The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for LRW-PRACTICE-1

Jan. 15, 2022, 6:54 p.m.
Countries: Croatia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The law criminalizes the rape of men or women... The law was in most cases effectively enforced" (13). "Police and prosecutors were generally responsive to allegations of domestic violence and rape" (13).
Jan. 14, 2022, 10:50 a.m.
Countries: Belize
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The rate of acquittals and cases withdrawn by the prosecution due to insufficient evidence continued to be high, particularly for sexual offenses, murder, and gang- related cases. These actions were often due to the failure of witnesses to testify because of fear for life and personal safety, as well as a lack of basic police investigative or forensic capability in the country" (6). "The criminal code criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape. The code states that a person convicted of rape shall be sentenced to imprisonment for eight years to life, although sentences were sometimes much lighter. Problems facing the wider justice system generally resulted in poor...more
Jan. 13, 2022, 1:27 p.m.
Countries: Costa Rica

"The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape and domestic violence, and provides penalties from 10 to 18 years in prison for rape. The judicial branch generally enforced the law effectively" (10).
Jan. 13, 2022, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Kenya
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Human rights groups reported police routinely engaged in nonconsensual sex with female prisoners, and many female inmates resorted to prostitution to obtain necessities, such as sanitary items and underwear, not provided by the Prisons Service"(7)."Sexual and gender-based violence against refugees and asylum seekers remained a problem, particularly for vulnerable populations including women, children, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LGBTI) refugees and asylum seekers. Reported incidents included domestic violence, rape, sexual assault, physical assault, psychological abuse, female genital mutilation mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), and early and forced marriage, particularly of Sudanese, South Sudanese, and Somali girls"(24)."The law criminalizes rape, defilement (statutory rape), domestic violence, and sex tourism, but enforcement remained limited"(36)."Citizens...more
Jan. 11, 2022, 12:20 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Several acquittals in rape cases called attention to the high legal standard and prosecutorial burden, which NGOs asserted imposed an unfairly high burden on victims and deterred them from coming forward. In March a Nagoya court acquitted a father accused of raping his 19-year-old daughter despite recognizing that the sex was nonconsensual and that force was involved, concluding that doubt remained whether she had no option other than to submit. In July the Nagoya Prosecutors’ Office decided not to indict a former Diet member for suspected sexual assault against his girlfriend while she was sleeping" (16). "Rape and domestic violence are significantly underreported crimes. According to a survey by the...more
Jan. 10, 2022, 10:08 a.m.
Countries: Philippines
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Authorities generally took reports of rape seriously. NGOs noted that in smaller localities perpetrators of abuse sometimes used personal relationships with local authorities to avoid prosecution. Statistics were unavailable on prosecutions, convictions, and punishments for cases filed by the PNP. Likewise, difficulty in obtaining rape convictions remained a challenge to effective enforcement. In the year to August, the PNP’s Women and Children Protection Center recorded 944 cases of rape involving female victims, of which 463 were filed in courts and 320 referred to prosecutors. The rest were either dropped, settled out of court, or dismissed. Additionally, BuCor reported 9,737 inmates in its facilities were convicted of rape, 213 of these...more
Jan. 8, 2022, 9:32 p.m.
Countries: Morocco
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"According to the Conduct in UN Field Missions online portal, there were two allegations submitted during the year of rape of a child in January through March and in April, respectively, by Moroccan peacekeepers deployed to the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MINUSCO)... Morocco and the United Nations jointly investigated two allegations submitted in 2018... The UN repatriated the assailant, and the government of Morocco issued a 60-day prison sentence" (5)."According to local NGOs, survivors did not report the vast majority of sexual assaults to police due to social pressure and the concern that society would most likely hold the victims responsible. Some sexual...more
Jan. 6, 2022, 4:10 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Unfotuntately laws against rape and sexual assault are not enforced to the full extent of the law. Former Director of the Heritage Institute for Policy Studies and the Former Minister of Planning and International Cooperation of Somalia states: 'The level of violence experienced by women in Somalia present an often insurmountable obstacle to participation in decision-making spaces, and as such constitute an ongoing violation of women's rights. Further exacerbating this structural exclusion is the lack of government and security sector capacity and accountability to address the protection of women'" (1).
Jan. 4, 2022, 11:45 p.m.
Countries: Australia

"The law criminalizes rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law effectively" (11).
Dec. 27, 2021, 10:10 a.m.
Countries: Taiwan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"While authorities generally enforced the law domestically, elements of the law that treat possession of child pornography as a misdemeanor rather than a felony hampered enforcement in some cases. Authorities also did not investigate or prosecute any cases of child sexual exploitation committed by citizens while traveling abroad, although the law permits this" (13).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium

