The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for RCDW-LAW-2

Aug. 3, 2021, 1:12 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"Concern that the niqab is associated with terrorism prompted Indonesia’s religious affairs minister, Fachrul Razi, a former army general, to call for a ban on employees’ and visitors’ wearing niqabs in government buildings. He fears that some government workers are being attracted to extremist thought and sees the niqab as a sign of radicalization. His regulation has yet to be adopted. A 2018 ban on niqabs at a university in Central Java lasted only a week before opposition compelled the university to rescind it" (para 10-11).
June 30, 2021, 3:57 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Syrians have been pictured celebrating after they were liberated from ISIS rule in a northern stronghold in the country. A woman was seen smiling in Manbij as she burned a niqab she was forced to wear by the Islamic State regime while another man could not stop beaming as he had his beard cut" (para 1-2). "[T]he SDF released a video today where soldiers toured an ISIS 'religious police' headquarters where women were tortured with poles and chains if they were spotted without their faces covered" (para 15).
June 25, 2021, 2:16 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2, IIP-LAW-1

"Under the hardline group’s [Taliban] interpretation of Islam, women and girls were banned from public life, including going to school and working, and had to wear a full-body burqa when venturing outside" (para 6).
Feb. 6, 2021, 12:53 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“A German state has banned the use of burqas in school, saying that the full-face Islamic covering does not belong in a free society. Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany announced the ban on Tuesday. The state has already banned the use of such coverings for teachers. State Premier Winfried Kretschmann said that it was rare for school girls to wear burqas but that a ban was required for the exceptional cases. The new rule will apply to girls attending primary and secondary schools in the state” (para. 1-4). “In 2015, Germany's Constitutional Court overturned a blanket ban on teachers wearing them, ruling that it was against religious freedom. However, eight of...more
Jan. 7, 2021, 6:05 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“But as Mr. Erdogan has expanded his power, removing the military from politics and this year winning election as president, he has moved in a different direction, critics say, cracking down on dissent, intimidating the news media and establishing more control over the judiciary. Along the way, he led moves to restrict alcohol sales and rescind a longstanding ban on head scarves in public institutions” (para. 6). “Islamists are making inroads in secular schools as well. In September, the government began allowing girls as young as 10 to wear head scarves in classes. Recently, Mr. Erdogan endorsed a call by the government-aligned National Education Council for mandatory Turkish Ottoman language...more
Jan. 7, 2021, 5:47 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“German politicians have repeatedly called for a ban on the burqa in the past months, following a ruling by the European Court of Justice which held up the ban instituted in France. This is no surprise given that Germany has the largest Muslim population in Western Europe after France” (para. 2). “In France, where Muslims make up about eight percent of the population, many of them being first- and second-generation immigrants from France's former colonies, the ban [on face coverings] became state law in 2010. Belgium and parts of Switzerland followed the French model. Earlier this year, the European Council for Human Rights (ECHR) affirmed the decision. "The question of...more
Jan. 7, 2021, 5:47 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan, Israel
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“A burqa is a full body veil, which leaves open only a tiny slash for its female wearer’s eyes. It is most common in Muslim countries like Afghanistan and goes back to a strict interpretation of the Koran. But burqas aren't solely Islamic. Some years ago, a fringe group of ultra-Orthodox Jewish women near Jerusalem began wearing similar full-body-veils as a symbol of piety” (para. 5).
Jan. 7, 2021, 5:47 p.m.
Countries: Belgium, Switzerland
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“In France, where Muslims make up about eight percent of the population, many of them being first- and second-generation immigrants from France's former colonies, the ban [on face coverings] became state law in 2010. Belgium and parts of Switzerland followed the French model. Earlier this year, the European Council for Human Rights (ECHR) affirmed the decision. "The question of accepting or not that the full veil can be worn in public is a society's choice," it ruled, explicitly declaring the French ban to be legally justified” (para. 6).
Jan. 7, 2021, 5:47 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“Julia Klöckner, vice-chairman of Angela Merkel’s Christian Democratic Party (CDU), stirred a public storm in Germany this week when she called for a ban of the full body Muslim veil in public spaces. "Burqas don’t stand for religious diversity," she told German media, "but for a degrading image of women." The politician referred to the German constitution, emphasizing that women and men are equal, and described the act of looking at other people’s faces as a key feature of an open society” (para. 1). “German politicians have repeatedly called for a ban on the burqa in the past months, following a ruling by the European Court of Justice which held...more
Jan. 2, 2021, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“There, in the name of secularism and public order, and with bipartisan political support, full facial veils were banned in public places two years ago. France also bans the wearing of any religious symbols in state schools” (para. 5).
Jan. 2, 2021, 7:07 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“A judge in London decided Monday that a Muslim woman standing trial on charges of intimidating a witness can attend court wearing her facial veil, which covers everything but the eyes, but must remove it to give evidence so the jury can better evaluate her claims. That ruling comes a week after Birmingham Metropolitan College withdrew a ban on face coverings after protests and accusations of discrimination” (para. 2-3). “There, in the name of secularism and public order, and with bipartisan political support, full facial veils were banned in public places two years ago. France also bans the wearing of any religious symbols in state schools” (para. 5). “There is...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:23 p.m.
Countries: Austria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"A police officer asks a Muslim woman to unveil her face in Zell am See, Austria after an earlier ban in 2017" (para 5). "Mr Kurz’s government introduced a ban on burkas and other full-face coverings in 2017. The new ban is seen as an extension of the current restrictions. Austria's previous government prohibited full-face veils in courts, schools and other 'public places' and banned police officers, judges, magistrates and public prosecutors from wearing headscarves" (para 9-10).
Dec. 29, 2020, 6:03 p.m.
Countries: Germany
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

