The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for RCDW-PRACTICE-1

March 25, 2022, 10:05 p.m.
Countries: Kosovo
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"International observers reported discrimination in university employment against individuals wearing hijabs or other symbols of Islam" (32). This indicates that the customary dress code does not allow for hijabs (SFR - CODER COMMENT).
March 19, 2022, 8:45 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, IIP-PRACTICE-1

"Two women are in critical condition after an angry driver targeted them on a busy street in northwestern Iran because they were not wearing full hijab head coverings, according to Iran’s Labor News Agency Ilna. The vehicular assailant reportedly first yelled at the women that they were being 'un-Islamic' because he did not think they were sufficiently well-covered. All females over the age of 9 are required to cover their heads and curves after Iran’s 1979 Islamic Revolution, but it is increasingly common for women in Iran’s larger cities to defy the ruling"(para 1, 2).
Jan. 6, 2022, 12:09 p.m.
Countries: Somalia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Women should be covered at all times. There are women in the capital city, Mogadishu, who go to parties/weddings that do not cover their hair. That is seen normal these days. However, women in other regions are not allowed to show their hair during wedding/parties as Al Shabab still manages some areas in Somalia. In areas Al Shabab control, women wear a jilbab (poncho covering from head to toe). Women who are journalist and news reporters, do not wear the jilbab" (1).
Dec. 20, 2021, 11:19 a.m.
Countries: Belgium
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Discrimination against women who wear a headscarf was common in the labor market. The law also prohibits the wearing of a full-face veil (niqab) in public places. Authorities may punish persons who discriminate on the basis of ethnic origin with a fine of up to 137.50 euros ($150) and a jail sentence of up to seven days..." (12). "UNIA received complaints of discrimination based on physical characteristics, political orientation, social origin, or status. Restrictions on Islamic clothing in public and private sector employment, schools, and public spaces affected Muslim women in particular. The Muslim community was also targeted as part of the increase in online hate speech during the election...more
Dec. 10, 2021, 5:27 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

In some parts of the North Caucasus, women continued to face... forced adherence to Islamic dress codes" (56) .
Dec. 2, 2021, 7:34 p.m.
Countries: Netherlands
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"...In 2018 police registered 137 incidents against Muslims out of a total of 3,299 discriminatory incidents. Multiple incidents concerned harassment of women on the street because they were wearing a headscarf, as well as incidents involving anti-Muslim stickers and posters. Violent incidents, however, were rare" (18).
Nov. 30, 2021, 2:33 p.m.
Countries: Israel
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"In some ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods, private organizations posted 'modesty signs' demanding women obscure themselves from public view to avoid distracting devout men" (35).
Nov. 15, 2021, 7:25 p.m.
Countries: Italy
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, IIP-PRACTICE-1

"In March media reported that a Muslim woman wearing a hijab was riding a public bus in Turin when a local woman verbally and physically attacked her, including violently ripping the hijab off her head" (19).
Sept. 10, 2021, 9:23 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Afghanistan remains a patriarchal society, in which 'male honour' forces women not only to keep their bodies hidden but also to hide their names, according to the Afghan sociologist Ali Kaveh. 'In Afghan society, the best women are those who are not seen and heard. As the saying goes: "The sun and moon haven't seen her",' Mr Kaveh said" (para 21-22).
Sept. 8, 2021, 4:30 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Women in some areas of the country say their freedom of expression in choice of attire was limited by conservative social mores and sometimes enforced by Taliban in insurgent-controlled areas as well as religious leaders" (21).
Sept. 5, 2021, 4:09 p.m.
Countries: Uzbekistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Members of Uzbekistan's National Security Service (SNB) in civilian clothes made their way through the crowds and forced women wearing head scarves to remove them" (para 1). "One woman said she removed hear head scarf when the SNB confronted her, then put it back on after they left, only to be spotted and again asked to take it off. She finally left the Ipak Chilar Bazaar and put her head scarf back on after she was a safe distance away" (para 4). "One person told Ozodlik that the SNB had taken the head scarf from a woman who appeared to be 50 or 60 years old" (para 5). "The first...more
Aug. 27, 2021, 2:39 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Female cartoon characters shown on Iranian television must now wear a hijab, Iran's Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has ruled. Khamenei said that whilst it is not necessary for the women in cartoons and anime films to have their hair covered, it is 'required' because of the consequences of not wearing a hijab" (para 1-2). "Khamenei was asked by pro-regime Tasnim News Agency whether he believed it was 'necessary to observe hijab for the characters of animated films'. He responded: 'Although wearing hijab in such a hypothetical situation is not required per se, observing hijab in animation is required due to the consequences of not wearing hijab.' While Khamenei did...more
Aug. 3, 2021, 1:14 p.m.
Countries: Malaysia, Taiwan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Unlike at the male-dominated Al Fatah school, where women and girls as young as 5 are required to wear the niqab, thousands of mainly urban, middle-class women have made that choice for themselves. Leading the way is Indadari Mindrayanti, a clothing designer, who founded the Niqab Squad four years ago to promote wearing the veil. It now has nearly 6,000 members with chapters across Indonesia and in Malaysia and Taiwan. 'We really want to go to heaven, and so we sacrifice,' Ms. Indadari explained at a Niqab Squad equestrian and archery event near Jakarta. 'Part of our sacrifice is not showing our beauty and covering our body in an Islamic...more
Aug. 3, 2021, 1:12 p.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2

