The most comprehensive compilation of information on the status of
women in the world.

Latest items for SMES-DATA-2

May 31, 2021, 5:59 p.m.
Countries: Peru
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"Studies show that families headed by women earn 16 percent less income than those families headed by men" (para 6).
May 15, 2021, 7:08 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"According to the letter of the law, a Chinese family court should be a safe haven for Wang Fumei (not her real name), a 36-year-old battered wife and mother of two...Ms Wang’s meagre income should qualify her for legal aid from the state" (para 1-2). "Judges are quick to spot those who arrive in court desperate for a divorce or for custody of a child. They press such needy parties to give up property or make crippling cash payments to a spouse to 'buy' their freedom. That dynamic hurts women, who initiate 70% of divorces. In other cases the parent with less money, usually the mother, is simply deemed too...more
Feb. 26, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: Senegal
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

“Public policies on urban housing and titling programmes often focus on equal access for women-headed households. In Dakar (Senegal) and Ekurhuleni (South Africa), the proportion of women heads among those allocated plots is approximately the same as their share of all households, and they are more likely than men to complete the titling process. But it is generally overlooked that even married or cohabiting women are likely to lack joint legal ownership, making women more vulnerable to losing their home, as well as potentially limiting their decision-making on its use and management” (pp. 20).
Feb. 26, 2021, 11:34 a.m.
Countries: South Africa
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

“The research by WIEGO described in Box 3.1 indicates that 54 per cent of women employed as street vendors, home-based workers and waste pickers were the main breadwinners for their households. Among street traders in Johannesburg, South Africa, 66 per cent of women traders are the sole earner in their household, while this is true for only 32 per cent of men. Research on domestic workers in the same city found that almost 95 per cent support other people in full or in part, mainly children but also other family members. Although the worth of remittances, especially if sent by migrant children and women, is typically under-estimated by those receiving...more
Feb. 10, 2021, 10:01 p.m.
Countries: Iran
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"The increase also has resulted in more teenage girls leading households while they struggle with the impact of the pandemic" (para 11).
Feb. 4, 2021, 2:06 p.m.
Countries: India
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"The Committee calls upon the State party...To adopt an integrated policy to enhance the living conditions of women and girls who survived the Gujarat riots, including by adopting appropriate economic recovery measures, allocating below-poverty-line cards and providing other benefits under government schemes, and to step up witness protection and security measures, especially for women and girls living in relief colonies" (5-6). "The Committee is concerned at the prevalence of customs and traditional practices that prevent rural women, especially women from scheduled castes and scheduled tribes, from inheriting or acquiring land and other property. It is also concerned at the difficulties faced by rural women and women living in remote areas...more
Jan. 31, 2021, 3:04 p.m.
Countries: Australia
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"In 2013, the Government enacted laws that reduce single mothers' access to social security. Single parents on the main unemployment payment were $80-$140 per week worse off. Several measures require parents to participate in 'mutual obligation activities' to receive income support payments. These mutual obligation activity' measures will be expanded by a new program from July 2018. If a parent fails to participate in an activity, their payment may be suspended. It is expected that 96% of program participants will be women" (12). "In 2018, the Government introduced intrusive measures that require single parents receiving parenting or unemployment payments to provide a legally binding confirmation from a third party that...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 3:38 p.m.
Countries: Japan

"Yayoi Kimura, a Liberal Democratic member of the House of Representatives who endorsed the letter, said that when she co-sponsored a bill to provide a tax break for unmarried parents, some of her male colleagues argued that most single mothers were either mistresses of rich men or hyperambitious career women who did not need government assistance" (para 22).
Jan. 1, 2021, 2:57 p.m.
Countries: Tanzania
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"After physically and sexually abusing her for 11 months, her husband was killed in a motorbike accident. Grace, now 13, was filled not with joy, but sorrow. The man who had raped and beaten her for the better part of a year was dead - but she now has a child to take care of, and no income. Grace and her child Mathias are at her family's home, where she and her father live out an uneasy truce. After hearing an announcement on the radio, she applied to enrol on one of Agape's vocational skills courses. Each year, the organisation provides dozens of girls with an opportunity to learn a...more
Jan. 1, 2021, 11:50 a.m.
Countries: United States
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

