering the family home for up to three years. Anyone found guilty of violating a barring or an interim protection order may receive a fine of up to 4,000 euros ($4,400), a prison sentence of 12 months, or both. In January the government began enforcing...more
Aug. 31, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Albania
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law includes provisions on sexual assault and criminalizes spousal rape. The government did not enforce the law effectively, and authorities did not prosecute spousal rape. The concept of spousal rape was not well understood, and authorities often did not consider it a crime" (p 17).
Aug. 20, 2021, 1:37 p.m.
Countries: Cambodia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Charges for spousal rape under the penal code or domestic violence law were rare" (21).
Aug. 17, 2021, 2:50 p.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law specifically prohibits spousal rape. Indictments were rare, especially in rural areas" (p 17).
Aug. 6, 2021, 4:21 p.m.
Countries: Niger
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law does not explicitly recognize spousal rape, and authorities seldom prosecuted it. Victims often sought to deal with the rape within the family or were pressured to do so, and many victims did not report spousal rape due to fear of retribution, including loss of economic support" (p 15).
July 23, 2021, 2:27 p.m.
Countries: Macedonia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape, including spousal rape, is illegal. The penalties for rape range from one to 15 years’ imprisonment, but those laws were poorly enforced" (P 26).
July 13, 2021, 1:26 p.m.
Countries: Cyprus
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, with a maximum sentence of life in prison for violations. The government enforced the law effectively" (p 15).
July 13, 2021, 1:26 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Women's rights activists welcomed Lebanon's amendment in December of its 2014 domestic violence law to include violence 'resulting from' marriage, but local lawyers say it is unclear if this applies to divorced women, leaving a legal loophole"(para 24).
July 9, 2021, 1:38 p.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law criminalizes rape, defilement, sexual violence within marriage, and sex tourism, but enforcement remained limited" (p 33).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:57 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Before Misungwi arrives at the station, a young mother sits in the main office as she tells a police officer about the regular sexual assaults she endures at the hands of her husband - the private rooms sit empty.The officer takes no notes, his attention not on the mother, but on the Nigerian soap opera blasting from the television set in the corner of the room. Other staff members sit nearby, staring into space, periodically checking their phones for text messages" (para 44-46).
Dec. 24, 2020, 10:09 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Eren pursued an arranged marriage with Nur, promising her escape from the Kilis Camp on Turkey’s southern border. After he raped her repeatedly on their honeymoon, Nur fled, taking shelter at her brother’s house" (para 3).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:02 p.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

“In 2005, when Black was serving in the Virginia House of Delegates, he made a speech in which he said he ‘did not know how on earth you could validly get a conviction of a husband-wife rape, when they’re living together, sleeping in the same bed, she’s in a nightie, and so forth, there’s no injury, there’s no separation or anything’” (para 2).
May 15, 2020, 7:15 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

According to Figure 15.5, 20% percent of women age 15-49 agree that a husband is justified in beating his wife for refusing sexual intercourse, while 11% of men age 15-49 agree that a husband is justified in beating his wife for refusing sexual intercourse (385) (CEM - CODER COMMENT).
April 22, 2020, 5:16 p.m.
Countries: Lebanon
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Shia and Sunni men in Lebanon also have the right to discipline and have intercourse with their wives. These rights, and the obligation of women to cohabit with their husbands across all confessions, endanger women’s safety" (14). "On April 1, 2014, Lebanon’s parliament passed the Law on Protection of Women and Family Members from Domestic Violence. While establishing important protection measures and related policing and court reforms, the law still leaves women at risk of marital rape and other abuse. The law defines domestic violence narrowly, thus failing to provide adequate protection from all forms of abuse and falling short of United Nations guidelines on protection from domestic violence. Lebanese...more
April 19, 2020, 11:08 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, DV-PRACTICE-1

"Among women who have ever experienced physical or sexual violence, 84% have not faced any consequences resulting from the violence, while 8% have faced isolation and 5% got divorced (Table 16.15). Those experiencing both physical and sexual violence are more likely to face isolation (22%) and to get divorced (16%) than those experiencing physical or sexual violence alone" (310).
Jan. 13, 2020, 8:20 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Domestic and sexual violence against women remained serious problems despite the provisional federal constitution provision prohibiting any form of violence against women. While both sharia and customary law address the resolution of family disputes, women were not included in the decision-making process." (32).
Dec. 14, 2019, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"Little did she know that barely a month into her marriage she would also be expected to act as a wife for two of her husband's other brothers and, when she refused, would be raped and assaulted" (para 3). "He says he is aware of around 2,100 women in Baghpat district alone in such [polyandrous] unions and the majority are enduring horrific physical and sexual abuse" (para 15).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-PRACTICE-1

"In some cases the government did not effectively or fully enforce these laws or protect victims. The law prohibits violence against women, but human rights organizations claimed the government did not effectively enforce it . . . Women’s NGOs asserted there were not enough shelters to meet the needs of the increasing numbers of women applying for assistance and that shelter staff did not provide adequate care and services" (page 49).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-LAW-1, LRW-LAW-2, LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape is illegal, although the government did not always enforce the law effectively. The law permits authorities to prosecute spousal rape, and prosecutions occurred. The law specifies penalties for conviction of rape or forcible sexual assault ranging from four years’ imprisonment to the death penalty as well as fines" (page 28).
July 9, 2019, 4:36 p.m.
Countries: Serbia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-1, LRCM-LAW-2

"Rape, including spousal rape, is punishable by up to 40 years in prison. The government did not enforce the law effectively" (page 22).