The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for RCDW-PRACTICE-1

Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Afghanistan remains a patriarchal society, in which 'male honour' forces women not only to keep their bodies hidden but also to hide their names, according to the Afghan sociologist Ali Kaveh. 'In Afghan society, the best women are those who are not seen and heard. As the saying goes: "The sun and moon haven't seen her",' Mr Kaveh said" (para 21-22).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Women in some areas of the country say their freedom of expression in choice of attire was limited by conservative social mores and sometimes enforced by Taliban in insurgent-controlled areas as well as religious leaders" (21).
Sept. 5, 2021, 4:09 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Members of Uzbekistan's National Security Service (SNB) in civilian clothes made their way through the crowds and forced women wearing head scarves to remove them" (para 1). "One woman said she removed hear head scarf when the SNB confronted her, then put it back on after they left, only to be spotted and again asked to take it off. She finally left the Ipak Chilar Bazaar and put her head scarf back on after she was a safe distance away" (para 4). "One person told Ozodlik that the SNB had taken the head scarf from a woman who appeared to be 50 or 60 years old" (para 5). "The first...more
Aug. 27, 2021, 2:39 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Female cartoon characters shown on Iranian television must now wear a hijab, Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has ruled. Khamenei said that whilst it is not necessary for the women in cartoons and anime films to have their hair covered, it is 'required' because of the consequences of not wearing a hijab" (para 1-2). "Khamenei was asked by pro-regime Tasnim News Agency whether he believed it was 'necessary to observe hijab for the characters of animated films'. He responded: 'Although wearing hijab in such a hypothetical situation is not required per se, observing hijab in animation is required due to the consequences of not wearing hijab.' While Khamenei did...more
Aug. 3, 2021, 1:14 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia, Taiwan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Unlike at the male-dominated Al Fatah school, where women and girls as young as 5 are required to wear the niqab, thousands of mainly urban, middle-class women have made that choice for themselves. Leading the way is Indadari Mindrayanti, a clothing designer, who founded the Niqab Squad four years ago to promote wearing the veil. It now has nearly 6,000 members with chapters across Indonesia and in Malaysia and Taiwan. 'We really want to go to heaven, and so we sacrifice,' Ms. Indadari explained at a Niqab Squad equestrian and archery event near Jakarta. 'Part of our sacrifice is not showing our beauty and covering our body in an Islamic...more
Aug. 3, 2021, 1:12 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2

"The rider, Idhanur, who like many Indonesians uses one name, is a 31-year-old teacher at an Islamic school in East Java who says that firing arrows from horseback while wearing her conservative veil, or niqab, improves her chances of going to heaven. Ms. Idhanur is part of a growing, peaceful movement of Muslim women who believe they can receive rewards from God through Islamic activities like wearing a niqab and practicing sports that the Prophet Muhammad is thought to have enjoyed. Many also say it offers protection from prying eyes and harassment by men in a country where unwanted sexual advances are common" (para 2-4). "A small minority of Muslims...more
July 27, 2021, 7:20 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1

"Ultra-conservative Saudi Arabia has some of the world's toughest restrictions on women, who are required to wear the typically all-black garment in public. Powerful Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said in March that wearing the robe was not mandatory in Islam, but in practice nothing changed and no formal edict to that effect was issued, meaning many women still feel forced to wear the garment" (para 3-4). "In an interview to CBS Television in March, the crown prince said: 'The laws are very clear and stipulated in the laws of Sharia: that women wear decent, respectful clothing, like men.' But, he added, this 'does not particularly specify a black abaya....more
July 9, 2021, 11:47 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Six years ago[2014] a campaign was launched to remind tourists of Qatar's strict dress code. Women were advised not to wear sleeveless dresses, miniskirts, leggings, or short or tight clothing, while men were told not to wear only shorts and singlets"(para 62,63).
July 9, 2021, 10:42 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"A female Iranian chess referee has said she fears returning to her country after a picture of her was published which appeared to show her not wearing a headscarf at the World Championships in Shanghai. Shohreh Bayat, 32, who is chief arbiter for the 2020 Women's World Chess Championships being shared between China and Russia, fears returning to Iran as she believes she could be imprisoned for flouting Islamic law[...]'There are many people in prison in Iran because of the headscarf. It's a very serious issue. Maybe they'd want to make an example of me'"(para 1,2,7).
July 9, 2021, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"A group of Indonesian female cyclists have been forced to apologise for violating Islamic sharia laws by wearing 'sexy' clothes in a team photo. The nine women were summoned by authorities in the conservative province of Banda Aceh after a photo circulated online.The women were pictured in long-sleeved pink t-shirts and dark trousers, and most were not wearing headscarves under their helmets.The picture enraged the mayor who ordered officers to track the group down, and made the women undergo religious counselling. The women were pictured in long-sleeved pink t-shirts and dark trousers, and most were not wearing headscarves under their helmets'They have violated the Islamic sharia provisions in our province...more
July 7, 2021, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Some women in the capital, Riyadh, and other cities are now seen in public without headscarves"(para 106).
June 30, 2021, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"[The brochure] also says that 'a noble Ingush will never leave his house barefoot,' and calls it 'improper' 'to wear tight clothes'" (para 7).
June 25, 2021, 2:16 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2, IIP-LAW-1

