The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRCM-PRACTICE-2

July 1, 2022, 11:43 a.m.
Countries: East Timor
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Although marital rape or incest are not covered by specific provisions, family relationship – including de facto unions – is constituting of an aggravating factor in cases sexual aggression (art. 173 and art. 182 of the Penal Code), raising the minimum and maximum sentence incurred" (16). "Nonetheless, progress has been observed on the prosecution and sentencing of incest by the courts by concentrating on hearing cases that have been pending for a long time and processing all new cases in a timely manner" (16).
June 29, 2022, 10:39 a.m.
Countries: El Salvador

"One such woman, Imelda, was repeatedly raped from age 8 to 18 by her mother’s partner and became pregnant by him. In 2017 she unexpectedly gave birth to the baby in a latrine and then lost consciousness. The child survived, but Imelda was accused of attempted murder due to the circumstances of the birth. She was freed from prison in 2018 after a court determined that she had not tried to kill her baby" (para 17-18).
March 4, 2022, 6:57 p.m.
Countries: Fiji
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"The law defines domestic violence as a specific offense. Police practice a 'no- drop' policy, whereby they are required to pursue investigations of domestic violence cases even if a victim later withdraws the accusation. Nonetheless, women’s organizations reported police did not consistently follow this policy. Courts dismissed some cases of domestic abuse and incest or gave perpetrators light sentences. Traditional and religious practices of reconciliation between aggrieved parties in both indigenous and Indo-Fijian communities were sometimes utilized to mitigate sentences for domestic violence. In some cases, authorities released offenders without a conviction on condition they maintained good behavior" (15-16).
Nov. 9, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Incest involving children remained a problem, although prosecutions remained minimal" (57).
Oct. 25, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"The government enforced the law [about incestuous child rape], and convicted rapists received harsh sentences" (32).
Sept. 17, 2021, 10:28 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"'Violence against women is part of everyday life here; it is normal, and no one is surprised when a new femicide comes to light,' said Quintela. 'Even as young girls, women are just objects that are sexually abused by their uncles, grandfathers or brothers. The result is thousands of teenage pregnancies every year'" (para 13). The consistent high rates of teenage pregnancies resulting from sexual abuse by family members may indicate that laws against incest are not adequately enforced (JLR-CODER COMMENT).
July 22, 2021, 4:40 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria

"No survivors Amnesty International interviewed appear to have accessed formal health services. Stigma and fear of repercussions mean such incidents are significantly underreported, even within affected communities. At least one of the survivors continues to suffer health complications some months later" (Para 16).
July 20, 2021, 11:58 a.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"A sexual assault survivor in Waterloo Region was recently charged and fined for violating the publication ban on her own name. The rapist found guilty of sexually assaulting the woman became aware that she had shared transcripts of the trial with friends and family without redacting her own name beforehand.The rapist contacted police who then charged the woman. In court she pleaded guilty to breaching the publication ban on her own name and was fined $2,000 plus an additional $600 victim surcharge by Ontario Court Justice Thomas McKay[...]Fining sexual assault survivors for breaching publication bans in their own sexual assault trials is yet another layer that effectively takes away the...more
June 30, 2021, 4:16 p.m.
Countries: Turkey

[T]the bar association and women's associations have been fighting long and hard against child marriage and child abuse. Despite their efforts, however, sexual abuse of underage girls, incest and forced marriages with minors, including taking young girls as second and third wives, remain common in the region" (para 5).
June 10, 2021, 9:10 p.m.
Countries: Mexico
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Budget cuts and restrictions for women’s shelters and reproductive health services were enacted in 2020, but the resources were reinstated this year, though not at the same level, Hubert said. 'These back-and-forth negotiations are exhausting and, I think, illustrate the relationship of the government with the [feminist] movement'" (para 16).
Sept. 26, 2020, 10:53 p.m.
Countries: Slovakia

“E.S. and Others v. Slovakia (application no. 8227/04) (15 September 2009): In 2001 the applicant left her husband and lodged a criminal complaint against him for ill-treating her and her children and sexually abusing one of their daughters. He was convicted of violence and sexual abuse two years later. Her request for her husband to be ordered to leave their home was dismissed, however, the court finding that it did not have the power to restrict her husband’s access to the property (she could only end the tenancy when divorced). The applicant and her children were therefore forced to move away from their friends and family. The Court found that...more
Sept. 21, 2020, 1:42 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Research by the UN found that very few reported cases of violence against women were prosecuted. The vast majority of cases either resulted in no action or were resolved through mediation, sometimes without the victim’s consent and often offering her no meaningful relief.2F The negative experiences women have in the justice system deter many other women and girls from reporting violence" (2).
Sept. 4, 2020, 5:11 p.m.
Countries: India

“Though the cases coming to government hospitals are mostly from lower income strata, Dr Harshindar says incest is rampant in all sections of society. ‘The mother is part of the conspiracy of silence. Such is the social stigma attached to the abuse that mothers bury it till the physical or emotional symptoms become telling. Even doctors do not probe this angle if a small girl comes with obvious symptoms of sexual abuse’” (para 19-20).
May 15, 2020, 6:53 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"There is low reporting of cases of gender-based violence against women, including rape, and the low prosecution and conviction rates, resulting in impunity for perpetrators" (8).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey

"Incest involving children remained a problem, although prosecutions remained minimal. The law provides prison sentences of up to five years for incest" (page 53).
July 19, 2019, 12:22 p.m.
Countries: Nepal