“Single and low-income mothers are especially likely to drop out of school or to “stop out” for long stretches due to time and money constraints” (25). “A year of child care can cost more than a year of college at a four-year public institution on average, ranging from $4,650 to as much as $18,200, putting it far out of reach for most single and low-income mothers (National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies, 2011)” (27).
Sept. 28, 2020, 3:33 p.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"The proposed marriage law, which parliament has yet to finalize at time of writing, seeks to outlaw child marriage, but it does not adequately protect women's property at divorce. Without legal protection, many women could be left homeless or without a means of income after their marriage ends or if their husband dies" (para 9). "The Matrimonial Causes Act technically allows for equitable distribution of property between spouses at divorce, considering direct and indirect contributions, such as raising children and caring for the family and household. But in practice, provisions of this law have not been fully applied and many women lose their property when a marriage ends or the...more
Dec. 14, 2019, 3:07 p.m.
Countries: Japan
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"And, notably, Japanese women no longer need husbands to ensure their economic security. 'One reason to get married for a woman is to have a stable financial life,' said Miki Matsui, 49, a director at a Tokyo publishing house. 'I don't have any worries about being alone with myself or any financial worries. So I did not have to chase myself into a corner and choose marriage for financial reasons'" (para 22-23). "'We don't have to rely on men anymore,' Ms. Shirota said" (para 28). "Ms. Shibuya...said some women choose marriage because they feel vulnerable on their own. But she started her own business two years ago-- a cafe-- and...more
Dec. 8, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Countries: China
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"The state has established a new-model social relief system, increasing efforts to protect impoverished women. In 2014, the numbers of women covered by subsistence allowances for urban and rural residents were 7.92 million and 18.26 million respectively, increasing by 2 million and 15.91 million, as compared to 2006. The state has actively implemented a number of public welfare and charity programs for impoverished mothers, such as the program of relief for mothers suffering from breast cancer and cervical cancer, the comfortable housing project for impoverished rural single mothers, and the mother health express program, bringing help to sick women, poor single mothers and various other groups of mothers in need"...more
July 18, 2019, 8:56 p.m.
Countries: Bangladesh
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"The current government laws and policies do not recognize women as farmers, other than that they could be considered only as agriculture labours. So, de facto, their access to agricultural credit is blocked, and for the women-headed households this is a formidable impediment. The availability of micro-credit provides an alternative to this situation; however, one has to remember the high interest rate of micro-credit and relatively short cycle of loan repayment with which most of the poor households struggle with. This is besides the total loan amount which is usually small and often insufficient to meet the expenses for necessary agricultural investments" (17).
June 7, 2019, 2:07 p.m.
Countries: Cape Verde
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"The legal framework of housing of social interest considers women’s role as head of household. Women headed households represent 58 per cent of beneficiaries that were allocated houses by the program Housing for All (676)" (33).
May 28, 2019, 5:40 p.m.
Countries: Yemen
Variables: SMES-DATA-1, SMES-DATA-2

"In the past the government enacted regulations to reduce a form of sex tourism in which significant numbers of foreigners, particularly Saudis and Emiratis, entered into temporary marriages with young Yemeni women (as is possible under Islamic law). They then left the bride, frequently pregnant, without means of support, to return to their countries of origin, where they would terminate the temporary marriage" (14).
May 9, 2019, 3:13 p.m.
Countries: Guyana
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"In the areas of education, health and housing the social safety nets such as the Single Parent Assistance Programme (SPAP), the Public Assistance Programme (PAP), the Special Circumstances Programme (SCP), school uniform vouchers for all nursery and primary school children attending public educational institutions were expanded during the period under review. In the case of the SPAP and PAP, single mothers are assisted to participate in training programs designed for women entrepreneurs. Funding for this programme totalled GYD 25 million each year between 2011 and 2014. Other initiatives like the SCP and the school uniform and school feeding programmes directly benefit children. Consequently these temporary measures significantly assist women and...more
April 25, 2019, 9:05 a.m.
Countries: United Arab Emirates
Variables: SMES-DATA-2, CL-LAW-1