"Under the hardline group’s [Taliban] interpretation of Islam, women and girls were banned from public life, including going to school and working, and had to wear a full-body burqa when venturing outside" (para 6).
June 24, 2021, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Sotoudeh, 55, one of the few outspoken advocates for human rights in Iran, recently represented several women arrested for protesting against the mandatory wearing of headscarves. Tehran police said in February that 29 women had been detained for posing in public without their headscarves in the previous weeks"(para 3,4).
June 7, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1

"Sudan repealed a law that allowed women to be flogged for wearing trousers in 2019, but there have still been reports of people being lashed at some courts" (para 7).
Feb. 13, 2021, 6:42 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

“Some rebel women have started to shun the obligatory abaya when they leave the house in a bold push for social liberties by young Saudis. The billowy over-garment, usually all-black, is customary public wear for women in the ultra-conservative Islamic kingdom, where it is widely seen as a symbol of piety” (para 1-2). “However [Jaloud] revealed that she has faced some hostility since ditching the abaya and at a supermarket in Riyadh a fully veiled woman threatened to call the police. Jaloud also said that although she is remaining defiant, she is still forced to wear an abaya and headscarf to work or risk losing her job” (para 8-9). “The...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

In the photo 7 caption it states, “A female police commando wearing Niqab, a full Islamic veil.” In the photo 8 caption it states, “Iram wears a face veil as part of her uniform, but it is not mandatory.”
Feb. 13, 2021, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

“Mohammad Abdulahpour, the commander of Gilan province’s Revolutionary Guards unit, has said that the survival of the Islamic revolution depends on the full implementation of Islamic traditions and that ‘the issue of hijab is not a simple matter, but rather a serious political and security issue for our country’” (para 7). “Cleric Rasoul Falahati, representative of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei in the province, condemned women who defy the hijab as an insult to the Islamic Republic” (para 9). “A recent study by Iran’s parliament showed that up to 70 per cent of the female population would like to see the relaxing of laws on the mandatory wearing of headscarves, while...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 5:46 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