"The rider, Idhanur, who like many Indonesians uses one name, is a 31-year-old teacher at an Islamic school in East Java who says that firing arrows from horseback while wearing her conservative veil, or niqab, improves her chances of going to heaven. Ms. Idhanur is part of a growing, peaceful movement of Muslim women who believe they can receive rewards from God through Islamic activities like wearing a niqab and practicing sports that the Prophet Muhammad is thought to have enjoyed. Many also say it offers protection from prying eyes and harassment by men in a country where unwanted sexual advances are common" (para 2-4). "A small minority of Muslims...more
July 27, 2021, 7:20 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1

"Ultra-conservative Saudi Arabia has some of the world's toughest restrictions on women, who are required to wear the typically all-black garment in public. Powerful Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said in March that wearing the robe was not mandatory in Islam, but in practice nothing changed and no formal edict to that effect was issued, meaning many women still feel forced to wear the garment" (para 3-4). "In an interview to CBS Television in March, the crown prince said: 'The laws are very clear and stipulated in the laws of Sharia: that women wear decent, respectful clothing, like men.' But, he added, this 'does not particularly specify a black abaya....more
July 9, 2021, 11:47 a.m.
Countries: Qatar
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Six years ago[2014] a campaign was launched to remind tourists of Qatar's strict dress code. Women were advised not to wear sleeveless dresses, miniskirts, leggings, or short or tight clothing, while men were told not to wear only shorts and singlets"(para 62,63).
July 9, 2021, 10:42 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"A female Iranian chess referee has said she fears returning to her country after a picture of her was published which appeared to show her not wearing a headscarf at the World Championships in Shanghai. Shohreh Bayat, 32, who is chief arbiter for the 2020 Women's World Chess Championships being shared between China and Russia, fears returning to Iran as she believes she could be imprisoned for flouting Islamic law[...]'There are many people in prison in Iran because of the headscarf. It's a very serious issue. Maybe they'd want to make an example of me'"(para 1,2,7).
July 9, 2021, 10:29 a.m.
Countries: Indonesia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, DTCP-PRACTICE-1

"A group of Indonesian female cyclists have been forced to apologise for violating Islamic sharia laws by wearing 'sexy' clothes in a team photo. The nine women were summoned by authorities in the conservative province of Banda Aceh after a photo circulated online.The women were pictured in long-sleeved pink t-shirts and dark trousers, and most were not wearing headscarves under their helmets.The picture enraged the mayor who ordered officers to track the group down, and made the women undergo religious counselling. The women were pictured in long-sleeved pink t-shirts and dark trousers, and most were not wearing headscarves under their helmets'They have violated the Islamic sharia provisions in our province...more
July 7, 2021, 11:18 a.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Some women in the capital, Riyadh, and other cities are now seen in public without headscarves"(para 106).
June 30, 2021, 12:57 p.m.
Countries: Russia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"[The brochure] also says that 'a noble Ingush will never leave his house barefoot,' and calls it 'improper' 'to wear tight clothes'" (para 7).
June 25, 2021, 2:16 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-PRACTICE-2, RCDW-LAW-1, RCDW-LAW-2, IIP-LAW-1