“A German court has overturned a school's niqab ban after a 16-year-old girl was told she had to show her face to teachers. The ruling on Monday…cannot be appealed…The teenager…has 'a right to unconditional protection of her freedom of belief' the statement added” (para 1, 2, 5). “The state parliament in…Schleswig-Holstein failed to pass a ban on full-face veils in its universities and colleges on Monday, after the Green Party voted against it… Each German state has its own education ministry, and the 16 states have differing laws on headscarves in schools” (para 10, 12). “In 2015, Germany's Constitutional Court overturned a blanket ban on teachers wearing [niqab]…ruling that it...more
Aug. 16, 2020, 6:50 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-2

"Following the Easter Sunday bombings, the government issued orders forbidding face coverings, especially the veils worn by some Muslim women. Following this order, Muslim women including those wearing other forms of dress, such as headscarves and abayas, faced harassment at work and in public places, and some were denied access to public services such as schools, hospitals, and universities" (para 21).
Aug. 10, 2020, 5:32 p.m.
Countries: Switzerland
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

“In December 2010, the Federal Commission on Women's Issues called for Islamic burqas and niqabs to be banned in government offices and in public schools. The government-appointed committee said the move would prevent gender discrimination” (para 21). “In May 2011, voters in canton Ticino, in Switzerland's Italian-speaking region, collected enough signatures to be able to launch a referendum that would ban burqas, niqabs and other Islamic head dresses. If the referendum goes ahead, it will be the first time in Switzerland that citizens have been asked to express an opinion on burqas” (para 22).
Aug. 10, 2020, 3:09 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2, SRACE-PRACTICE-2

“This year, in a move with interesting echoes of our own history, Saudi Arabia has allowed women to ride bicycles, fully covered and in the presence of a male relative, in some public spaces” (para 1).
May 31, 2020, 11:44 p.m.
Countries: United Kingdom
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"The new decree announced today means Muslim women in Sri Lanka will no longer be able to wear veils covering their faces" (para 3). "The powers prevent the wearing of the niqab, which covers all but the eyes, and the burqa, which includes a veil across the eye opening. But the law does not prevent women wearing the chador or the hijab, which leave the face exposed but cover the hair and neck" (para 6-7)
May 31, 2020, 11:29 p.m.
Countries: Sri Lanka
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"The new decree announced today means Muslim women in Sri Lanka will no longer be able to wear veils covering their faces" (para 3). "The powers prevent the wearing of the niqab, which covers all but the eyes, and the burqa, which includes a veil across the eye opening. But the law does not prevent women wearing the chador or the hijab, which leave the face exposed but cover the hair and neck" (para 6-7)
May 19, 2020, 2:44 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"The Islamic dress code, in place since the 1979 revolution, considers veiling obligatory for any female above 13 in Iran and says they should cover themselves from head to toe while disavowing any figure-hugging dress. Breaking the rules can result in fines of up to 500,000 rials (£17) and up to two months in prison" (22-23).
May 19, 2020, 2:43 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-2