"The Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers’ 2011 standard operating procedure for prevention of and response to GBV has led to the establishment of service centers in 17 districts, rehabilitation centers in eight districts, and hospital-based one-stop crisis management centers in 17 districts to provide treatment, protection, and psychosocial and legal support for survivors of GBV. Gender experts say the standard operating procedure has led to improved coordination among police, NHRC, National Women’s Commission, chief district officers, local authorities, community mediation centers, and NGOs working to address violence against women and girls" (Pg 26).
July 9, 2019, 2:45 p.m.
Countries: Zambia

"Domestic violence against women was a serious problem, and spousal abuse was widespread. According to a May 26 Afro Barometer survey on the prevalence of GBV, 90 percent of persons with no formal education approved of wife beating. The NGO Women in Law in South Africa (WLSA) observed that customary marriage values taught women sexual intercourse was a man’s right and discouraged reporting spousal rape. The WLSA also observed that women who revealed sexual violations to authorities often faced societal stigma, which in turn diminished future reporting. Customary laws in certain chiefdoms allowed for spousal battery. In addition fear of violence, abandonment, and divorce discouraged women from seeking HIV care...more
July 8, 2019, 2:42 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan

"The law prohibits rape, including rape of a “close relative,” but the criminal code does not specifically prohibit spousal rape, and the courts did not try any known cases. Cultural norms discouraged women and their families from speaking openly about rape, and the press rarely reported it" (Pg 28).
July 6, 2019, 1:13 p.m.
Countries: Togo

"The law criminalizes rape; it does not specifically address spousal rape, which was rarely reported for societal reasons and, if reported, was often ignored by authorities. The law provides for prison terms of five to 10 years for those convicted. A maximum prison term for conviction of 20 years applies if the victim is a child under age 14; is gang-raped; or if the rape results in pregnancy, disease, or incapacitation lasting more than six weeks. The government was diligent in investigating reports of rape and prosecuting suspects, but victims were reluctant to report incidents due to the social stigma associated with being raped and fear of reprisal. Although neither...more
June 25, 2019, 7:13 a.m.
Countries: Sierra Leone

"The law prohibits rape, which is punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment. Rape was common and viewed more as a societal norm than a criminal problem. The law specifically prohibits spousal rape. Cases of rape were greatly underreported, and indictments were rare, especially in rural areas. A reluctance to use the judicial system on the part of both victims and law enforcement, combined with women’s lack of income and economic independence, helped perpetuate violence against women and impunity for offenders. Despite the establishment of family support units and the existence of applicable legislation, reports of rapes, especially involving child victims, steadily increased. NGOs reported a rise in rape and...more
June 21, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Law enforcement officials usually advised women not to file charges but registered cases at the victim’s insistence. Most observers believed the majority of cases were unreported because victims wished to avoid humiliation" (p. 22).
June 19, 2019, 8:49 p.m.
Countries: Guatemala

"Pervasiveness of gender-based violence against women and girls in the State party, including the alarming and increasing rates of femicide, hate crimes against lesbian, bisexual and transgender women and intersex persons, domestic violence, and rape and incest resulting in forced pregnancy, and the absence of reliable disaggregated data and of effective preventive strategies" (6).
May 29, 2019, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: Slovenia

"There was a network of maternity homes, safe houses, and shelters for women and children who were victims of violence. The total capacity of this network was 450 beds. The police academy offered annual training on domestic violence" (p. 12).
April 25, 2019, 8:30 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"In the case of spousal rape, reporting was even lower due to women’s fear of losing economic support or of reprisal, lack of awareness that spousal rape is a crime, police reluctance to be involved in domestic disputes, and bureaucratic hurdles (...) A lack of adequate and widespread services for rape victims also discouraged reporting" (33).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi

"Child abuse remained a serious problem. The press regularly reported cases of sexual abuse of children, including arrests for rape, incest, sodomy, and defilement" (para 96).
March 5, 2019, 2:35 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Incest also was a problem. The law provides for six to 20 years’ imprisonment and caning for individuals convicted of incest. A child’s testimony is acceptable only if there is corroborating evidence. This posed special problems for molestation cases in which the child victim was the only witness" (25).
Feb. 22, 2019, 8:57 a.m.
Countries: Turkmenistan
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"A cultural bias against reporting or acknowledging rape made it difficult to determine the extent of the problem" (18).
Dec. 14, 2018, 9:45 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"One in five Malawian girls is a victim of sexual violence, as is one in seven boys, according to the UN Children's Fund, UNICEF. Its survey found that most abusers are people that children trust and are related to, such as uncles, stepfathers and fathers" (para 24). "Some traditions promote sexual abuse within the family. If a girl's aunt or older sister falls sick, she can be sent to look after the household, and in some cases will be expected to have sex with her uncle or step-brother, according to one organisation working in the area, which asked to remain unnamed as Malawian authorities are not fond of such traditions...more
Nov. 26, 2018, 4:14 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRCM-PRACTICE-2

"Incest involving children remained a problem, although official statistics were incomplete, and prosecutions remained minimal" (page 61).
Oct. 26, 2018, 8:42 a.m.
Countries: Senegal

"The minimum age of consensual sex is 18. Due to social pressures and fear of embarrassment, incest remained taboo and often went unreported and unpunished" (page 18).