"Under the hardline group’s [Taliban] interpretation of Islam, women and girls were banned from public life, including going to school and working, and had to wear a full-body burqa when venturing outside" (para 6).
June 24, 2021, 10:35 a.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Sotoudeh, 55, one of the few outspoken advocates for human rights in Iran, recently represented several women arrested for protesting against the mandatory wearing of headscarves. Tehran police said in February that 29 women had been detained for posing in public without their headscarves in the previous weeks"(para 3,4).
June 7, 2021, 1:10 p.m.
Countries: Sudan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1, RCDW-LAW-1

"Sudan repealed a law that allowed women to be flogged for wearing trousers in 2019, but there have still been reports of people being lashed at some courts" (para 7).
Feb. 13, 2021, 6:42 p.m.
Countries: Saudi Arabia
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

“Some rebel women have started to shun the obligatory abaya when they leave the house in a bold push for social liberties by young Saudis. The billowy over-garment, usually all-black, is customary public wear for women in the ultra-conservative Islamic kingdom, where it is widely seen as a symbol of piety” (para 1-2). “However [Jaloud] revealed that she has faced some hostility since ditching the abaya and at a supermarket in Riyadh a fully veiled woman threatened to call the police. Jaloud also said that although she is remaining defiant, she is still forced to wear an abaya and headscarf to work or risk losing her job” (para 8-9). “The...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 6:15 p.m.
Countries: Pakistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

In the photo 7 caption it states, “A female police commando wearing Niqab, a full Islamic veil.” In the photo 8 caption it states, “Iram wears a face veil as part of her uniform, but it is not mandatory.”
Feb. 13, 2021, 5:54 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

“Mohammad Abdulahpour, the commander of Gilan province’s Revolutionary Guards unit, has said that the survival of the Islamic revolution depends on the full implementation of Islamic traditions and that ‘the issue of hijab is not a simple matter, but rather a serious political and security issue for our country’” (para 7). “Cleric Rasoul Falahati, representative of Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei in the province, condemned women who defy the hijab as an insult to the Islamic Republic” (para 9). “A recent study by Iran’s parliament showed that up to 70 per cent of the female population would like to see the relaxing of laws on the mandatory wearing of headscarves, while...more
Feb. 13, 2021, 5:46 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

“Brave women are increasingly risking the wrath of Iran's morality police by ditching the hijab - while hardliners demand they should be lashed for ‘disrupting social peace.’ More and more women are said to be pushing back against the country's strict dress codes as they test the response of the ruling Shiite Muslim clergy and their security agencies. But while many women are now opting for loosely draped colourful scarves that show as much hair as they cover, the issue is still divisive in the conservative country” (para 1-3). “An Associated Press reporter spotted about two dozen women in the streets without a hijab over the course of nine days,...more
Feb. 10, 2021, 1:09 a.m.
Countries: Nepal
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Both Basu's mother and grandmother had been married and widowed young; in her native India, that meant they could wear only white and were forced to atone for the rest of their lives" (para 2). "'As long as I can remember, my grandmother only wore white saris, even until her deathbed. My grandmother became a widow when she was in her late 20s and there was not single day since my grandfather’s death that she wore colorful clothes...she also followed several rituals in penance,' Basu said. 'When I was 17, I lost my father. It was my mother’s turn to follow the rituals and wear white. I resisted the rules,...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 10:24 p.m.
Countries: Afghanistan
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"But when their mother, Azita Rafaat, a member of Parliament, dresses the children for school in the morning, there is one important difference. Mehran’s sisters put on black dresses and head scarves, tied tightly over their ponytails. For Mehran, it’s green pants, a white shirt and a necktie, then a pat from her mother over her spiky, short black hair. After that, her daughter is out the door as an Afghan boy" (para 2). "Zahra attends a girls’ school in the mornings, wearing her suit and a head scarf. As soon as she is out on the steps after class, she tucks her scarf into her backpack, and continues her...more
Feb. 4, 2021, 6:11 p.m.
Countries: Turkey
Variables: RCDW-PRACTICE-1

"Although Abdul long ago told Nur she could stop wearing her long coat, in the camp other women called her a prostitute unless she was covered in black, head to toe" (para 1).