"In Iran, women have held a series of demonstrations in which they removed their head coverings in protest at a 'discriminatory law' forcing them to wear one" (para 19).
July 20, 2019, 8:20 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2, EWCMS-LAW-4

"In areas under its control, ISIS published a 'Civilization Document' with 16 points that a woman must follow or face the death penalty. They included staying at home and not leaving it without an immediate male relative (mahram); wearing a wide cloak, full face veil, and headscarf; closing hair salons; not sitting on chairs in public; and not seeing male doctors. ISIS established the 'al-Khanssaa' brigade, an all-female police force in the city of Raqqa, composed mostly of noncitizen women who enforced these regulations, sometimes violently, among women" (Pg 47).
July 4, 2019, 9:20 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"[Picture of Saudi women at the opening of a women’s book fair in Saihat] Because the event was on private land, attendees had the freedom to take off their veils" (para 4). Women must cover their heads with at least an abaya while in the Kingdom (HGM - CODER COMMENT).
June 21, 2019, 12:48 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Widespread societal exclusion enforced by, but not limited to, state institutions restricted women from using many public facilities. The law requires women usually to sit in separate, specially designated family sections. They frequently cannot consume food in restaurants that do not have such sections. Women risk arrest for riding in a private vehicle driven by a male who is not an employee (such as a hired chauffeur or taxi driver) or a close male relative. Cultural norms enforced by state institutions require women to wear an abaya (a loose-fitting, full-length black cloak) in public. The CPVPV also generally expected Muslim women to cover their hair and non-Muslim women from Asian...more
June 21, 2019, 7:58 a.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"The Ministry of Education maintained a dress code that bans wearing the hijab in schools and government institutions. Authorities allowed women to wear a traditional version of the head covering--a scarf that covers hair but not the neck-- to schools and universities" (p. 12).
March 21, 2019, 11:12 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"Da’esh also beat persons because of their dress; several sources reported Da’esh members beat women for not covering their faces. Da’esh justified its use of corporal punishment, including amputations and lashings, under religious law" (para 99). "In areas under its control, Da’esh published a 'Civilization Document' with 16 points that a woman must follow or face the death penalty. They included staying at home and not leaving it without an immediate male relative (mahram); wearing a wide cloak, full face veil, and head scarf; closing hair salons; not sitting on chairs in public; and not seeing male doctors" (para 203).
Feb. 25, 2019, 4:17 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"The Islamic dress code, in place since the 1979 revolution, considers veiling obligatory for any female above 13 in Iran and says they should cover themselves from head to toe while disavowing any figure-hugging dress. Breaking the rules can result in fines of up to 500,000 rials (£17) and up to two months in prison" (para. 17 - 18).
Jan. 10, 2019, 6:43 p.m.
Countries: France
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"In 2010, the government passed another law, banning outright any face-covering garments from public spaces, arguing that these violate individual freedoms, especially of women" (para 27).
Dec. 9, 2018, 6:35 p.m.
Countries: Denmark
Variables: RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2

"Denmark has voted to ban the niqab and burqa, becoming the fifth European country to pass such a law" (para. 1).
Oct. 28, 2018, 9 p.m.
Countries: Tajikistan
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"The Interior Ministry Press Secretary confirmed to Forum 18 that there is no law banning hijabs or beards, but refused to explain why the authorities try to ban them. No Education Ministry official, from the First Deputy Minister downwards, has been able to give a legal reason for the beard and hijab ban" (para 8).
Jan. 10, 2018, 4:54 p.m.
Countries: Norway
Variables: RCDW-LAW-2

"The burqa veil is to be banned in schools and universities across Norway following similar measures in other European countries, according to the Norwegian education minister" (para 1). "Education minister Torbjorn Roe Isaksen confirmed the ban would only apply to the full-face veil and not to other Islamic headscarves including the hijab, chador and niqab" (para 3). "Last week, the parliament of Bulgaria voted to approve a law banning the garment in public places, citing growing fears over Islamic terrorism as its justification. The covering of the head, eyes, ears and mouth will only be permitted for health reasons, professional necessity and at sporting and cultural events" (para 7-8). The...more