“Brave women are increasingly risking the wrath of Iran's morality police by ditching the hijab - while hardliners demand they should be lashed for ‘disrupting social peace.’ More and more women are said to be pushing back against the country's strict dress codes as they test the response of the ruling Shiite Muslim clergy and their security agencies. But while many women are now opting for loosely draped colourful scarves that show as much hair as they cover, the issue is still divisive in the conservative country” (para 1-3). “An Associated Press reporter spotted about two dozen women in the streets without a hijab over the course of nine days,...more
Feb. 10, 2021, 1:09 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Both Basu's mother and grandmother had been married and widowed young; in her native India, that meant they could wear only white and were forced to atone for the rest of their lives" (para 2). "'As long as I can remember, my grandmother only wore white saris, even until her deathbed. My grandmother became a widow when she was in her late 20s and there was not single day since my grandfather’s death that she wore colorful clothes...she also followed several rituals in penance,' Basu said. 'When I was 17, I lost my father. It was my mother’s turn to follow the rituals and wear white. I resisted the rules,...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:24 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"But when their mother, Azita Rafaat, a member of Parliament, dresses the children for school in the morning, there is one important difference. Mehran’s sisters put on black dresses and head scarves, tied tightly over their ponytails. For Mehran, it’s green pants, a white shirt and a necktie, then a pat from her mother over her spiky, short black hair. After that, her daughter is out the door as an Afghan boy" (para 2). "Zahra attends a girls’ school in the mornings, wearing her suit and a head scarf. As soon as she is out on the steps after class, she tucks her scarf into her backpack, and continues her...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 6:11 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Although Abdul long ago told Nur she could stop wearing her long coat, in the camp other women called her a prostitute unless she was covered in black, head to toe" (para 1).
Feb. 4, 2021, 6:07 p.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"By the summer, when days peaked at over 100°, and with the windows closed for modesty, the container became an oven. The water shortages went on for weeks during the fasting month of Ramadan, and stir crazed residents suspected the authorities were punishing them. Although Abdul long ago told Nur she could stop wearing her long coat, in the camp other women called her a prostitute unless she was covered in black, head to toe" (para 11).
Dec. 31, 2020, 2:32 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"An Iranian undercover morality agent spat at teenage girls and asked them 'where's your dirty owner?' after seeing them without a hijab...During the heated exchange on the side of the road in Kermanshah, Iran, he says to the girls 'I'll f*** your mother' and claims their behaviour is 'immoral' while a police officer appears to do nothing about the incident" (para 1, 3). "In July last year the semi-official Fars news agency quoted the head of the Tehran Revolutionary Court, Mousa Ghazanfarabadi, as saying that 'those who film themselves or others while removing the hijab and send photos to this woman ... will be sentenced to between one and 10...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 12:31 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"An Iranian undercover morality agent spat at teenage girls and asked them 'where's your dirty owner?' after seeing them without a hijab" (para 1). "The US-based activist started an anti-headscarf campaign - White Wednesdays - encouraging women to post photographs of themselves without headscarves online as a way of opposing the compulsory hijab" (para 11).
Dec. 24, 2020, 10:24 a.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Pakistan education authorities have reversed a decision making it compulsory for female students in two major northwestern cities to wear veils, one day after the move sparked a rights outcry on social media. District education officials in Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Haripur, another city in the conservative province, had announced that girls must cover themselves fully 'to protect them from any unethical accident'. But the directive, first announced last week, triggered a nationwide backlash, as social media users and activists condemned the move as yet another curb on women's rights in a deeply misogynistic country" (para 1). "Local shopkeeper Jameel Ahmad and teacher Ameen Sadiq also vented...more
Dec. 24, 2020, 10:09 a.m.
Countries: Syria
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Although Abdul long ago told Nur she could stop wearing her long coat, in the camp other women called her a prostitute unless she was covered in black, head to toe" (para 11).
Dec. 24, 2020, 9:52 a.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"In a PBS NewsHour video report in June, Isis extremist militants parade through Mosul, Iraq, one of the first cities to fall to their onslaught in early June. The armed men are hanging off the back of trucks, as the crowd films them. One fighter leans out a car window, wagging his finger. The footage provides a translation. The fighter has spotted a woman, and he is ordering her to cover up" (para 1). "In recent weeks, women living under Isis control have been seized from their homes and raped. They have been ordered to cover themselves fully and stay in the house" (para 2). "In 2008, graffiti on the...more
Dec. 23, 2020, 9:43 p.m.
Countries: Iraq
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"In some of the captured towns, fanatical ISIS militants have ordered restrictions on women, with rules being set on their clothing, watching TV in coffee shops and smoking" (para 9). "In Mosul, a woman was reportedly whipped, along with her husband, because she was only wearing a headscarf rather than the niqab covering the whole body" (para 10).
Dec. 23, 2020, 3:19 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"They have to cover themselves from head to toe" (para 14). "The study identified that model constructed by the society determines the traits, responsibilities and parameters for a woman. The traits comprises of: covering of whole body; unconditional obedience to parent’s family before marriage and husband’s family after marriage; fulfillment of instructions without negotiation; home confinement with limited mobility; and expression of desires denied" (para 45).