"According to Federal Law No. 2 of 2001, monthly assistance is provided to the following categories of UAE nationals residing within the UAE: widows, abandoned women, UAE national women married to expatriate men who cannot earn a living for reasons beyond their control" (Para 5).
April 9, 2019, 3:47 p.m.
Countries: Canada
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"The Committee notes the development of a national poverty reduction strategy and a national housing strategy by the State party. Nevertheless, it is concerned that women continue to experience significant levels of poverty, homelessness and hunger in the State party, especially indigenous women, Afro-Canadian women, women of immigrant origin, women with disabilities, older women and single mothers" (16).
March 29, 2019, 5:33 p.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"Households headed by women were overrepresented in the lowest quarter of income distribution" (para 134).
March 18, 2019, 9:18 a.m.
Countries: Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, "Widows cannot work, like most women in traditional areas, and any inheritance or property would go to her husband’s brothers, not to his widow or children."
Jan. 5, 2019, 10:25 a.m.
Countries: Laos
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"According to an assessment of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Bank (WB) done in 2012, 80 per cent of female-headed households are poor households" (Pg 34).
Dec. 6, 2018, 12:25 p.m.
Countries: Trinidad/Tobago
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"The Committee is concerned, however, at: . . . (c) The lack of specific information on measures taken to address the indirect costs of education, which partly account for the high rate at which girls, in particular girls from female-headed households, are dropping out of school" (page 9) (Coder comment: this suggests that female-headed households are less wealthy than male-headed households, or at least that they have less money available for education - ARR). "The Committee notes the State party’s efforts to implement strategies aimed at poverty reduction, such as a targeted conditional cash transfer programme and a microenterprise loan facility. It is concerned, however, at: (a) The lack of...more
Nov. 16, 2018, 9:46 a.m.
Countries: Burma/Myanmar
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"Women lose economic and job opportunities due to development projects, which employ mostly men and which use up arable land. Drug use also places burdens on women to provide economically for fractured families, often forcing women to choose exploitation to secure livelihood. Women and children are also left behind as a result of conflict, forcing women to assume livelihood responsibility for the family" (page 18).
Oct. 8, 2018, 3:45 p.m.
Countries: Venezuela
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"Darling was up at 4:30 a.m... breastfeeding her 1-year-old baby in the one-bedroom house she shared with her three children and her sick mother, in the El Junquito slum in western Caracas, Venezuela" (para 1)
Oct. 3, 2018, 1:03 p.m.
Countries: Egypt
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"Choosing to keep her baby and become a single mother rather than get an abortion is a huge gamble in a country like Egypt, where the stakes are incredibly high: a tarnished reputation, exposure to insults and even the risk of detention" (para. 8). This situation can affect directly many opportunities to single mothers, incluiding their economic status. (JSM - coder comment).
Sept. 24, 2018, 10:50 p.m.
Countries: Iraq

"The UN reported that displaced women, widows, and female-headed households were particularly vulnerable to abuse" (para 253)
Sept. 5, 2018, 9:56 a.m.
Countries: Thailand
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"Anecdotal evidence suggests that at least 80 percent of Thailand’s sex workers are single mothers, and all are supporting some combination of parents, grandparents, and sometimes siblings with their sex work. The national wage is currently set at 300 Thai baht (about $8) per day. According to Hilton, even the lowest-paid sex workers can bring home twice that much" (para 12).
Sept. 4, 2018, 11:28 a.m.
Countries: Zimbabwe
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"Despite being responsible for 53 percent of all economic activity in the country, including 75 percent of all agricultural labor, three-quarters of households headed by a woman were 'poor' or 'very poor'" (35).
Sept. 4, 2018, 10:21 a.m.
Countries: Malawi
Variables: SMES-DATA-2

"Households headed by women were predominately in the lowest quarter of income distribution" (17).