The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRW-LAW-3

Feb. 23, 2022, 3:02 p.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"The law allows the common practice of using a woman’s sexual history to defend men accused of rape" (14).
Feb. 5, 2022, 9:24 a.m.
Countries: Mozambique
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"...A judge may order a trial closed to media in the interest of national security, to protect the privacy of the plaintiff in a sexual assault case, or to prevent interested parties outside the court from destroying evidence" (6).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Women can be legal witnesses. However, in Islam two women are equal to one man's testimony. In other words, two different women's testimony are needed, whereas in court one man is enough" (1).
Nov. 17, 2021, 8:27 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Victims of sexual crimes may video-record their testimony instead of having to recount it in person. Victims may testify in closeddoor hearings, with physical screens to shield them from the accused person. Lawyers may not ask questions about a victim’s sexual history, unless the court grants them permission to do so" (21).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"The Criminal Procedure Code been ratified in 2014. Discriminatory human rights violating elements have been taken out and new provisions regarding protection of women’s rights were included. The criminal procedures law enriches specific provisions on the victim’s rights and protection of evidence" (6). "Chapters 5 and 7 of the Criminal Procedure Code provides witness protection measures which range from physical to psychological protection" (6). "Witnesses may approach the prosecution and the court to apply for protective measures before and during trial (Article 55(1) of the CPC). They do so by submitting their application to the prosecution and court in a sealed envelope, which the prosecution and court shall both review...more
Aug. 27, 2021, 2:01 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"The 195-page report also slammed the CPS for launching unnecessary 'digital strip searches' of victims' online and phone records, and making intrusive bids for their medical records. In 39 per cent of relevant cases, requests for personal information were not 'proportionate' to the investigation. But the report cleared the CPS of campaigners' charges that it was a 'risk-averse' agency that only pursued cases with strong evidence. Two per cent of cases saw the test for stopping the probe incorrectly applied, down from 10 per cent of cases three years ago" (para 18-20).
May 18, 2021, 6:32 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Sahar Bandial, one of the lawyers who filed the petition in the Lahore case, said the tests were used to discredit women based on unscientific assessments of their sexual history" (para 14). "But invasive 'virginity tests' continue in Pakistan, and remain legal in parts of the country not affected by the ruling in Lahore. The practice has been in force in the South Asian region since the colonial era and has been documented in at least 20 countries worldwide, according to the UN and WHO" (para 19).
Feb. 17, 2021, 7:56 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Recently, the three accused of raping an 18-year old woman at Jinnah’s Mausoleum were set free by a court in Karachi. The court refused to entertain the DNA evidence, which reportedly proved the guilt of the accused, and gave the accused the benefit of the doubt because the victim could not produce four eyewitnesses to the rape. Weeks later, the Council of Islamic Ideology (CII) decreed that the DNA evidence in the absence of four righteous men as witnesses to rape is not sufficient for conviction under Islamic law" (para 1). "The requirement to produce four witnesses, and not just male witnesses, is required by the Quran to prevent false...more
Dec. 7, 2020, 10:23 a.m.
Countries: Ireland
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

“Women across Ireland could go on strike over how rape trials are conducted after a jury were told a 17-year-old's underwear suggested consent, an Irish MP has revealed” (para 1). “The lawyer of a 27-year-old man who has been cleared of rape, argued that the trial should consider whether the young woman's clothing and lace thong meant she had consented to sex” (para 2). “Ms Coppinger [an Irish MP] said that defence teams in past rape cases have used clothing, fake fan and type of contraception as validation of consent” (para 8). “It has been suggested by political party Sinn Fein that it intends to amend the sexual offences bill...more
Oct. 3, 2020, 6:13 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

“Mraović v. Croatia (14 May 2020): This case concerned a balancing of the applicant’s right to a public hearing in proceedings against him on charges of rape and the victim’s right to the protection of her private life. The applicant complained that the domestic courts had justified excluding the public from the hearing of his case merely by the need to protect the victim’s private life, without balancing this against his right to a public hearing. Nor had the domestic courts ever explained why it had been necessary to exclude the public from the entire proceedings, instead of just from certain hearings. The Court held that there had been no...more
Oct. 1, 2020, 9:54 a.m.
Countries: Sweden
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Police and courts often query a victim's story if she did not retaliate, but there is growing evidence that many victims experience temporary paralysis when raped" (para 12).
Sept. 29, 2020, 4:42 p.m.
Countries: Finland
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"The council said that as a consequence, 'not all forms of sexual violence are criminalised in Finland…Other consequences include the requirement of higher thresholds of evidentiary standards of physical resistance and a shifting of the focus on to the victim's behaviour rather than the accused's actions'" (para 6).
Sept. 26, 2020, 10:54 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands

“X and Y v. the Netherlands (no. 8978/80) (26 March 1985): A girl with a mental handicap (the second applicant) was raped, in the home for children with mental disabilities where she lived, the day after her sixteenth birthday (which was the age of consent for sexual intercourse in the Netherlands) by a relative of the person in charge. She was traumatised by the experience but deemed unfit to sign an official complaint given her low mental age. Her father (the first applicant) signed in her place, but proceedings were not brought against the perpetrator because the girl had to make the complaint herself. The domestic courts recognised that there...more
June 28, 2020, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"They were cleared of more serious charges because there was no evidence violence was used" (para 7). "Because of the way the law currently works, if women are too scared to fight back (or are physically incapable of it) sex attacks will not be considered rape" (para 8).
April 24, 2020, 9:25 p.m.
Countries: Nigeria
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"By common law women and non-Muslims may testify in civil or criminal proceedings and give testimony that carries the same weight as testimony of other witnesses. Sharia courts usually accorded the testimony of women and non- Muslims less weight than that of Muslim men. Some sharia court judges allowed Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2017 United States Department of State • Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor different evidentiary requirements for male and female defendants to prove adultery or fornication. Pregnancy, for example, was admissible evidence of a woman’s adultery or fornication in some sharia courts. In contrast, sharia courts could convict men only if they confessed...more
April 1, 2020, 6:28 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"In 2016 Parliament passed a new antirape law that provides for collection of DNA evidence and includes nondisclosure of a rape victim’s name, the right to legal representation of rape victims, and enhanced penalties for rape of victims with mental or physical disabilities" (37). "The law requires a victim to complain directly to a sessions court, which is considered a trial court for heinous offenses. After recording the victim’s statement, the sessions court judge officially lodges a complaint, after which police may then make arrests" (38).
Jan. 30, 2020, 1:05 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"According to law, without the perpetrator’s confession, the rape survivor must provide four male witnesses to the crime" (29). "Women also faced unequal treatment in courts, where the testimony of a woman equals half that of a man’s" (30).
Jan. 29, 2020, 11:11 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"In relation to measures taken to eliminate all forms of violence against women, including domestic and sexual violence, the system of victim participation in trial procedures was put into force in 2008 following the previous review. The said system is one that, based on a decision of the court, enables the victims of certain crimes, including domestic violence cases and sexual crimes, to attend court on the trial dates and to directly ask questions of the accused. The number of cases in which the victims participated in 2009 was 403, involving 571 persons. 24 of such persons were allowed to be accompanied by another person to alleviate their psychological burden,...more
Dec. 14, 2019, 6:40 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"A victim must have demonstrated resistance, but, in this case, the terrified woman appears frozen in a video clip of the 30-minute attack. The defence argued she was consenting and so the lesser charge was applied" (para. 2). "In the first trial, messages on the wolf pack's WhatsApp chat, in which the men explicitly talked of purchasing date-rape drugs, were deemed inadmissible by the court, whereas photos taken from the victim's social media, showing her having fun in the months following the attack, were allowed. She was painted as a precocious seductress" (para. 3).
Dec. 14, 2019, 2:59 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: LRW-LAW-3, DV-PRACTICE-1

"Her family in Uttarakhand is aware of the abuse she is suffering but they do not have the money to escalate a police report they have lodged. Because they live in a different state to where the crime took place they have to pay the police to investigate it" (para 20).
Oct. 22, 2019, 6:25 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"In certain probate trials, the testimony of women is not considered equivalent to that of men; the testimony of two women is required. In other civil trials, the testimony of a woman equals that of a man." (pg 43).
Aug. 9, 2019, 1 p.m.
Countries: D R Congo
Variables: LRW-LAW-2, LRW-LAW-3, LRCM-LAW-2

"The law on sexual violence criminalizes rape, but the offense was not always reported by victims and the law was not always enforced. Rape was common. The legal definition of rape does not include spousal rape. It also prohibits extrajudicial settlements (for example, a customary fine paid by the perpetrator to the family of the victim) and forced marriage, allows victims of sexual violence to waive appearance in court, and permits closed hearings to protect confidentiality. The minimum penalty prescribed for rape is a prison sentence of five years, and courts regularly imposed such a sentence in rape convictions" (page 39).
July 19, 2019, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: Guinea-Bissau
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-2, LRW-LAW-3

"The law permits prosecution of rape only when reported by the victim, which observers noted was rare due to victims’ fear of social stigma and retribution" (p. 8).
July 19, 2019, 12:46 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Courts gave reduced sentences to some men found guilty of committing violence against women, citing good behavior during the trial or “provocation” by women as an extenuating circumstance of the crime, and in some cases dismissed rape charges if the suspect married the victim. For example, in August a court reduced the life imprisonment sentence of Kadri Tekin to 15 years for his conviction of the 2011 murder of his wife due to “good conduct" (page 50).
July 15, 2019, 3:24 p.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"Most trials are public; however, the court may order a closed trial, particularly in cases involving national security, the royal family, children, or sexual abuse" (page 9).
July 8, 2019, 9:30 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: LRW-LAW-3

"The law allows the common practice of using a woman’s sexual history to defend men accused of rape" (page 14).
July 2, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: LRW-LAW-3, DV-LAW-3

"In certain probate trials, the testimony of women is not considered equivalent to that of men; the testimony of two women is required. In other civil trials, the testimony of a woman equals that of a man" (Pg 66).
July 1, 2019, 8:43 p.m.
Countries: Bahrain
Variables: LRW-LAW-3, MURDER-LAW-1

"By law “honor” killings are punishable, but the penal code provides a lenient sentence for conviction of killing a spouse caught in the act of adultery, whether male or female" (p. 29).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: LRW-LAW-3, DV-LAW-3

"Rape is a criminal offense under sharia with a wide range of penalties from flogging to execution. The law does not recognize spousal rape as a crime. The government enforced the law based on its interpretation of sharia, and courts often punished victims as well as perpetrators for illegal “mixing of genders,” even when there was no conviction for rape. Victims also had to prove that the rape was committed, and women’s testimony in court is worth half the weight of that of a man. Consequently, due to these legal and social penalties, authorities brought few cases to trial. The government did not maintain public records on prosecutions, convictions, or...more
June 20, 2019, 10:07 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: LRW-LAW-3, DV-LAW-3

"Women may attend court proceedings and represent themselves, but a male relative generally represented them. In some cases a woman’s testimony is deemed half that of a man’s, and in some cases a female witness is not accepted at all" (p. 16).