"In May, Julie Van Espen, a 23-year-old student, was killed on her way to Antwerp. Police arrested Steve Bakelmans after a review of surveillance camera data. Bakelmans had been sentenced to four years in prison in a 2017 rape case, a ruling he had appealed. Bakelmans had been set free pending the ruling of the appellate court, scheduled later in the year. The case made media headlines as proof of the deficiencies of the justice system and of its protections for women against violence" (9).
Dec. 17, 2021, 6:27 p.m.
Countries: Cote D'Ivoire
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The government did not provide information on the percentage of rape cases tried as rape versus the lesser charge of indecent assault, which carries a prison term of six months to five years. Media and NGOs reported rape of schoolgirls by teachers was a problem, but few perpetrators had charges filed against them" (18). "The government made some efforts to enforce the law, but local and international human rights groups reported rape remained widespread. A local NGO that aims to protect the rights of persons with disabilities reported a man who raped and ultimately killed a pregnant handicapped woman in April was sentenced to a 20-year jail term" (18-19). "[P]olice...more
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"[A]ccording to press reports, on August 27, two police officers in the city of Anapa in the Krasnodar region threatened a 17-year-old girl with arrest and administrative charges in order to force her to engage in sexual acts. Following an internal investigation, 11 police officers were fired, including the Anapa police chief. As of December authorities had not opened a criminal case" (8). "According to NGOs, many law enforcement personnel and prosecutors did not consider spousal or acquaintance rape a priority and did not encourage reporting or prosecuting such cases. NGOs reported that local police officers sometimes refused to respond to rape or domestic violence calls unless the victim’s life...more
Dec. 3, 2021, 8:55 p.m.
Countries: Portugal
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1, DV-LAW-1, DV-LAW-2

"The law makes rape, including spousal rape, illegal, with a penalty of three to 10 years’ imprisonment. The government generally enforced the law when the victim chose to press charges and if the cases were not settled out of court through mediation. The law provides for criminal penalties of up to 10 years’ imprisonment in cases of domestic violence by a spouse or by a person other than the spouse. The judicial system prosecuted persons accused of abusing women" (9).
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:34 p.m.
Countries: Palestine
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Trials are public, except when the court determines... protection of a victim of a sexual offense, or an alleged 'honor crime' requires privacy" (69). "[N}either the PA nor de facto Hamas authorities enforced laws pertaining to rape effectively in the West Bank and Gaza. In previous years there were reports police treated rape as a social and not a criminal matter, and authorities released some accused rapists after they apologized to their victims" (95).
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:33 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Authorities opened 1,534 investigations of suspected rape in 2018, compared with 1,443 in 2017. Authorities closed 91 percent of rape cases in 2018 without filing an indictment, mainly due to lack of evidence" (33).
Nov. 17, 2021, 8:27 p.m.
Countries: Singapore
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The government enforced the laws on rape" (21).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy

"A new violence against women law adopted on July 17 imposes harsher penalties for crimes of domestic and gender-based violence. The law penalizes rape, including spousal rape, with six to 12 years in prison. The law criminalizes the physical abuse of women (including by family members), provides for the prosecution of perpetrators of violence against women, and helps shield abused women from publicity. Judicial protective measures for violence occurring within a family allow for an ex parte application to a civil court judge in urgent cases. A specific law on stalking includes mandatory detention for acts of sexual violence, including by partners. Police officers and judicial authorities prosecuted perpetrators of...more
Nov. 11, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Korea
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"In August[2019] a district court upheld a professor’s six-month prison sentence for defamation after he told his class that some women “probably knew exactly what they were signing up for” when they “volunteered” to be comfort women (women subjected to sexual servitude for the Japanese military during World War II). The court also upheld Sunchon National University’s decision to fire him"(8)."Because a rape conviction requires proving that violence was used, and because the country’s defamation laws allow countersuits by alleged perpetrators, rape offenses are underreported and under prosecuted"(18). "In February the Seoul High Court overruled a lower court’s August 2018 acquittal of Ahn Hee-jung, former governor of South Chuncheong. The...more
Nov. 10, 2021, 10:14 p.m.
Countries: Cuba
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The law specifically criminalizes rape of women... The government often enforced both laws..." (27).
Nov. 9, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Reported abuse included... sexual assault. The special rapporteur stated authorities appeared not to have taken any serious measures to investigate these allegations or to hold perpetrators accountable" (6). "The government did not effectively or fully enforce these laws or protect victims [of sexual assault]" (52). "According to Ministry of Justice statistics, imprisonment sentences for child sexual abuse in the country increased to 18,000 in 2018. Child rights experts reported that the increased attention on the problem had led to greater awareness and reporting" (56).
Nov. 8, 2021, 2:18 p.m.
Countries: Spain
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"On June 21, the Supreme Court reversed a lower court decision from 2018 and declared guilty of rape five men who gang raped an 18-year-old woman in Pamplona in 2016. The lower court originally found the defendants, Jose Angel Prenda, Alfonso Jesus Cabazuelo, Jesus Escudero, Angel Boza, and Antonio Manuel Guerrero, who called themselves 'the Wolfpack,' guilty of the lesser crime of sexual abuse. Under the updated Supreme Court sentence, each defendant will serve 15 years in prison. On October 31, the provincial court of Barcelona sentenced five men to 10-12 years in prison for committing sexual abuse on a teenage victim in Manresa in 2016. The court ruled that,...more
Nov. 4, 2021, 7:05 p.m.
Countries: Luxembourg
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"The law prohibits rape, including spousal rape, and the government enforced the law effectively. Penalties for violations range from five to 10 years’ imprisonment..." (8-9). "In 2018 authorities investigated 122 accusations of indecent assault and 76 cases of rape, representing modest decreases from 2017. In 2018 police intervened 739 times in domestic violence situations, and prosecutors authorized 231 evictions of the abuser from the domestic home as a result of these incidents; these were increases from the prior year. The Minister of Equality between Women and Men stated that authorities were unable to determine if this increase was due to growth in the number of incidents or in reports" (9)....more
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:44 a.m.
Countries: India

"It has been found that crimes against women dominate the stories in gender beat. This category is in turn dominated by sexual violence against women that include rape and murders, followed by harassment and molestation" (para 7). This is in reference to the region of Kashmir (CAT - CODER COMMENT).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:38 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Under Article 636 of the Penal Code on rape does not define rape as a lack of consent, but a presence of force, threat or intimidation. Sexual harassment is not defined under the Penal Code [it is referred to under the chapter on bacha bazi (‘playing with boys’)]. It is a crime under Article 30 of EVAW Law and has been defined under the Anti-Sexual Harassment law" (5).
Nov. 3, 2021, 9:32 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"After SaharGul's father died, she went to live with her stepbrother, Mohammed. Despite her hard work, Mohammed's wife resented the girl. At age 13, she was sold for over $5,000 and had to move hundreds of miles away with her new husband, GhulamSakhi. Refusing to consummate the marriage, Sahar would be drugged by her mother-in-law and raped by her husband. Facing physical abuse and torture, she was made to live in the cellar, bound, tied, and sleeping on the floor" (14).
Nov. 1, 2021, 11:19 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Police in Pakistan have opened cases against hundreds of unidentified men after a young woman was sexually assaulted and groped by a crowd of more than 400 men in a park in Lahore as she made a TikTok video. The shocking assault was captured on several videos, which went viral and showed a mob descend on the woman as she was in Lahore’s Greater Iqbal park making a TikTok video with friends" (para 1-2). "Pakistan is the sixth most dangerous country in the world for women, according to the Thomson Reuters Foundation. The Karachi-based organisation War Against Rape estimated that less than 3% of rape cases lead to convictions" (para...more
Oct. 28, 2021, 12:31 a.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Rape of women or men, including spousal rape, is punishable by up to 15 years’ imprisonment. The government generally enforced the law. Law enforcement response to rape and domestic violence was effective" (Page 9). "The law provides up to 15 years’ imprisonment for an adult convicted of sexual intercourse with a child younger than 14, the minimum age for consensual sex for both girls and boys. It is a crime to possess, trade, or privately view child pornography. Possession of or trading in child pornography is punishable by up to 10 years’ imprisonment. The government effectively enforced these laws" (Page 10).
Oct. 25, 2021, 2:40 p.m.
Countries: Vietnam
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"Authorities prosecuted rape cases but did not release arrest, prosecution, conviction, or punishment statistics. There was little information on the prevalence of rape or on reporting of the crime" (29). "The government enforced the law, and convicted [child] rapists received harsh sentences" (32).
Oct. 18, 2021, 6:06 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: LRW-PRACTICE-1

"In January the Paris Criminal Court sentenced two police officers to seven years in prison for raping a Canadian tourist in 2014 inside police headquarters" (2). " The law criminalizes rape of men or women, including spousal rape, and the government generally enforced the law effectively" (18).